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九年级英语第八单元考点语法点拨

发布时间:2013-12-03 12:25:33  

Unit 8 I’llhelp clean up the city parks.

1. I’d like to help homeless people. (P60)我想帮助无家可归的人。

homeless是形容词,意为“无家可归的”,由home+后缀-less构成。

特别提示

less后缀通常加在名词的后面,构成形容词,表示与原来名词意思相反的形容词,如groundless 无根据的, odorless 无气味的, careless粗心的,useless无用的。

2. You could help clean up the city parks. (P60)你可以帮着打扫城市公园。

◎clean up是“清除、除去(垃圾、污物)”等,使地方干净。

Please clean up the room after the party. 聚会后把房间打扫干净。

We should clean up the dirty parts of the sea.

我们应该清除海里的污染部分。

◎clean up还可以表示“挣得,赢得(多少钱)”。

He cleaned up a small fortune. 他发了一笔小财。

特别提示

clean oneself up意为“洗干净”。

Your hands are dirty, you’d better clean yourself up.

你的手脏了,你应该洗洗它们。

3. You could give out food at a food bank. (P60)你可以在食品供应站分发食品。 give out在这里是“分发”,“散发”的意思。

Our English teacher gave out the examination papers when the bell rang.

我们的英语老师在铃响的时候分发试卷。

◎另外一个意思为“用完”,“消耗尽”。

After a week their food supplies gave out. 一周之后,他们的食物供应用完了。 ◎还有一个意思为“发出”,“送出”。

The sun gives out a lot of heat. 太阳能发出热量。

4. He looks sad. Let’s cheer him up.(P61)他看上去很伤心。我们去帮他振作起来吧。

cheer up sb或cheer sb up意为“(使某人)高兴起来,振作起来”。如果是代词做宾语,则将代词放在中间。

Cheer up! The news isn’t too bad. 不要发愁啦,这消息不错嘛!

He took her to the ballet to cheer her up.

他为了使她高兴起来,便带她去看芭蕾舞。

5. This volunteer work takes each of them several hours a week, so it is a major commitment. (P62)这份义工每周花了他们每个人好几个小时的时间,所以这是一个重大的贡献。

(1)each of them是指“他们中的每一个”。如果做主语,则谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 知识拓展

each与every的用法

◎each指一个整体中的每一个,强调个体;every着重于全体的总和,强调整体。试比较: Each has a different book. (强调各有不同。)

Here every child at the age of six can go to school. (侧重整体,无一例外。)

◎each可作形容词及代词,而every只能作形容词,但可与-one,-body,-thing等构成复合代词。

◎each用在代词或复数名词前要用介词of连接,如each of them, each of the boys; every不能

直接跟of连接,如不可以说every of them,而要说every one of them或each of them。

◎every还可以表示“每隔”,后接基数词加名词,如every four weeks, every three months等,此种结构中的every不能用each代替。

She had a rest every fives minutes. 她每隔5分钟就休息一会儿。

魔力纠错

①街道两旁有许多商店。

误:There are many shops on every side of the street.

正:There are many shops on each side of the street.

魔力解析

each可以用来指两个或两个以上的人或物,但是every却总是指三个或三个以上的人或物,不能指两者。

6. Not only do I feel good about helping other people, but I get to spend time doing what I love to do. (P62)我不仅对帮助别人感到很满足,而且我还渐渐地花时间做自己喜爱做的事情。

(1)not only ... but also (also可省略)是“不但……而且……”的意思,当置于句首时,not only后面从句的主谓要倒装,但but (also)后面的主谓不用倒装。

Not only has he been to Canada, but (also) he knows some Canadians.

他不仅去过加拿大,而且还认识许多加拿大人。

Not only did he teach at school, but (also) he wrote novels.

他不仅在学校里教书,而且还写小说。

7. “Don’t put it off,” says HuiPing. “Become a volunteer today!” (P62) “别犹豫”,慧萍说,“今天就来当一名自愿者吧!”

(1)put off 意思是“推迟,拖延”。

Never put off till tomorrow what may be done today. 今日事今日毕。

They put off the soccer game because of the rain.

因为下雨,他们把球赛推迟了。

You should not put off going to see the doctor. 你不应该拖延去看医生。

◎put off还可意为“关掉”,相当于turn off。

Please put off the lights before you leave the classroom.

在你离开教室之前,请关掉灯。

(2)become是系动词,表示“变成,成为”,后面接名词、形容词、过去分词等。

She became famous in her city. 她在她所在城市的成为名人了。

知识拓展

become后可接介词of,构成what becomes of sb/sth 表示“某人/某事进展如何”。 What became of the dreams of our youth? 我们年轻时的理想何在?

特别提示

系动词get, turn , grow和become都可表示“变得,感到”,其区别是:

◎get用于日常用语,后面常跟比较级。

The weather gets colder, and the days get shorter. 天气变冷了,白天变短了。

◎turn指在颜色和性质等方面变得与原来不同。

His face turned red. 他的脸变红了。

◎grow着重变化过程。

It’s growing dark. 天渐渐地变黑了。

◎become是指身份、职位的变化,作瞬间动词时,指状态的变化。

He became an artist. 他成为了一名艺术家。

8. Jimmy takes after his mother. (P63)吉米的言行举止像他妈妈。

本句中的take after sb 表示“长相或举止像(某个长辈)”,不能用于被动语态。 To my surprise, Jack doesn’t take after his father at all.

令我惊奇的是,杰克和他爸爸长的一点儿也不像。

Mary really takes after her mother, she has the same eyes, nose, and hair.

玛丽长得真像她妈妈,眼睛、鼻子和头发一个样。

9. Jimmy has run out of money. (P63)吉米把钱花光了。

run out of意为“用完”,其主语通常是人,表示主动含义,后面跟宾语。

He has run out of ink.他用完了墨水。

I’m afraid we’re run out of petrol.我们的汽油怕是已用完了。

特别提示

run out也是“用完”的意思,其主语通常是被使用的事物,如时间、金钱、食物等,但不用于被动语态,同时其后也不能跟宾语。

His money soon ran out. 他的钱很快就花完了。

Have you nearly finished? Time is running out. 你快做完了吗?时间快到了。

10. I fix up bikes and give them away. (P63)我修理好自行车,然后捐赠出去。

(1)fix up相当于to repair,表示“修理,修补,整理”,其后跟物件名词作宾语。

My watch sometimes gains and sometimes loses. Can you fix it up for me?

我的表有时快,有时慢,你能帮我修修吗?

My mother is too old to live on her own, so we’re fixing up the spare room for her. 我母亲年龄太大了,不能自己生活,所以我们正收拾这个多出的房间让她住。

特别提示

如果fix up的宾语是“人”的话,则构成fix sb up with sth句型,表示“为某人安排某件事,向某人提供某物”。

I’ll fix you up with a place to stay. 我来给你安排住处。

(2)give sth away 意思是“捐赠,赠送”。

The rich man gave away most of his money to charity.

那个富人把他的大部分钱都捐给了慈善事业。

知识拓展

◎give away还可以表示“分发或赠与某物,由于大意而未利用或抓住(时机,机会等)”。 The headmaster gave away the prizes at the school sports day.

校长在学校运动会上颁发了奖品。

◎give away还可以表示“有意或无意地泄露某事情或出卖某人”。

The woman gave away state secrets to the enemy.

那个妇女把国家机密泄露给了敌人。

11. He even handed out advertisements at a local supermarket. (P64)他甚至在当地的一家超市散发广告。

hand out意为“散发”,其中hand是动词。

The teacher is handing out the maths papers. 老师在发数学试卷。

短语链语

hand in“面交”,“上交”。

The students are handing their papers in.学生们在交试卷。

12. Then he told the teachers at school about his problem ... (P64)然后他告诉老师自己的问题……

tell sb about sth是“把某事告诉某人”的意思,有时表示“嘱咐或语气较轻的命令”,常用于tell sb to do sth结构。

The teacher told us about his story. 老师给我们讲了他的故事。

My mother usually tells me to be careful on my way to school.

妈妈常常告诉我在去上学的路上一定要小心。

13. The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. (P64)他想到的那些办法获得了成功。

(1)这是一个由that引导的定语从句,先行词是前面的strategies。动词短语worked out在这里作主语the strategies的谓语,意为“产生结果,发展为,结果是……”,后面不可接宾语,主语也不用“人”来充当。

I wonder how their ideas worked out in practice.

我很想知道他们的想法在实践中取得了什么结果。

We didn’t plan it like that but it worked out very well.

我们原不是那样计划的,但结果却很好。

知识拓展

work out的其它用法

It was the best solution that he was able to work out at this time.

这是他这时能想出的最好的解决办法了。(想出)

I can’t work out the meaning of this poem. 我理解不了这首诗的意思。(理解)

短语链语

◎work on意为“从事”。

Professor Green is working on a new book. 格林教授正在写一本新书。

He is working on a maths problem. 他正在算一道数学难题。

◎work on后面无宾语时,表示继续工作。

It’s very late, but they were still working on.

时间很晚了,但他们仍然在继续工作。

(2)fine在这里是副词,可与well替换,意思是“好,顺利”。

The machine works fine. 这台机器运行很好。

Sam is doing fine in his new business.

萨姆在他的新业务中一切进展顺利。

14. ...Who has filled my life with pleasure. (P66)……使我生活充满快乐的人。

(1)本句中的fill...with...表示一个动作,意为“用……装满……”,其主语通常是人。 He filled the bag with books. 他在书包里装满了书。

Please fill the bottle with milk. 请将瓶子装满牛奶。

知识拓展

be filled with表示一个状态,意为“装满了……”,相当于be full of,其主语通常是人或物。 The room was filled with smoke. 房间里浓烟弥漫。

Her eyes were filled with tears. 她眼睛里充满了泪水。

(2)pleasure意为“高兴,快乐”,是不可数名词;表示“乐趣,高兴的事”时是可数名词。 Reading gives me great pleasure. 读书给了我很多快乐。

It is one of my greatest pleasures. 它是我最大乐趣之一。

◎在口语中It’s pleasure. 是回答感谢的客套语。

—Thank you for your help. 感谢你的帮助。

—It’s a pleasure. 不用谢。

特别提示

◎pleased是形容词,意为“自己感到高兴的,欣喜的,满意的”,指以任何方式表现出来或未表现出来的满足与快乐,在句中常用作表语,其主语为人。

The two friends were very pleased to see each other again.

这两个朋友非常高兴再次见面。

I was pleased that the manager had decided not to be angry with me.

使我高兴的是经理已经不再生我的气了。

◎pleasant也是形容词,表示“使人感到愉快/满意”,一般用作定语,如主语是物,也可以用作表语。

It’s pleasant weather today. 今天的天气令人愉快。

It’s very pleasant to sit down after standing for hours.

站了几小时后坐下来很舒服。

◎please是动词,表示“(使)高兴,满意,愉快”。

Does the cloth please you? 这布料合你的意吗?

15. Because I can’t use my arms or legs well, normal things like answering the telephone, opening and shutting doors, or carrying things have always been difficult for me. (P66)因为我不能灵活地使用我的手和脚,像接电话、开关门、拿东西这样的事情对于我来说都很难。

(1)本句中的shut意为“关”,在许多情况下可以与close互换,只是后者语气较弱,如close the door关门(也可能指半开半闭),shut the door关门(指把门关紧)。

That shop shuts at eight pm. 那家商店八点钟关门。

He closed his speech with a funny joke. 他用一个有趣的笑话结束了演说。

◎当表示“关闭公路,铁路或交通工具”或作“结束”讲时,只用close。

They have closed the road for thick fog. 由于大雾,那条公路被关闭。

特别提示

turn off用来表示“关闭”有开关的东西,如收音机、电视、煤气、水龙头等。

Please turn off the light when you leave the lab.

在你离开实验室前关掉灯。

Make sure the gas is turned off before you go to bed.

确保上床前把煤气关掉。

(2)本句中的carry意为“搬运,携带”,不表示带到什么地方,而携带的方式可以是提、扛、背、抱、抬等。

She carried a baby in her arms. 她怀里抱了一个孩子。

He was carrying a wooden box on his shoulder.他扛着一个木箱。

特别提示

在后面“Lucky! Fetch my book.”一句中出现的fetch相当于go and bring back,意为“取来,接来”,表示一往一返。

Let’s fetch some water. 咱们去打点水来。

People had to walk many kilometers in order to fetch wood.

为了取木料,人们不得不走许多公里路。

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