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初中英语语法专项习题6.介词

发布时间:2013-09-20 12:32:45  

初中英语语法专项习题---介词

常用介词介绍

(一)表示时间的介词:

1.at, on, in

(1)at表示“在某一时刻、某一时点”

at5:30 在5:30 at sunrise日出时 at lunch午饭时 at noon 正午时 at night夜间

I get up at 6:00 everyday.我每天6:00起床。

表示“在……岁”时用at the age of…。

如:at the age of five.在五岁时。

(2)on表示“在具体某一天或某天的上、下午”。如:

on Monday在星期一 onApril1st在四月一日

I heard a shot on the morning of March 18.三月十八日早晨我听到一声枪响。

泛指上、下午、晚上、夜间时用in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night;但若指具体某一天的上述时段时,则一律用on。

如:On the afternoon of May 23.在五月二十三日下午。

(3)in表示“在某月、季节、年、世纪”以及泛指的上、下午、晚上。

In September 在九月 in winter 在冬季 in1999 在1999年 in the 20th century 在20世纪

in the morning/afternoon/evening在上午/下午/晚上

2.for, during, through

(1)for表示“一段时间”,后接与数词连用的时间名词。多与完成时连用。

I’ve been a soldier for 5 years.我入伍已5年了。

She has been ill for several days.她已经病了几天了。

表示“持续一段时间”时,for后面必须跟“数字+时间名词”,而during后决不可接数字。

(2)during表示“在……期间”

He visited many nice places during his stay here.在他逗留期间他参观了许多美丽的地方。 What did you do during the summer vacation?你在暑假做了什么?

(3)through表示“一直……,自始至终”

They worked hard through the winter.整个冬天他们都在努力工作。

She treated me like her brother through these years.这些年来她始终把我当哥哥对待。

3.from, since

(1) from表示“等时间的起点”,作“从……”解,多用于“from…to/till…”中。

You can come any time from Monday to Friday.周一至周五你什幺时间来都行。

The exam will start from 9:00 a.m.考试将从上午九点开始。

①from“从……(开始)”未必持续到现在,如:

from 1995 to 1998.从1995年到1998年。

而since是指“自从……以来一直持续到现在”

②since一般只与现在完成时连用,而from不受此限。

(2)since表示“自从……以来(直到现在)”

He has been away from home since 1973.他自从1973年就离开了家乡。

We have known each other since ten years ago.我们十年前就认识了。

for与since表示一段时间,但for与时间段连用,而since与时间点连用。

如for two hours(持续)两小时;since last week自从上周直到现在

4.before, by, till, until

(1)before指“在……之前”

Please come before ten o’clock.请10点以前来。

The meeting will end after 3:00 p.m. 会议将在下午三点后结束。

表示“在……以前”时,before与by基本可通用。但by还有“截至……为止”之意,此时可与完成时连用,而before一般不与完成时连用。如:

How many models have you made by the end of last month?

截至上月底你做了多少个模型?

(2)by指“不迟于,到……时为止,在……以前”

I must finish my home work by lunch.午饭前我必须做完作业。

We had learned over 1000 words by the end of last term.

到上学期末为止,我们已经学了1000多个单词了。

(3)tell(until)“直到……为止”

You must wait for him till tomorrow.你必须一直等到他明天。

He didn’t come back until twelve o’clock last night.他昨晚下到12点才回来。

在肯定句中,till(until)必须与延续动词连用。若与点动词连用,till(until)只能用于否定句中。

5.after, in, within

①after表示“在……之后”,是before的反义词。

We’ll hold a party after dinner.晚餐后我们将举办晚会。

He got a cancer and died after a year.他患了癌症,一年后去世了。

I’ll phone you after I arrive.到达后我给你打电话。(after作连词)

②within“在……时间之内”

I can finish it with an hour.我不需一小时就可把它做完。

比较 after与in

①after后可跟时间段,也可跟时间点,如after school(放学后),

而in后必须跟一段时间,如in an hour(一小时后)。

②after既可用于将来时,也可用于过去时,而in只能用于将来时。

③after既可作介词,又可作连词,而in只能作介词②in“在……时间之后”

I’ll arrive in an hour.我一小时后到达。

in与within后都必须跟时间段。

(二)表示“地点、方向”的介词:

1.In out side between, among

①in表示“在……里面”,如:

What’s in the box?盒子里是什么?

She put her book in the desk.她把书放进了书桌。

②outside指“在……外面”

There are many people out side the room.房间外有很多人。

What did you see out side the hall?你在大厅外看见了什么?

③between在……之间(指二者)

There is a hospital between the hotel and the post office.在宾馆与邮局之间有所医院。

The building stands between the park and the small river.那栋建筑位于公园和小河之间。

between是指“在两者之间”,而among指“在多个之间”。

④among在……之间(指三者以上)

“There is a thief among you.” The policeman shouted to the crowd. 警察向人群喊道:“你们中间有个小偷!”

He found his place among the crowd.他在人群中找到了他的位置。

2.on, above, over, below, under

(1)on在……上面,表面相互接触。

There is an apple on the table.桌上有一个苹果。

On the top of the hill, there is a flag.山顶有一面旗子。

(2)above只表示“在……上方或位置高出……”,与below相对。

A plane flew above our heads.一架飞机从我们头上飞过。

The Turners live above us.特纳一家人住在我们的上面。

(3)over“在……正上方”,与under相对。

There is a bridge over the river.河上有一座桥。

The picture is hanging over the blackboard.那张图挂在黑板的正上方。

(4)below在……下方,低于……

There are many flowers below the window.窗下有很多花。

Her skirt reaches just below her knees.她的裙子刚到膝盖下。

(5)under在……正下方

They sat under a big tree, drinking.他们坐在一棵大树下喝酒。 What are you wearing under your coat?你外套里面穿了什么?

3.near, by, beside

(1)near在……附近,与far相对

A hospital was built near the railway station.在火车站附近建了一所医院。 My hone is near the school.我的家离学校很近。

(2)by=beside,靠近,在……旁边,比near距离更近

He just sat by/ beside me in the cinema.在电影院他就坐在我旁边。 He lay down beside the statuary.他在雕像旁躺下了。

4.In front of, behind, around

(1)in front of在……前面

A river flows in front of the house.房子前有一条河

They put a bunch of flowers in front of the door.他们在门前放了一束花。 In the front of表示“在……前部”,指里面。

There is a red chair in the front of the room.在房间前半部有把红椅子。

(2)behind在……后面

A high building stands behind the village.村子后面有一高层建筑。 The cat lies behind the door.猫躺在门后面。

(3)around在……周围,围绕

There are many trees around the village.村子周围有很多树围绕。 There are flowers around the stage.舞台周围摆着鲜花。

5.from, to, for, into, out of

(1)from从……

The train started from Paris.火车发自巴黎。

She will fly from Beijing to Hong Kong.她将从北京飞往香港。

(2)to到……(目的地)去,向……

He went to Germany last year.他去年去了德国。

They got to the town very late.他们很晚才到那个镇。

(3)for向……,表目的方向

He left for Tianjin on business yesterday.他昨天出差去天津了。

The train for Shanghai has been away.去往上海的火车已经开走了。

towards, to和for都可表示“向……”,其区别如下:

①towards仅指朝向某个方向,不一定是目的地,而to和for都是“向目的地”。

②for作“向(目的地)”时,常用于固定搭配中,如:leave for; start for

(4)into进入

Please put the water into the bottle.请把水倒入瓶子里。

The teacher came into the classroom with a smile.老师微笑着走进了教室。

(5)out of从……出来

A beautiful girl in red went out of the shop.一个穿红衣服的漂亮女孩从商店里走了出来。

They pulled him out of the water.他们把他从水里拉了出来。

6.along, across, through

(1)along沿着

He likes to drive along the river.他喜欢沿着河开车。

There are all kinds of beautiful flowers along the road street.沿街有着各种美丽的花。

(2)across横穿

The little girl is afraid to go across the street.这个小女孩不敢横穿马路。

It’s dangerous to run across the busy road.跑着穿越繁忙的马路是很危险的。

(3)through穿过

It took us ten minutes to drive through the tunnel.开车穿过这条隧道花了我们10分钟时间。

He pushed his way through the crowd to the plat form.他从人群里挤到了站台。

7.at, in

二者都表示“在某个地方”,但at多指较小的地方,如车站、家等,而in多指在“大地方”,如城市、国家、大洲等。(但大小有时也是相对的)。

He lives at No.27 Zhongshan street in Nanjing.他住在南京市中山路27号。

TheplanewillarriveinBeijingat13:00.飞机将于13点到达北京。

三、其它用途的介词:

1.表示“标准或单位”的介词:at, for, by

(1)at表示“以……速度”“以……价格”

He drove at a speed of 80 miles an hour.他以每小时8英里的速度行驶。

I sold my car at a high price.我以高价出售了我的汽车。

(2)for用……交换

I bought it for 20 dollars.买它花了我20美元。

How much for these apples?这些苹果多少钱?

at与for都表示价格,但at表示“单价”,for表示总价,at后一般跟“price”这个词,而for后只能跟总钱数。 如:I bought it at a low price.我买它的价格很低。

I bought it at the price of $80 a pound.我以每磅80美元的价格买的它。

I sold it for $10.我10美元把它卖掉了。

(3)by以……计,后跟度量单位

Gold is sold by the gram.金以克出售。

They paid him by the month.他们按月给他计酬。

2.表示“材料”的介词:of, from, in

(1)of表示从成品仍可看出原料。

This box is made of paper.这个盒子是纸做的。

This salad is made of apples and strawberries.这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。

(2)from表示从成品已看不出原料。

Bread is made from wheat.面包是小麦做的。

The lifeboat is made from some special material.这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。

(3)in用……材料。 常用write, speak, talk, answer等连用。

Please fill in the form in pencil first.请先用铅笔填写这个表格。

They talk in English.他们用英语交谈。

in指材料时,材料前不用冠词。 比较:用铅笔画

3.表示“工具或手段”的介词:by, with, on

(1)by凭借“工具或手段(多用于交通工具)如: by bus乘公共汽车,by plane乘飞机

He usually goes to work by bike.他通常骑车去上班。

He sent the news to me bye-mail.他通过电子邮件发给了我这一消息。

表示搭乘交通工具时,既可用by,又可用in,区别在于用by时,表示交通工具的名词前不能加冠词,而用in时名词前必须加冠词。

(2)with用……工具

He broke the window with a stone.他用石头把玻

He stopped the ball with his right foot.他用脚把球停住。

with表示“用……工具”时,工具前必须加冠词或物主代词。

(3)on以……方式。多用于固定词组。

They talked on the telephone.他们通过电话进行交谈。

She learns English on the radio /on TV.她通过收音机/电视学英语。

4.表示“关于”的介词:of, about, on

(1)of仅指“关于”人或事物的存在,如:

He spoke of the film the other day.他前几天提到了这部影片。

He thought of this matter yesterday.他昨天想到了这件事。

He thought about this matter yesterday.他昨天考虑了这件事。

(2)about指“关于”某人或某事物的较详细的情况。

It’s a book for children about Africa and its people.

它是一本供儿童阅读的关于非洲和非洲人的书。

Can you tell me something about yourself?你能告诉我一些关于你自己的事情吗?

(3)on是指“关于”学术性的或严肃的,供专门研究用的。

It’s a textbook on the history of China.它是一本有关中国历史的教科书。

5.表示“原因、理由”的介词:for, at, from, of, with

(1)for表示“一般的理由”常与famous, punish等词连用。

Xi’an is famous for its long history.西安因历史悠久而著名。

The city is well known for her large population.这座城市以人口众多而知名。

(2)at一般指“情感”的原因,通常放在表示“惊讶或喜悦等感情”的动词或形容词之后,表示“因听到或看到

而……”。

She got angry at his words.她因为他的话生气了。

He was surprised at the news.听到这消息他大吃一惊。

(3)from表示“外在的原因”。如受伤、车祸等。

He died from the wound.他因受伤而致死。

Her son was badly hurt in a traffic accident.她儿子在一次车祸中严重受伤。

(4)of表示“内在的原因”,如病、饿等到。

He died of cancer.他死于癌症。

The old man died of hunger.老人死于饥饿。

(5)with表示“由外在影响到肉体或心理”的原因。

He shook with cold.他因寒冷而发抖。

He shouted loudly with anger.他气得大喊大叫。

6.like, as

(1)like像……一样(其实不是)

The little tiger looks like a cat.这只小老虎看起来像只猫。

The mooncakes are like the moon.月饼像月亮。

(2)as作为,以……身份(其实是)

He was hanged as a spy.他被作为间谍绞死了。

He talk to me as a father.他以父亲的身份跟我谈话。

7.against, for

against反对,与for是反义词,如:

Are you for my idea or against it?你赞同还是反对我的想法?

They fought against the enemy.他们抗击敌人。

8.besides, except都表示“除了”。besides的用法就等于aswellas。

He is interested in tennis besides(as well as)football. 除了足球,他还对网球感兴趣。

(1)besides是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“除之外…还、除之外…又”,表示两部分的相似性。

Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him.

除他以外,还有25个学生去看了电影。(他和另外25人都去了)

We like biology besides English.除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英语都喜欢)

(2)except是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“撇开…不谈”,表示两部分的不同。 Every one is excited except me.除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而我却不激动)

All the visitors are Japanese except him. 除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是) 在以下几种情况中,介词常常省略。

1.当表示时间的词前有this, that, next, last, every, each, some, any, all等时,介词应省略。

We watched an exciting football match last week.(last week前不能用介词in等)

上周我们看了一场激动人心的足球赛。

Come any day you like.你想哪天都行。

Come on any day you like.(×)

next前可以加冠词,但意义不同。

Next week下周(以现在为起点)

the next week第二周(以过去某时为起点)

2.表示时间的名词前有不定冠词,且不定冠词作“每一……”解时,前面不用介词,

每小时80英里。

80milesinanhour.(×)

80milesanhour.()

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.每天吃一个苹果,医生不找我。

3.含有way的短语。如:in the same way, in this/that way, in another way等用于句末时,in常省略。 She did it the same way.她用同样的方法做的。

三、介词的固定搭配

1. At

be good at 精通于 stare at 盯着看,凝视 at length 最后,终于

be annoyed at 对……烦恼 at the best 充其量 at once 立即,马上

be angry at 对 (事) ……发怒 at first 开始 at present 现在

(take) aim at 瞄准 at large 自由地 at rest 休息,静止不动

laugh at 因……而发笑 at least 至少,起码 at times 间或,有时

He was angry at his brother's remark.

他对他兄弟的批评很恼火。

I don't know him but he has been staring at me for ten minutes.

我不认识他,但是他盯了我足有十分钟。

The foreign countries' attempt at a blockade of the port was unsuccessful.

外国试图对这个港口实施封锁,但没有成功。

I know I am at fault.

我知道我错了。

The escaped prisoner is still at large.

那逃犯仍逍遥法外。

He is at present away on his holidays.

他现在到外地度假去了。

2. About

careful about 小心 sure about 肯定 care about 关心,介意

particular about 对……讲究 concerned about 担心 leave about 乱放,乱扔

careless about 粗心 a complaint about 抱怨,叫屈 fuss about 大惊小怪

doubtful about 对……怀疑 bring about 导致,引起 anxious about 担心,想念 例如:

How did it come about?

那事是怎样发生的?

She is crazy about pop music.

她对流行音乐着了迷。

English people are always making complaints about their weather.

英国人老是埋怨天气不好。

He is enthusiastic about the music of Brahams.

他热衷于布拉姆斯的乐曲。

Harry likes eating very much but he isn't very particular about the food he eats.

哈里很爱吃,但对他所吃的食物倒并不讲究。

3. Against

fight against 反对 immune against 免除…… vote against 投票反对

protect … against 保护……免a prejudice against 偏见,万岁 strive against 和……斗争 受 guard against 防护 a defence against 防护,保卫 stand against 反对,经受住 protest against 反对,抗议 a protest against 抗议,反对 an accusation against 控制,谴rise against 起来反抗

责 run against 对……不利,违反

例如:

I protest against their criticism.

我对他们的批评提出抗议。

He made a false accusation against his boss.

他诬告上司。

Those clothes don't give you much protection against the cold.

那些衣服不能使你御寒。

He should guard against passing on disease to his family.

他应当注意别把病传给自己家里的人。

4. By

abide by 遵守 by virtue of 靠,由于 by way of 经由

pull … by 拉住 by means of 使用 by force 以武力,强迫地 by mistake 弄错,失误 by aid of 借助于 by marriage 联姻而产生的 例如:

He is by nature a kind, generous fellow.

他是个天性和蔼慷慨的人。

They sent the letter to me by mistake.

他们误把那封信送给了我。

The old Roman armies had several generals who took command by turns.

古罗马的军队由几位大将轮流指挥。

By virtue of his victory, he felt he could do what he pleased.

由于胜利,他感到可以想干什么就干什么了。

I probably know him by sight but not by name.

我大概见面认识他,不过叫不上名字。

5. For

competent for 胜任 an affection for 爱,爱情 contempt for 轻蔑,藐视 for good 永远 application for 申请 a demand for 需要,需求 for the sake of 为……缘故 (make) preparation for 为……evidence for 证据,根据 for the better 好转 作准备 a fondness for 喜欢

for the purpose of 为……目的 blame for 责怪,责备 a reason for 理由,原因 for a change 改变一下 cause for 理由 a respect for 尊敬,尊重 for the time being 暂时 readiness for 为……准备就绪 a search for 搜寻,找寻 for fear of 免得 an occasion for 时机,机会

例如:

I should like to repeat my opening remarks for the benefit of those who just came in.

我愿重复一下我的开场白,以便让刚入场的人也能听到。

She got up early to be ready for the post. 为了静心等候邮件,她一早就起床了。

New York is famous for its skyscrapers. 纽约以其摩天大楼而著称。

His excuse for being late was that his train was delayed. 他晚到的理由是火车晚点了。

This new school will have no playground for the time being. 这所新学校将暂时没有操场。

If one does not have respect for oneself, one can't expect others to respect him. 如果一个人不能自重,那么就别指望别人尊敬他。

Nobody knows the age of the earth for certain. 没有人确切知道地球的年龄。

6. From

differ from 与……不同,相异 resign from 辞职

dismiss … from 解雇,使……离职 suffer from 受……之苦

infer … from 从……推论出 tell … from 把……与……区分开来 prevent … from 阻止,防碍 from a distance 从远处,远远地

protect … from 保护……以免 from the heart 诚心诚意地

from the first 从一开始

例如:

You may even have entered the shop just to find shelter from a sudden shower.

你甚至可以到店里去避避雨。

From the first I disliked him.

从一开始我就不喜欢他。

The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased.

患心脏病的人数已经上升了许多。

Allen and I are in the same history class, but his assignment is different from mine.

爱伦和我在同一个历史班,但他的作业跟我的不同。

assist in 帮助做某事 in view of 由于,考虑到 有意义

consist in 在于 in any event 无论如何 There's no harm in 不妨 engage in 从事,参与 in the course of 在……过程中 a specialist in 专家

give in 让步,妥协 in short 简言之 an interest in 兴趣,关心 specialize in 专攻,专门研究 believe in 信仰,信赖 participation in 参加 take in 欺骗,收容 end in 以……告终 trouble in 苦恼,麻烦

belief in 信仰,相信 excel in (在某方面)突出地好 interested in 对……感兴趣 a delight in 以……为乐 invest … in 在……投资 fortunate in 有幸

an expert in 专家,能手 succeed in 在……方面获得成constant in 对……持久 in fact 事实上 功 lacking in 缺乏

in the event of 万一 participate in 参加 expert in 在……熟练 in one's opinion 据……见解 confidence in 信任,相信 confident in 信任

in bloom 开着花 difficulty in 困难,困境 in time 及时

in the direction of 朝……方向 pleasure in 高兴 in the interest of 为了……利益 in comparison with 与……比较 a rise in 上涨,增长

in possession of 拥有,占有 (there is no) point in (做某事没)

例如:

We hoped that we should have confidence in each other again.

我们希望我们应再次彼此信任。

He listened in while we were discussing this question.

他窃听了我们讨论的这个问题。

In conclusion, I shall not accept the invitation.

总之,我是不会接受邀请的。

We must give up this plan for we are lacking in funds.

我们必须放弃这一计划,因为我们缺少资金。

This shop specializes in tea and coffee.

这家商店专营茶叶和咖啡。

He wants to have a rise in wages.

他想要增加工资。

In comparison with England, Ireland has a small population.

与英格兰相比,爱尔兰人口很少。

8. Into translate … into 把……翻译成 talk … into 说服……做 argue … into 说服……做 force … into 迫使……做 trick … into 诱骗……做 frighten … into 恐吓……做 crash into 撞到……上 deceive … into 欺骗……去做 plunge into 投身于 burst into 突然开始,爆发出 pull into 到达,开进 run into 碰见 burst into 闯入 cut into 减轻,减少 turn … into 把……变成 inquire into 调查 change … into 把……变成 divide … into 把……分成 reason … into 说服……做 break into 突然闯入 例如:

On hearing the sad news, she burst into tears.

一听到这一不幸消息,她突然哭了起来。

The taxi driver pulled into a roadside restaurant to get something to eat.

出租车司机把车开到路边饭店打算吃点东西。

They frightened the old lady into signing the contract.

他们吓嘘老太太签了合同。

9. Of

worthy of 值得 approve of 赞成,批准 assure … of 使……确信 tired 厌倦 consist of 由……组成 hear of 听说

considerate of 体贴 inform … of 通知 remind … of 使想起,提醒 aware of 知道 rob … of 抢劫 smell of 有……气味 conscious of 认识到 convince … of 使……确信 cure … of 治愈……病 proud of 骄傲 deprive … of 剥夺,使……丧die of 死于

composed of 由……组成 失 speak of 谈到,提及 certain of 确信 dispose of 处理

regardless of 不管 suspect … of 怀疑

fond of 喜爱 guilty of 犯罪

cautious of 小心 ignorant of 忽视

innocent of 清白,无罪 accuse … of 控告(某人)

10. To amount to 相当于,等于 relevant to 对……有关

access to 进入,通道 confess to 承认 inferior to 比……下等

attention to 注意 owe … to 把……归功于 grateful to 感激

exposure to 暴露 report to 报到 insensitive to 迟钝

injury to 损伤,伤害 stick to 坚持 parellel to 平行

an objection to 反对 to a certain extent 在一定程度上 add to 增加,加强

dedication to 献身,热爱 to one's satisfaction 使……满意 belong to 属于

resistance to 阻力,抵抗 to the utmost 尽力 lead to 导致

similarity to 类似,相似 an attitude to 态度 prefer to 宁可,更喜欢

similar to 相似,相同 (attach) importance to 重视 sentence … to 宣判

indifferent to 不在乎 a limit 限制 turn to 求助于

equal to 等于 contribution to 贡献,捐助 to one's liking 合……胃口 devoted to 献身于 a disgrace to 耻辱 to one's face 当面

contrary to 违反,相反 a response to 反应,响应 to one's benefit 对……有益 adapt to 使习惯 a visit to 访问,拜访 to one's taste 合……胃口 例如:He answered the questions to everybody's satisfaction. 他回答了问题,使人人都很满意。

The professor sometimes makes remarks that are not relevant to the topic.有时候那位教授训一些跟主题无关的话题。 I object to the plan on the grounds that it is too expensive. 我反对这项计划,理由是费用过于庞大。

The paint came off as the result of exposure to the rain. 由于长期淋雨,油漆脱落了。

Your computer is similar to mine. 你的计算机与我的相似。

I sympathize with her only to a certain extent. 我只是在一定程度上同情她。

He dedicated his life to the cause of medicine. 他将一生献给了医学事业。

11. On

advice on 忠告,意见 an attack on 袭击,攻击 dependence on 依靠,依赖 an emphasis on 强调,重点 (keep) an eye on 照看,注意 an influence on 影响 (have) mercy on 怜悯,对…

时间介词的用法及辨异

表示时间的介词,在英语介词中占着相当重要的位置。在初中阶段英语教学过程中,已出现了许多用来表示时间的介词。其中有:at on in during for to till un til after by before等。

1.at on in

a)at用来表示时间时,通常指时间的某一点。例如:at five o’clock atnoon atmidnight

b)on用来表示某一段时间,特指某天或某天的上午 下午或晚上。例如:on Sunday,on October,on Saturday morning. c)in也可用来表示一段时间,但多指长于一天或不到一天的时间段。例如:in January, in summer, in 1988, in the morning ,in the evening.

2.in during

a)during用来表示一段时间,其意义大致相当于in的用法。一般来说,凡是能用in的地方,也可以用during.例如:He came to see me during my absence. .Don’t go to see his wife in his absence.

b)during与in的区别在于during强调时间的延续性,而in则只是一般指某一时间。试比较:They visited many cities during their stay in China. Her grandpa was killed in the war.

3.in for during

a)“in+时间”与“for+时间”都可表示一段时间,但“for+时间”表示“有多久”,而“in+时间”则表示“在何时”。

(例如:We worked there for the winter. They worked there in winter. 以上两例中,in winter强调“在冬季”,不一定包括整个冬季时间,而for the winter则强调“整个冬天”。

b)for用来表示一般时间,常跟具体的时间段。例如 for a few days for 3 weeks for five months等 4.since after since after 都可以用来引导表示从过去某一点开始的时间段词组。它们的不同之处在于: a)since引导的词组所表示的时间一直延续到说话时为止,因而要与现在完成时连用。例如:He has been there twice since 1982. I have done nothing since six o’clock.

b)after引导的词组所表示的时间是纯系过去,并不延续到说话时,因此要和一般过去时连用。例如:He went home after school. 5.till until to

a)介词till/until常用于“from.……till/until”结构中,表示“一个动作的终结”。介词to常用在“from.……to”的结构中,用来表示“一个阶段的终结”。两者在这种结构中意义十分接近。例如:The Americans stayed here from June to September. He studies from morning till/until night everyday.

b)to可用在表示钟点的词前。我们说It’s six to five 但不能说It’s six till/until five.反之在某些能用till/until的场合,却不能用to.例如:在“not.……until”结构中,我们说I didn’t go to bed till/until ten o’clock.却不能说I didn’t go to bed to ten o’clock.

c)till与until也有细微区别。till常用在非正式文体或口语中,而until则常用于正式文体及比较正式的场合。另外,在句首多用until. 6. by before

a)by表示时间时,意思是“到……以前”、“不迟于”、“到……时(为止)”。例如:by supper time by the end of last term

b)before表示时间,意为“在……以前”。例如:before liberation the day before yesterday

c)by与before的区别在于,by短语表示时间,强调“终止点”,而before短语表示时间,强调“起始点”。例如:Your son will be all right by suppertime.

句中的by suppertime表示从说话时到晚饭前这段时间。)而before构成短语则表示从某一时间或事件之前,例如:The poor children couldn’t go to school before liberation.

练习题

|1

( ) 1 Children get gifts ____ Christmas and ____ their birthdays.

A. on; on B. at; on C. in; in D. in; on

( )2 -There is nothing____tomorrow afternoon, is there? -No. We can have a game of table tennis. A. on B. in C. out D. up

( ) 3 A lot of students in our school were born____March, 1981. A. in B. at C. on D. since

( ) 4 tie suddenly returned____ a rainy night. A. on B. at C. in D. during

( ) 5 My grandfather was born____Oct. 10, 1935. A. on B. in C. at D. of

( ) 6 The train is starting___five minutes. A. in B. at C. for D.still

( ) 7 Mike does his exercises ____ seven _____ the evening.

A. on; to B. at; in C. by; of D. at; on 2

( ) 1 The population of the world has grown very fast ____ four hundred years.

A. for past the B. in the pass C. in the past D. for past ( ) 2 We returned to our hometown___.

A. next week B. in the last week C. last week D. for a

week

( ) 3 Great changes have taken place___. A. in the last few year B. in the last few years C. last year D. on the last year 3

( ) 1 Children wake up very early____the morning of Christmas Day.

A. in B. on C. for D. at

( ) 2 ____ a cold winter morning, I met her in the stfeet.

A. In B. On C. At D. For

( ) 3 It happened to be very cold____ the morning of our sports meet.

A. at B. on C. with D. of

( ) 4 Why did you get up so early ___ this morning. A. on B. / C. at D. in 4

( ) 1 He went to Shanghai___ September 3, 1991 and came back___ a cold morning last year. A. in; on B. on; in C. on; on D. in; ia

( ) 2 Lucy was born____ the night of May 12, 1984. A. on B. in C. at D. to

( ) 3 Mrs Brown came to China ____ 1996. A.on B. of C. to, D. in

( ) 4 ___ the morning of November 20, 1915, the workers came to Chicago to show their mourning___Joe Hill.

A. On; to B. In; of . C. On; for , D. At; for

( ) 5 Ann moved___Hangzhou___September, 1992. A. /; in i B. to; in C. to; on D, in; in

( ) 6 They started off___an autumn afternoon. A. during B. at C. in D. on 5

( ) 1 He often goes ____ school ____ six thirty ____ the morning.

A. for; to; in B. to; at in C. to; for; at D, for; at; to

( ) 2 He arrived ___ Shanghai ___ 9: 30 ___ March 5. A. at; in; at B. to; on; at C. in; on; at D. in; at; on

( ) 3 The English teacher told me to get there____ half past ten.

A: in B. at C. on D. of

( ) 4 The children get up ___ 6 o'clock. A. at B. on C. during D. in 6

( ) 1 The doctor worked___ five hours___ a rest. A. for; with B. on; without C. about; having D. for; without

( ) 2 I worked on the problem ____ a long time and I worked it out____myself____ last. A. for; by; at B. in; with; on C. on; by; in D. for; for; at the

( ) 3 A new factory will be set up:___ a year. ^'lotae A. for B. in C. after D. on

( ) 4 Two years___ he began to write another story-book.

A. after B. later ; C. in D. late

( ) 5 We will finish the picture a day. A. in B. on C. after D. on

( ) 6 The workers had been____ strike____almost a month.

A. on; in B. at; in C. on; for D. on; during

( ) 7 Mr Brown had lain ____ the ground ____ four hours before they finally found him.

A. on; for B. at; in C. on; after D. in; during 7

( ) 1 The teacher is coming back___ an hour. A. after B. for C. in D. before

( ) 2 She lived in the mountain village____ the years 1940-1950.

A. between B. during C. in D. since

( ) 3 Miss Wang will come to Beijing____ two days. A. after B. in C. on D. before

( ) 4 The American Civil War lasted four years before the North won ____ the end. A. by B. at C. in D. on 8

( ) 7 Mary had finished her homework____ the time I got home.

A. until B. by C. at D. when

( ) 2 We stayed at the lab___ our teacher returned. A. till B. by C. during D. while

( )3 They didn't leave the station___ they get on the train.

A. until B. by C. after y D. at 9

1 Don't worry. He will return____.

A. before long B. long before C. long long ago D. long ago

2 There lived an old man, fishing at sea____.

A. long before B. before long C. long time ago D.

soon

3 It was not _____ they came back.

A. long before B. before long C. long time before D. long after

4 I was told that his uncle had gone to France .

A. long before -B. shortly after C. before long D. long ago 10

( ) 1 ___ Tom gets up at five in the morning.

A. Sometime B. Sometimes C. Some time D. Some times

( ) 2 I remember we met each other___ last year.

A. Sometime' B. some times C. some time D. sometimes

( ) 3 Mary and I have been to the Great Wall,___. A. sometime B. some time C. sometimes D. some times

( ) 4 He studied English for ____ in London, and then he went to America.

A. sometimes B. sometime new B. some time B. some times 11

( ) 1 I don't like to sit ___ Tom's right. I would like to sit ___ the back row.

A. on; in B. in; on C. on; at D. at; on

( ) 2 There is a brook____ red flowers and green grass___ both sides. A. of with B. with; on C. of; at D. with; in

( ) 3 There are many trees ___ of the road! And ____ of the trees is growing larger and larger.

A. on both side; a number B. on each sides; a number C.on both sides; the numberD.on every side; the number 12

( ) 1 The plane is flying _____.

A. in the sky B. in. the air C. in space D. in sky ( ) 2 There is a sweet smell___. A. in the air B. in the open air C. in the sky D. in the space

( ) 3 We held an interesting party___.

A. in the air B. in the sky C. in the open air D. in space

( ) 4 Seen from___, the earth appears to be a big blue ball.

A. the space B. space C. a space D. this space 13

( ) 1 Tom sits____the classroom while John sits____the room.

A. in front of; at back of B. in the front of; at the back of C. in front of; at the back of D. in the front of; at back of

( ) 2 Lucy sits____ the third row, ____Jim's left. A. on; on B. in; at C. at; in D. in; on

( ) 3 Jiangsu is___ the east of China, but Japan is ___ the east of China.

A. to; in B. in; to . C. on; to D. to; on 14

( ) 1. -Can I look up a word____ your dictionary? -I haven't got____me.

A. into; about B. in; with C. at; in D. on; on ( ) 2 1 like mooncakes ____ meat ____ them. A. in; on B. with; on C. in; the D. with; in

( ) 3 When you are ___ trouble please ask help ___ us.

A. in; from B. in; for C. on; from D. on; of

( ) 4 The shopkeeper said they had sold out the shoes____ your size. A. about B. in C. to D. of

( ) 5 I saw him___hurry at the moment. A. in a B. in C. on D. on a 15

( ) 1 He put up a map ___ the back wall because there was a hole ___ it.

A. on; on B. at; in C. on; in D. on; at ( ) 2 There is a door___ the wall. "t a ^nc A. on B. to C. of D.in

( ) 3 This kind of VCD is made____ China. . A. in B. from C. at D. on

( ) 4 Any man ___ eyes______ his head can see that he's exactly like a rope.

A. with; on B. with; in C. on; with D. in; with 16

( ) 1 There are some birds singing___ the trees. A. in B. on C. at D. from

( ) 2 Don't read ____ the sun. It's bad ___ your eyes. A. in; to B. under; for C. with; to D. in; on

( ) 3 The woman____ a blue dress is my teacher. A. in B. on C. of D. at

( ) 4 There are so many apples___ that tree. A. in JB, on C. at , D. from

17

( ) 1 The boat is passing___ the bridge. A. through B. below C. under D. across ( ) 2 Two planes are flying___ the city. A. through B. over , C. on , D, below

( ) 3 We can see a river running to the east____ the hill.

A. under B. below C. over D. on

( ) 4 Do you see the kite ___ the building. A. over B. cross C. on D. above 18

( ) 1 The United States is ____ the south of Canada and ___ the east of Japan.

A. to; in B.on;to C. in; beside D. at; on

( ) 2 My hometown lies___ the city. ___ I often go to the city by bike.

A. 50 miles in the east; However B. to the east 40 miles of; But C. in the east 45 miles from; But D. 35 miles east of; However

( ) 3 The man stood____the window, watching the boys playing outside. A. in B. by C. with D. to

( ) 4 Japan lies____ the east of China. A. on B/ to C. in D. with 19

( ) 1 Is the street too narrow for the bus to go ___? A. through B. across C. on D. in

( ) 2 A mother camel was walking ___ her son ___ the desert.

A. without; along B. with; through C. next to; pass D. beside; through ( ) 3 The river runs____ the city. A. across B. through C. over D. from

( ) 4 It took us over an hour to walk____ this street. A. from B. through C. over D. across 20

( ) 1 Uncle Wang arrived____ No. 14 Middle School half an hour ago.

A. at B. in C., to ^ D. /

( ) 2 Did your friend send you something ___ the end of last week?

A. at B. by C. in D. to

( ) 3 The monument____ those heroes stands____the foot of the mountain.

A. of; at B. to; on C. for; by D. to; at ( ) 4 My uncle lives ____ 88 Beijing Street. A. to B. of C. at D. on

( ) 5 They are waiting ___ a bus ___ the bus stop. A. for; in B. on; at C. with; at D. for; at 21

( ) 1 Wood is of ten made___paper. A. by B. from C. of D. into

( ) 2 ___ research ___ the universe scientists have put a lot of information ___ computers. A. With; over; at B." On; at; to

C. In; about; into D. For; with; through

( ) 3; When a piece of ice is taken ____ a warm room, it gets smaller and smaller until ___ the end it disappears completely.

A. in; in B. out of; at C. into; in D. to; by ( ) 4 A woman fell ___ the boat ___ the water.

A. off; into B. at; belowC. down; under D. away; in 22

( ) 1 The tables in the restaurant are so close together that there's hardly any room to move___them. A. among B. between

C. in the middle of D. at the centre of

( ) 2 English is widely used for business____ different countries.

A. between B. to C. for D. on

( ) 3 Is there any difference ____ these two sentences? A. for B. in C. among D. between

( ) 4 We visited him at his workplace ___ the young trees and ask him about his work. A. in B. among C. between D. at

( ) 5 There is the difference___ Chinese food and American food.

A. from B. at C. between D. by

( ) 6 The police station is ___ the clothing shop ___ the post office.

A. between; and B. among; and C. near; of D. on; right

( ) 7 He is ____ the greatest scientists in the world. A. among B. between C. in D. of 23

( ) 1 There is a book-store ___ our house. A. at B. through C. across D. near

( ) 2 Our headmaster showed the visitors ____ our school.

A. to B. for C. around -; D. near

( ) 3 The moon is the ___ to the earth. A. closed B. near C. nearest D. close 24

( ) 1 We have classes every day ____ Sunday. A. beside B. besides C. except D. except for ( ) 2 Nobody knew it ____ me. A. but B. beside C. besides D. without ( ) 3 What do you spend your time on ___ work and study? A. except B. besides C. but D. without ( ) 4 Do you know any other foreign language____ English. A. without B. beside C. besides D. except ( ) 5 We need fifteen more people ____ the twenty of us to do the job. A. besides B. and C. except D. without ( ) 6 No one knew where Mr Smith lived____ his daughter. A. besides B. and C, only D. except 25

( ) 1 _____ the help of the teacher, Tom has made rapid progress ____ his studies. A. For; at B. Of; for C. By; on D. With; in ( ) 2 The children are interested___this subject. A. to B. with C. in D. at ( ) 3 His mother often helps him ___ English so he does better ___ English than others. A. with; in B. on; in C. in; with D. with; at ( ) 4 I've lost my interest____physics. A. in B. on C. at D. for ( ) 5 He drove away___the direction of London. A. in B. at C. to D. for ( ) 6 The letter was written ___ ink. A. with B. in C. by D. at 26

( ) 1 ___ the money, she bought a new coat ___ her father. A. With; for B. With; to C. For; with D. To; with ( ) 2 Wei Hua gets on well ___ her classmates. A. with B. in C. to D. at ( ) 3 There is something wrong___my bike. A. at B. in C. on D. with ( ) 4 They are filling their bags____ books and other things.

参考答案:

1. 1-7 B A A A A A B A. in B. with C. of D. by ( ) 5 When the teacher heard us talking in class, he

was very angry ____ A. to B. with C. for D. of ( ) 6 We usually cover the Christmas trees ____ colour lights. A. in B. use C. for D. with 27 ( ) 1 -His sudden death surprised his wife. -It was so bad. His wife was surprised ____ his death. A. by B. with C.at D. on ( ) 2 Don't laugh____ him, he only made a small mistake. A. at B. to C. about D. over ( ) 3 The boy cried out ___ the top of his voice. A. at B. in C. on D. to 28 ( ) T We Chinese people are all___ our motherland . A. famous for B. proud of C. busy with D. good at

( ) 2 The beautiful bottle was made ____ glass. A. from B. in C. of D. by ( ) 3 This is a map___China. A. in B. at C. of D. on ( ) 4 A group___ boys and girls are dancing in the park. A. with B. of C. for D. to 29 ( )1 They are getting ready____ fly____ England____their holiday. A. for; to; to B. to; to; for C. for; for; to D. to; to; to ( ) 2 What did you have ___ breakfast? A. at B. as C. for D. about ( ) 3 They were invited to an important ball ____ the first time ____ their lives. A. for; in B. at; in C. on; for D. in; with

( ) 4 Tom always comes late____school. A. at . B. inside C. to D. for ( ) 5 Mr Smith caught hold___ Bob and said, "This is a good lesson___ you. A. of; for B. for; of C. of; of D. for; for ( ) 6 The shop___ clothes is the right side ___ the street. A. of; at; beside B. for; on; at C. for; on; of D. of; in; of 2. 1-3 C C B

3. 1-4 B B B B 4. 1-6 C A D B A D 5. 1-4 B D B A

6. 1-7 B A B B A C A 7. 1-4 C B B C 8. 1-3 B A A 9. 1-4 A A A A 10. 1-4 B A D C 11. 1-3 A B C 12. 1-4 A A C B 13. 1-3 B D B 14. 1-5 B D A B A 15. 1-4 C D A B 16. 1-4 A A A B

17. 1-4 C B B D 18. 1-4 B B B B 19. 1-4 A B B B 20. 1-5 A A D C D 21. 1-5 D C C A

22. 1-7 B A D B C A A 23. 1-3 D C C

24. 1-6 C A B C A D 25. 1-6 D C A A A B 26. 1-6 A A D B B D 27. 1-3 C A A 28. 1-4 B C C B 29. 1-6 B C A C A C

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