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初中英语语法专项习题1.名词

发布时间:2013-09-20 12:32:46  

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初中英语语法专项习题

一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的词

(一)名词的分类

名词分为普通名词和专有名词,其中普通名词包括可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词可用作单数,也可用作复数。

可数名词包括个体名词(表示一类人或物的个体。如:boy,desk,cat,window)和集体名词(由若干

个体组成的集合体。如:family,class,police)。

不可数名词包括物质名词(表示无法分为个体的实物。如:water,paper,silk,money)和抽象名词(表示性质、行为、状态、感情或其它抽象概念。如:work,happiness,music,difficulty,housework)

专有名词表示个人、地方、机构、组织等。如:Tom,the Great Wall,the Spring Festival,France,the United States)

(二)名词的数

1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种:

(1)一般情况下,在词尾加s.

eg.book——books,dog——dogs,pen——pens,boy——boys

以轻辅音结尾的名词后的s的读音为[s],以浊辅音和元音结尾名词后的s读音为〔z〕。

(2)以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es.

eg.beach——beaches,brush——brushes,bus——buses,box—boxes(es读音为〔iz〕

(3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的名词,先变y为i,再加es.

eg.city——cities,family——families,documentary——documentaries,country——countries,

strawberry——strawberries(ies读音为[iz])

(注:以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s.eg.boys,holidays,days)

(4)以o结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下:

①,.tomato—tomatoes,potato—potatoes, hero—heroes negro ——negroes mongo——mongoesp

②结尾是两个元音字母的加s,eg.zoo—zoos,radio——radios

③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s,eg. piano—pianos

④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s,

eg.photo(photograph)——photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos

⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加 eg.zeros/zeroes

(5)以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时,先把f或fe变为v,再加es.

eg.wife——wives,leaf leaves,half——halves,knife—knives,thief——thieves(res读音为[vz]

(注意:roof的复数为roofs; scarf的复数为scarfs/scarves)

(6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字

eg.man——men,woman——women,policeman——policemen,Englishman——Englishmen,Frenchman——French 1

求实教育内部资料

men, foot——feet, tooth——teeth, child——children,mouse—mice,Ox—Oxen(公牛)

(7)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。

eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish

(8)另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。

eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes,scissors

另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。

eg.an apple tree,five apple trees,a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister

但是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。

eg.two men teachers,three women doctors

②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表示可数名词的数量。

eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils

2.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表示方式如下。

(1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any等词修饰。

eg,much money,a little bread

(2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/…+量词复数十of+不可数名词。 eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water

3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。

eg: fruit水果——fruits表示不同种类的水果;food食物——foods各种食品;fish鱼——fishes鱼的种类;drink饮料、酒——a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布——,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙——sands沙滩; tea茶——a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉——a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁——an orange橘子; glass玻璃——a glass玻璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸——a paper试卷、论文;wood木头——a wood小森林;room空间、余地——a room房间

(三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系)

(1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。

①不是以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s.

eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day

②以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。

eg.teachers’office,students’rooms

③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s.

eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房)

④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s.

eg.Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车)

(2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构

eg.a map Of China,the beginning Of this game,the door Of the room

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求实教育内部资料

(3)特殊形式

①可用’s和of短语表示的名词所有格

eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿)

China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) ②双重所有格

eg.a fiend of my mother’s我妈妈的一个朋友 a picture of Tom’s汤姆的一张图片

练习题

1.

( ) 1 She was very happy. in the maths test.

A. makes a few mistake B. made a few mistakes C. made few mistakes D. makes few mistake

( ) 2 We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please?

A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe ( ) 3 _____are____for cutting things. A. Knife/used B. Knives/used B. C. Knife/using D. Knives/using ( ) 4 What big____ the tiger has! A. tooth B. teeth C. tooths D. toothes

( ) 5 Please remember to give the horse some tree___.

A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave ( ) 6 -Can we have some ___?-Yes, please. A. banana B. oranges C.apple D. pear ( ) 7 On the table there are five____.

A.tomatosB. piece of tomatoes C. tomatoes D. tomato 2

( ) 1 They got much ___ from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C. information D. stories ( ) 2 He gave us____ on how to keep fit.

A.some advices B.someadvice C.an adviceD.a advice ( ) 3 When we saw his face, we knew___ was bad. A. some news B. a news C. the news P. news ( ) 4 What___ lovely weather it is!

3

A. / B. the C. an D. a 3

( ) 1 -Would you like___tea?

-No, thanks. I have drunk two____.

A. any, bottles of orange B. some, bottles of orange C. many, bottles of oranges D. few, bottle of oranges ( ) 2 He is hungry. Give him ___ to eat. A. two breads B. two piece of bread

C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads ( ) 3 It really took him:___ to draw the nice horse. A. sometimes B. hour C. long time D. some time ( ) 4 I would like to have___.

A. two glasses of milk B. two glass of milk I C. two glasses of milks D. two glass of milks ( ) 5 Can you give me ____?

A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D. a cup of tea

( ) 6 Please give me ___ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of

( ) 7 John bought___for himself yesterday.

A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes 4

( ) 1 -How many ____ have you got on your farm? -I've got five.

A. sheeps B. sheep C. pig D. chicken

( ) 2 Some ___ came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies ( ) 3 In the picture there are many____ and two. A. sheep; foxes C. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; fox D. sheep;foxs

( ) 4 A group of______ will visit the museum

求实教育内部资料

tomorrow.

A. Hungarian B. Australian C. JapaneseD. American 5

( ) 1 This table is made of___.

A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass ( ) 2 -What would you like to have for lunch, sir? -I'd like____. !

A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken ( )3 Children should make____for old people in a bus.

A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room 6

( ) 1 Tables are made of___.

A. wood B. some woods C. wooden D. woods

( ) 2 I wonder why ______ are so interested in action (武打片) films.

A. people B. peoples C. the people D. the peoples ( ) 3I have read____ of the young writer. A. works B. work C. this works D. the works 7

( ) 1 Let's meet at 7: 30 outside the gate of___? A. the People's Park B. the Peoples' Park C. the People Park D. People's Park

( ) 2 ___ Chinese people are ___ hard working people.

A. /; a B. We; the C. The; the D. The; a

( ) 3 How were there in the street when the accident happened?

A. policeman B. polices C. police D. peoples 8

( ) 1 If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller____. A. set B. one C. piece D. pair

( ) 2 Last week I bought a TV____. A. pair . B. set C. piece D. block

( ) 3 There is a of wood left on the ground. A. cup B. piece , C. box D. pair 9

( ) 1 There are sixty-seven___ in our school. A. women's teacher B. women teachers B. C. woman teachers D. women teacher ( ) 2 There are five___in our factory. A. woman driver B, women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers

( ) 3 These ____ were sent to the villages to help the

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farmers.

A. women doctor B. women doctors C. woman doctors D. woman doctor 10

( ) 1 They write most of their___ in English. A. business letter B. business letters C. businesses D. businesses letters ( ) 2 We came to a ___ at last .and went in. A. watch shop B. watches shop C. watching shop D. watchs shop

( ) 3 This shop sells apples, bananas and things like these. It's a___.

A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop

( ) 4 She broke a___while she was washing up. A. glass of wine B. glass for wine C. glass wine D. wine glass

( ) 5 I've forgotten both of the____. A. room numbers . B. rooms number C. rooms numbers D. room number 11

1. September 10th is____in China.

A. Teacher's Day B. Teachers'Day C. Teacher Day D. Teachers Day

( ) 2 -Is the broom under ____ desk? -No, it's under____.

A. the teacher's; my B. teacher's; mine C. teacher's; me D. the teacher's; mine ( ) 3 Excuse me, where is the___?

A. men's room B. mens' room C. men's rooms D. men rooms 12

( ) 1 The football under the bed is____.

A. Lily and Lucy B. Lily's and Lucy's C. Lily's and Lucy D. Lily and Lucy's

( ) 2 This is my____dictionary.

A. sister Mary B. sister's C. sister, Mary's D. sister's Mary's

( ) 3 He went to ___ shop to buy a shirt.

A. a tailor B. the tailor C. a tailors D. the tailors' ( ) 4 Joan is____.

A. Mary's and Jack sister B. Mary and Jack's sister C. Mary and Jack sister D. Mary's and Jack's sister 13

求实教育内部资料

( ) 1 In a few____ time, those mountains will be covered with trees.

A. year B. years' C. year's D. years

( ) 2 It's about ___ walk from my house.

A. ten minute B. ten minutes' C. ten minute's D. ten minutes

( ) 3 The post office is a bit far from here. It's about_____.

A. thirty minutes's walk B. thirty minute's walk C. thirty minutes' walk D. thirty minutes walk

( ) 4 Half___ telephone calls are made in English. A. the world B. world C. the world's D. world's 14

( ) 1 ____ face to the south.

A. Windows of the room B. The windows of the room

C. The room's windows D. The windows in room ( ) 2 Please take two___.

A. picture of the park B. pictures of the park C. the pictures of a park D. picture of a park ( ) 3 The workers are repairing____.

A. the roof of the house B. a roof of the house C. roof of the house D. this roof of house 15

( ) 1 Miss Smith is a friend of____.

A. Mary's mother's B. Mary's mother C. mother's of Mary D. Mary mothers ( ) 2 This is a book of ___. A. Tom B. Tom's C. her D. him ( ) 3 The post card is sent by ____.

A. a friend of my father B. a friend of my father's

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C. my father friend D. my father friend's 16

( ) 1 Sydney is a city of___.

A. America B. Germany C. Australia D. Japan ( ) 2 My father likes buying us ___.

A. cars B. flowers C. peasants D. presents ( ) 3 In England, the last name is the ___.

A. full name B. family name C. middle name D. given name

( ) 4 Mr Gao is a teacher. He works in a new____. A. shop B. school C. factory D. hospital 17

( ) 1 My father is a____. He works in a hospital. A. teacher B. doctor C. farmer D. soldier ( ) 2 -Which animal lives only in China? -The____.

A. tiger B. monkey C. panda D. elephant ( ) 3 April come before___and after___. A. March; May B. May; March C. June; May D. March; February ( ) 4 Which of the following is right?

A. China has a large population. B. China has much population.

C. China has many populations. D. China has a great deal of population.

( ) 5 Please do like this. Fold the paper____ and cut along the fold.

A. into pieces B. in half C. on halves D. to half

( ) 6 You played the violin wonderfully. Will you please play another____?

A. one B. game C. programme D. piece

求实教育内部资料

参考答案:

1. 1-7 C C B B B B C

2. 1-4 C B C A

3. 1-7 B C D A D D A

4. 1-4 B A A C

5. 1-3 D A A

6. 1-3 A A D

7. 1-3 A D C

8. 1-3 D B B

9. 1-3 B D B

10. 1-5 B A C D A

11. 1-3 B D A

12. 1-4 D C C B

13. 1-4 B B C C

14. 1-3 B B A

15. 1-3 A B B

16. 1-4 C D B B

17. 1-6 B C B A B D

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