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最新初中英语语法大全

发布时间:2013-09-20 12:32:47  

最新初中英语语法大全

名 词

表示人、事物、地方、现象或抽象概念等的名称的词。

注:1. 2、有普通名词构成的专有名词前要用定冠词“the”,但它不大写。

3、有些不可数名词有时表示为具体的东西时,则变为可数名词,而且以四上也有了变化。eg. beer ----a beer 一杯啤酒, work--- a work 工厂,著作 ,glass---a glass 一个玻璃杯, room空间

---a room一个房间 二、名词的数:表示可以计算数目的人或物称为可数名词。

1、可数名词有单、复数两种形式:可数名词的单数形式要在名词前加 “a或an”;复数形式是在名词后加 “-s或-es”。名词复数形式有规则变化和不规则变化两种,规则变化及其读音可依照下表:

2. 可数名词复数的不规则变化

①改变单数名词中的元音字母:eg. man--men, woman—women, tooth—teeth, foot—feet, goose—geese, mouse--mice ②单复数同形 eg. Chinese-Chinese, deer-deer, fish-fish, sheep-sheep,…

③由man 和woman构成的合成词, 每个名词都要变复数 eg. a man doctor— men doctors, a woman teacher--women teachers 注意: 有些名词表示一种物体具有不可分割的相同的两部分,在使用时只有复数形式eg. trousers, clothes, glasses, shorts,scissors, etc;有些名词从形式上看是复数, 实际上是单数(其后的谓语动词要用单数). eg. maths, phyiscs, politics, news 3. 不可数名词:表示不能计算数目的人或物,称为不可数名词。他们前面不能用a/an,没有复数形式。物质名词和抽象名词都属于不可数名词。不可数名词一般只有单数形式, 但有其特殊用法:

(1)同一个词,变成复数形式, 意义不同。eg. food 食物--- foods 各种食物,time-- times 时代,green ---greens 青菜

(2)有些不可数名词用复数代指具体的事物eg. hope ---hopes 希望 hardship --- hardships 艰苦

(3)物质名词在表示数量时,常用某个量词+of来表示 eg. a cup of tea, seven pieces of bread, several bags of rice, …

三、名词的所有格

名词的所有格是表示名词之间的所有关系,有两种表示形式, 一种是在名词后+’s;另一种是用of, 表示 “……的”。

1. (1) 一般词的所有格, 直接在词尾 +’s。 eg. Mr. Mott’s robot, children’s clothes

(2) 以s结尾的名词所有格只在词尾 +’ eg. teachers’ books

(3) 两人共有的物体, 则在第二个名词后+’s; 如果分别是两人所有, 则在每个名词后面+’s。

eg. Lucy and Lily’s room. (指两人共住一个房间) Mrs Green’s and Mrs Brown’s son. (指两人各自的儿子)

(4) 表示某具体场所时, 所有格后面的名词可省略 eg. the doctor’s (office) Mr. White’s

2.(1) 没有生命的事物一般用of 短语来表示所属关系。 eg. the wall of the classroom,a picture of the bedroom,

(2) 名词的的定语较长时,有生命的事物也可用of短语表示。 eg. a long story of a 50-year-old man

(3)双重所有格 eg. a friend of his, the big nose of Tom’s

(4)有些表示时间、距离、国家、城市等无生命的东西的名词,也可以加’s来构成所有格。

eg. ten minutes’ walk, today’s newspaper

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. They got much _____ from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C. news D. stories

解析: much 是用来修饰不可数名词的, A B D三个选项均是可是名词的复数形式, C项为不可数名词, 因此选C.

2. I have two _______ and three bottles of _________ here.

A. orange, orange B. oranges, oranges C. oranges, orange D. orange, oranges

解析: orange 有两种含义, 一种可数名词橘子, 另一种是不可数名词橘汁, 此题第一空应填可数名词, 第二空填不可数名词,

3. Every evening M r. King takes a _________ to his home .

A. 25 minutes’ walk B. 25 minute’s walk C. 25 minute walk D. 25 minutes walk

解析: 句中的 minute应该用其复数的所有格形式,只+’,而不能+s,因此选A。

4. An old _______ wants to see you. A. people B. person C. the people D. the person

解析: person 与people 都有”人” 的意思, 但用法不同. “一个人”用 “a person”,

“两个人” 用 “two persons”; people 泛指 “人们”是集合名词,表示复数, the people 指 “人民”, a people 指 “一个民族”.

5. Help yourself to __________.

A. chickens and apples B. chickens and apple C. chicken and apple D. chicken and apples 解析: chicken 可用作可数名词指小鸡,用作不可数名词指鸡肉,根据词题意应理解为鸡肉;apple为可数名词, 故应+s,

6. Oh, dear. I forgot the two _________.

A. room’s number B. rooms’ number C. room numbers D. rooms’ numbers

解析: room number 房间号码. room可直接用作定语修饰后面的名词 . 类似的还有my phsics teacher, two bus drivers

7. She has been in Tianjin for ten years. Tianjin has become her second _________. A. family B. house C. home D. room 解析: family指的是家庭或是家庭成员; house指的是房子(住所); room 指的是房间;而home 指的是家, 因此选C.

8. ________ mothers couldn’t go to the meeting, because they have gone to Shanghai .

A. Mary and Peter’s B. Mary and Peter C. Mary’s and Peter D. Mary’s and Peter’s 解析: 此句中 “mothers”是复数,表示两个人各自的母亲,因此应选D。

9. Li Lei has been to __________ many times this month. A. her uncle B. her uncle’s C. her uncles D. aunt’s 解析: 此句意为 “李雷这个去她舅舅家多次”. 表示具体场所时, 可省去所有格后面的名词.

10. He is a success as a leader but he hasn’t ________ in teaching.

A. many experiences B. much experience C. an experience D. a lot experience 解析: experience 作 “经验” 讲时是不可数名词, 作 “经历”讲时是可数名词.

11. A classmate of _________ was here ten minutes ago. A. you B. your C. your sister D. your sister’s 解析: 此题考查名词的双重所有格.应选D。

12. A group of _________ are talking with two ___________.

A. Frenchmen, Germans B. Germans ,Frenchmans C. Frenchmans , Germen D. Germen , Frenchmen 解析: Frenchman 是复合词,其复数形式为 Frenchmen; German 的复数为直接在单词末尾+S, 应选A.

13.The team ________ having a meeting . A. is B. are C. am D. be

解析: team 是一个集合名词,即可表示复数意义(指整个小组) , 也可指小组中的成员(表示复数), 此题意为后者, 因此选B。

14. “Would you like _________?” “________, please.”

A. drink, Three coffees B. a cup of drink, Coffees C. a drink, A coffee D. a drink, Three cups of coffees 解析: drink 和coffee是不可数名词, 可以用…of来表示数量, eg, three cups of coffee, 当前面加a 时,则表示 “一杯”.

15. The Great Wall was made not only by _______, but also the flesh and blood of ________ men.

A.earth and stone, millions of B. earths and stones, millions C. the earth and stone, million of D. the earths and stones, millions 解析:earth 是不可数名词,因此删除B D,数以百万的应为millions of . 因此选A。

练习与巩固:熟能生巧,取得好成绩!

选择最佳答案:

1. Last night, there was a food accident. The _______ were ill, but no _______ were lost.

A. child, lives B. children, life C. children, lives D. child, life

2. ---This is a photo of _________ when they were young.

---OK, how happy they both looked!

A. my father and mother B. my mother and father's C. my mother's and father's D.my father's and my mother

3. The new student is in __________ , Grade Two. A. Class Third B. Third Class C. Class Three D. Three class

4. Today is September 10th. It's __________ Day. Let's go and buy some flowers for our teachers.

A. Teachers B. Teachers' C. the Teachers' D. Teacher's

5. The market isn't far from here. It's only _________ bicycle ride.

A.half an hours' B. half an hour's C. half an hour D. an hour and a half

6. --- What would you like to drink, girls? --- _________, please.

A.Two cup of coffee B. Two cups of coffe C. Two cups of coffee D. Two cups of coffees

7. During Christmas, people get together and sing Christmas songs for _________. A. Fun B. Wishes C. interest D. thanks

8. Some _________ are flying kites near the river. A. child B. boy C. boys D. childs

9. After the exam, we'll have________ holiday. A. two weeks B. two-weeks C. two weeks' D. two week's

10. They are those _________ bags.Please put them on the bus. A. visitor B. visitors C. visitor's D. visitors'

11.--- How many workers are there in your factory? --- There are two ___________.

A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundred of D. hundreds of

12. ---What do you think of the _______ the Moonlight Sonata by Beethoven? --- It sounds really wonderful.

A. subject B. music C. book D. animal

13. There is not enough _________ in the corner for the fridge. A. place B. room C. field D. ground

14. _________ comes from sheep and some people like eating it A. Wool B. Pork C. Mutton D. Milk

15. If you don't take more ________, you'll get fat. A. medicine B. lessons C. photos D. exercise

16. My school is about twenty ________ walk from here. A. minute B. minutes' C. minutes's D. minutes

17. Mum, I have _______ to tell you! A. a good news B. some good news C. some good newes D. much good news

18. Which is the ________ to the post office? A. street B. way C. road D. address

19. I stayed at ________ last Sunday. A. my uncles B. my uncles' C. my uncle's D. my uncle's family

20. Maths ________ not easy to learn. A. are B. is C. am D. were

1-5 CBCBB 6-10 CACCD 11-15 ABBCD 16-20 BBBCB

冠 词

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an )和定冠词 (the)

一、 不定冠词的用法

1)用与可数名词的单数形式前,指人或事物的某一种类:例如: She is a girl. Pass me an apple , please.

2)、指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。例如: A boy is waiting for you We work six days a week.

3). 表示 “一”这个数量,但数的概念没有one 强烈.例如:

We are going to have an English lesson tomorrow. I have a mouth , a nose, two eyes and two ears.

4). 用于某些固定的词组中.例如: a few, a little, a lot of注: 用a 还是an, 要看后面的词读音以辅音开头还是以元音开头.

二、定冠词的用法

1) 特指某(些)人或某(些)物.例如: the photo of the boy

2) 指双方都知道的人或物.例如: -Where are the new books, Jim? - They are on the small table.

3) 指上文提过的人或物.例如: Today he is making a machine. He wants to ride the machine like a bike and fly it like a plane.

4). 用在世界上独一无二的事物前.例如: The sun is bigger than the moon.

5). 用在序数词或形容词最高级前.例如: The first truck is carrying a few baskets. The third one is carrying the fewest of all.

6). 用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前.例如: the Great Wall the North Street Hospital

7). 用在一些习惯用语中.例如: in the morning (afternoon, evening), on the left(right) at the end of

三、不用冠词的情况

1)在专有名词前和不可数名词前。例如:China, Grade Two, Bill Smith, milk

2)名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, some, any 等代词。例如:

The letter is in her pocket.I think the shop is closed at this time of day.

3)复数名词表示一类人或事物时。例如:My father and mother are teachers. I like cakes.

4)在星期、月份、季节、节日前。例如:It is Sunday (Monday, Tuesday, etc.) Today is Mid-Autumn Day. It is cold in winter.

5)在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前。例如:Uncle Wang likes making things.What colour are Mrs Green’s shoes?

6)在三餐饭和球类运动的名称前。例如:He went to school after breakfast. Can you play basketball?

注:在某些固定词组中,如:at home, by bus, go to school 等的名词前不用冠词。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. _______ milk is food. ________ milk in this cup has gone bad.

2. ---Do you like playing _________ football? ---Yes. But I have only _________ basketball.

3. Do you know _______girl on ________another side of ________ lake?

4. There’s ________ “u” and ________ “s” in ________work “use”.

5. She says ________animals cant’s live without __________air, either.

6. His father, who is ________honest man, is teaching in ________ university.

7. Which is heavier, ________elephant or ________ horse?

8. ________ cold wind was blowing from the north.

9. He is always ready to help _________ old and ________ young.

10. ________ Greens are traveling in _________ South China.

11. Although ________ most of us like to drink beer, those who drink ________most are _______ least healthy.

12.Xiaomei saw _________ interesting film last night. ________ film was about _________ kind doctor.

13. You can have _________ second try if you fail _______ first time.

14. Tom went to _________ school as usual, but he didn’t know his father went to ________school for a parent meeting.

15. ________ knowledge begins with _________ practice.

解析:1./, the (milk 是物质名词,一般不用冠词,但后面加上一个定语in the cup 后,使其成为特指,所以需要用定冠词the.)

2. / , the (球类运动前不用the ; 指一个物体要用不定冠词a )

3. the,/, the ( 特指这个女孩用the;名词前已有定语another;)

4. a, an, the (“u” 发音以辅音开头所以用a;“s” 发音以元音开头所以用an; 特指这个单词用the)

5. /,/ (泛指动物所以不用任何冠词; air 不可数名词,其前一般不用冠词)

6. an, the ( honest 发音以元音开头,故用an, 在大学里为in the university)

7. an, a 或the ,the ( 不定冠词a , an 和 定冠词the与名词单数连用表示种类)

8. a (物质名词coffee, food, tea, fog, rain, snow, wind等,在表示 “一种”或 “一场”的意义时,前面要加不定冠词。

9. the, the ( 形容词前加定冠词,表示一类人)

10. The ,/ ( 姓氏的复数前加定冠词the 表示一家人;在华南是in South China)

11. /, the, the ( most当大多数讲时前面不用the;后两空均为形容词的最高级,前面要加the)

12. a, the, a ( 第一空和第三空都指一个事物,第二空是特指前面提到的电影)

13. a, the (a second try 指的是第二次)

14./, the (go to school 去上学, go to the school 去那所学校)

15./,/ (具有单纯意义的物质名词或抽象名词前,一般不用冠词)

练习与巩固:熟能生巧,取得好成绩!

一、在空白处填入a / an 或the。

1. ---Mum, what shall we have for _______dinner? ---Dumplings. ---Oh, what _______ wonderful dinner! I enjoy it very much.

2. _________ PLA was founded on __________August 1st,1927

3. _______ Kings came to us at _________ noon.

4. The scientists from ________ United States live in __________ Ninth Street.

5. The doctor to him, “Take ________ medicine twice ________day. Stay in _________ bed and you’ll be better soon.”

6. September 10th is ____________ Teachers’ Day.

7. Mr Black arrived here on __________ Tuesday morning.

8. There are four seasons in _______year. ________ first season is spring. It is __________ best one of __________ four. 9. Some people have been to _________moon, in _______ spaceship.

10. _______ China is _________ old country with _________ long history

答案:1. /, a 2. the, / 3.the , / 4. the, the 5. the, a, / 6. / 7. / 8. a, the ,the , the 9.the, / 10../,an,/ a 二、选择填空: A. / B. a C. an D. the

1、They are living ______happy life now. 2、______bag on ______desk is mine.

3、There is ______empty box on the table. 4、Do you like ______music of the film “Titanic”? 5、On ______Saturday, I stay in ______bed till 12:00. 6、______Browns have been to China twice.

7、Don’t make any noise in ______class. 8、This is such ______interesting story that you must listen to it. 9、Next week they will go to Australia by ______air. 10、Which is bigger, ______sun or ______moon? Key: 1----5 BDCDA 6----10 DACAD 三、在空白处填入a / an或the。

1. This morning I bought _____ newspaper and _____ magazine. _______ newspaper is in my bag but I don’t know where I put ______ magazine.

2. I saw ______ accident this morning. ______ car crashed into ______ tree. ______ driver of ______ car wasn’t hurt but ______ car was badly damaged.

3. There are two cars parked outside: ______ blue one and _______ grey one. _______ blue one is my neighbour’s; I don’t know who ______ owner of _______ grey one is.

4. My friends live in _______ old house in _______ small village. There is _______ beautiful garden behind _______ house. I would like to have ______ garden like that.

1.a ,a, The the 2.an, a, a, The ,the, the 3. A, a, the the, the 4. an, a, a, the, a

代 词

一、代词的分类英语中常把代词分为人称代词、无主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、连接代词、不定代词和相互代词。

二、代词的用法

1、人称代词:人称代词是指人的代词,有性、数、格的区别。表示“我” “你” “他” “我们” “你们” “他们”。请看下表:

(1)人称代词主格在句中作主语。例如:She is my English teacher.

(2)宾格在句中作宾语。例如:They don’t want me to go there alone. Don’t worry. I can look after her. (3)宾格还可以作宾格。特别是在口语中。例如:--- Who’s that? --- It’s me.

注意:①人称代词we, you, they可以用来表示一般人。You cannot go into the hall with slippers. 不准穿拖鞋进入大厅。

②人称代的主格作表语,一般都在正中的谈话中,表示强调。It was he who took away the necklace. 是他拿走了那条项链。 ③人称代词she可以用指代祖国、大地、月亮、轮船等。

The ship is leaving. She’s on her first trip to Boston. 轮船要起航了。 这时她第一次去波士顿。

We love our country, we hope she’ll be stronger and stronger. 我们热爱我们的祖国,我们希望她越来越强大。

④It作为人称代词时,可以表示天气、距离、时间、环境等。It is about 10 kilometres from here. 离这儿大约有10公里。

⑤It 还可用作形式主语或形式宾语,来代替由不定式,动词的-ing,形式或主语从句构成的真正的主语或宾语, 以避免句子头重脚轻。例如:It is not easy to learn English well. It is good for you taking a walk after supper. I found it difficult to sleep. ⑥英语里当主语是并列的几个人时,人称代词的排列顺序和汉语不同, I 在最后, you 在最前;但是, 当受到批评或时承认错误时正好相反,I 在最前, you在最后。 例如:

You, he and I are all the winners. I, Li lei and you are wrong. We should do more for the project.

2

(1)形容词性物主代词在句中具有形容词的特征。在句中作定语,后面跟名词。

例如:To our surprise, he has passed the exam. (2) 名词性的物主代词具有名词的特征,在句中作主语、表语、宾语。例May I use your bike? Mine is at school. (作主语) Whose glasses are these? They are hers. ( 作表语) My dictionary is lost. Can I use yours? (作宾语) (3) 名词性物主代词可以与of 连用, 作定语。 例如:A friend of ours are waiting for us. 3

(1)反身代词在句中常用宾语,主语或宾语的同位语。例如: Her sister is too young to dress herself. (作宾语) He himself is always making such mistakes. (主语同位语) You’d better ask your wife herself. (宾语同位语)

(2)反身代词可与其他词构成固定搭配,例如:make oneself at home, teach oneself, learn by oneself, help oneself to…,etc 4指示代词可在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。例如:Those are my parents. ( 作主语) Throw it like that. (作表语) The toys little Tom likes are those in the basket. ( 作表语) These pictures are drawn by an old blind man. ( 作定语) 注意:(1)前面刚刚提到过的东西, 常用that, those 表示。 例如:I’m sorry to hear that. ( 2 )下文将要提到的事情, 可用these, this 表示, 起启下的作用。 例如: Tell the children to do like this: knock the stick into the earth first, then tie the tree to it.

5.疑问代词:用来构成特殊疑问句的代词叫疑问代词。常用的有:who, what, which, whose, whom, 在句中常作主语、宾语、定语、表语。

作主语: What make you so happy? 作宾语: Who / Whom is your manager talking with?

在口语中, 作宾语时 who和whom可以通用,但在介词后面只能用whom.例如:About whom they are talking just now? 作定语: Which subject do you like best? 作表语: What’s your mother.

6.相互代词:用于表示相互关系的代词。 常用的有:each other, one another. 相互代词可以作宾语、定语。 例如: We should help each other. The villagers have looked after one another these year. 相互代词后可以加’s,表示所有关系。 例如: We put the presents in each other’s stocking. 7.连接代词: 用来连接宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句的代词叫连接代词。常用的有:what, which, who, whom whose, that例如:I know what he said at the meeting. The problem is who will mend it. Could you tell me which is the way to the post office?

8. 不定代词:不定代词没有确定的对象, 常用的有:all, each, every, both, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some any, no以及由some, no, any, every 构成的复合词。

不定代词通常可以做主语、宾语、表语、定语, 而none及含有some, an every 的合成代词不能做定语,no和every 只能做定语。 代词:many, few, a few修饰可数名词,much, little, a little修饰不可数名词。both, either, neither, each用于指两者,all, any, none,

every, another用于指三者或三者以上。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1、This isn’t ______ pencil case. I left ______ at home.A. my, mine B. me, my C. I, my D. my, myself

2、The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.A. a little B. little C. a few D. few 解析:历年来中考始终将little, a little, few, a few作为一个重要考点,要做好这类题,必须明确几点:(1)little, a little修饰或代替不可数名词;few, a few修饰或代替可数名词复数。(2)few, little 一般表示否定意义;a few, a little表示肯定意义。

3、----- Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?------ ______ OK. I’m free today and tomorrow.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

解析:此类题主要是针对each, every, both, all, either, neither, none等不定代词的考查。Both指两个人或物;all表示三者或三者以上“都”,它们都表示肯定意义,均与of连用,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式,作定语修饰复数名词。all也可代替不可数名词或一个整体,这时谓语动词用单数形式,either指两者只任何一个,表肯定,表示三者或三者以上中的任何一个用any, neither是either的否定形式,表示两者都不是。应选A。

4、The population of China is much large than ______ A、this B.those C.it D.that

解析:在比较级的句型中,经常用that指代前面提到过的不可数名词,用those指代可数名词的复数。 选D。 5 . ------ When shall we meet again? ------ Make it ______day you like. It’s all the same to me.

A. one B.any C.another D.all

解析:any表示任何一个。选B。

6、He said ______ at the meeting and just sat there silently. A. something B. anything C. nothing D. everything 解析:此句的意思是“他在会上一言不发,只是静静地坐在那里。”根据句意,应选C。

------ Do you know the lady ______ is interviewing our headmaster?------ Yes, she is a journalist from CCTV.

A. which B. who C. whom D. Whose 解析:先行词指人且在定语从句中作主语,所以应选B。 练习与巩固:熟能生巧,取得好成绩!

一、用适当的代词填空

Help ______ to some ice cream, girls. He came up with an idea at last, the idea of ______ was very good. Hurry, up, there’s ______ time left. There is hardly ______ in the basket, it’s empty.

Lili and Coco don’t know ______ address. Lili has never been to Coco’s home and Coco has never been to Lily’s home, either. He is ______ a kind friend that ______of us like him. He have two English novels, but he has read ______ of them. I don’t like the color of this jacket. Could you show me ______ one?

You may take ______ of them, they’re both good. Don’t worry. ______ goes well here.

二、选择最佳答案填空:

1. These two books are very interesting. You can choose _________ of them. A. both B. each C. either D. any

2. He had ________milk but_________ bread for breakfast. A. many; few B. much; little C. few; much D. little; many

3. Is there ________you want to say? A. something else B. anything else C. else anything D. else something

4. A: _________ are you going to visit? B: I am going to visit the Palace Museum.

A. Where B. What C. Why D. When

5. One should keep ________ promise. A. one’s own B. every C. himself D. herself

三、完成句子

1、There’s two apples here, you can take ______(任意一个).

2、Lisa has two daughters. ______(没有一个喜欢)traveling.

3、______ (所有的)girls like singing.

4、To say is ______ (一回事), to do is ______ (另一回事).

5、They keep one black cat and ______ (两只黑的).

6、He has ______ (许多) money, but he has ______ (没有) friends.

7、Can she speak French? ______ (只会一点).

8、______ (他们中很少有人) can talk in Chinese.

9、______ (没人) has been reached farther than the moon.

10、We looked at ______ (相互) in great surprise.

Key: 一、1.yourselves 2.his 3.no 4.anything 5.each other’s 6.such,all 7.neither 8.another 9.either 10.everything

二、CBBAA

三、1.either 2.neither 3.all 4.one thing, another thing 5.two black ones 6.a lot of/much, no

7.A little 8.Few of them 9. No one /Nobody 10.each other

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