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初中英语国际标准音标及练习

发布时间:2013-12-03 14:31:23  

初中英语国际标准音标练习

元音 (20个)

单元音

12个 前 元 音(4个) [i:] [i] [e] [?]

后 元 音(5个) [ɑ:] [?:]

[?] [u:] [u]

中 元 音(3个)

[?]

[?:]

[?]

双元音8个

合口双元音(5个) [ei] [?u] [ai] [au] [?i]

集中双元音(3个) [i?] [u?] [??]

辅音 (28个)

清 辅 音(11个) [p] [t] [k] [f] [s] [θ] [?] [t?] [tr] [ts] [h]

浊 辅 音(17个)

[b] [d] [g] [v] [z] [e] [?] [d?] [dr] [dz]

[l] [m]

[n]

[?]

[j]

[w]

[r]

/i:/ bee/bi:/ feet/fi:t/ keep/ki:p/ key/ki:/ team/ti:m/ meet/mi:t/

/i/ it /it/ big/big/ city/siti/ give/giv/ sick/sik/

/e/ get/get/ best/best/ text/tekst/ help/help/

/?/ fat/f?t/ have/h?v/ cat/k?t/ back/b?k/ hat/h?t/

/a:/ laugh/la:f/ glass/gla:s/ half/ha:f/ farm/fa:m/ park/pa:k/

/ ?:/ horse/h?: s/ saw/s?:/ corn/k?:n/ course/k?:s/ salt/s?:t/

/? / dog/d?g/ pot/p?t/ cost/k?st/ what/w?t/ honest/′?nist/

/u:/ food/fu:d/ moon/mu:n/ rule/ru:l/ loose/lu:s/ noon/nu:n/

/u/ book/buk/ put/put/ good/gud/ would/wud/ could/kud/

/ ? / must/m?st/ does/d?z/ money/′m?ni/ ugly/′?gli/ come/k?m/

/?:/ nurse/n?:s/ bird/b?:d/ burn/b?:n/ turn/t?:n/ girl/g?:l/ /? / better/bet?/ never/nev?/ worker/w?:k?/ welcome/welk?m/

/ei/ may/mei/ name/neim/ game/geim/ eight/eit/ age/eid?/

/?u/ no/n?u/ home/h?um/ hope/h?up/ wrote/r?ut/ note/n?ut/ pose/p?uz/

/ai/ eye/ai/ time/taim/ buy/bai/ right/rait/ bike/baik/ kite/kait/

/au/ now/nau/ out/aut/ how/hau/ about/ ?′baut/ south/sauθ/ house/haus/ /?i/ boy/b?i/ toy/t?i/ noise/n?iz/ voice/v?is/ point/p?int/ coin/k?in/

/i?/ ear/i?/ near/ni?/ idea/ai′di?/ hear/hi?/ mere/mi?/ spear/spi?/

/ε?/ air/ε?/ tear/tε?/ care/kε?/ dare/dε?/ fair/fε?/ there/eε?/

/u?/ tour/tu?/ poor/pu?/ sure/?u?/ moor/mu?/(停泊) your/ju?/

/p/ pea/pi:/ pie/pai/ top/t?p/ cap/k?p/ people/pi:pl/ pride/praid/

/b/ bee/bi:/ by/bai/ buy/bai/ black/bl?k/ bear/bε?/

/t/ let/let/ sat/s?t/ feet/fi:t/ team/ti:m/ tide/taid/

/d/ led/led/ sad/s?d/ feed/fi:d/ do/du:/ dear/di?/

/k/ lack/l?k/ take/teik/ clock/kl?k/ class/kla:s/ weekend/′wi:kend/

/g/ big/big/ lag/l?g/ glass/gla:s/ gum/g?m/ good/gud/ guest/gest/

/f/ face/feis/ fast/fa:st/ leaf/li:f/ surf/s?:f/ favorite/′feiv?rit/

/v/ very/′veri/ five/faiv/ fever/′fi:v?/ serve/s?:v/ never/′nev?/

/θ/ bath/ba:θ/(v洗澡) thick/θik/ mouth/mauθ/ breath/breθ/(n呼吸)

thought/θ?:t/ author/′?θ?/ truth/tru:θ/

/e/ the/ e?/ they/eei/ that/e?t/ mother/′m?e?/ thus/ e?s/ then/een/

/s/ face/feis/ mouse/maus/ cakes/keiks/ caps/k?ps/ likes/laiks/ stops/st?ps/

/z/ close/kl?uz/ keys/ki:z/ boys/b?iz/ pens/penz/ halves/ha:vz/

/t?/ catch/k?t?/ cheep/t?i:p/ rich/rit?/ watch/wt?/ child/t?aild/ question/kwest??n/ teach/ti:t?/ challenge/t?lind?/

/d?/ orange/?rid?/ large/la:d?/ juice/d?u:s/ job/d??b/ /tr/ tree/tri:/ try/trai/ true/tru:/ trouble/traubl/ track/tr?k/

/dr/ dry/drai/ dream/dri:m/ dress/dres/ drink/dri?k/ hundred/′h?ndrid/

/?/ she/?i:/ sharp/?a:p/ fish/fi?/ shock/??k/ shoe/?u:/ /?/ pleasure/′ple??/ measure/′me??/ television/′telivi??n/

/ts/ let′s/lets/ sports/sp?:ts/ puts/puts/ writes/raits/ seats/si:ts/

/dz/ hands/h?ndz/ birds/b

?:dz/ friends/freindz/ beds/bedz/ stands/st?ndz/ /h/ he/ hi:/ hard/ha:d/ him/him/ heard/h?:d/ half/ha:f/

/l/ like/laik/ late/leit/ learn/l?:n/ lead/li:d/ light/lait/

/m/ my/mai/ more/m

?:/ seem/si:m/ meat/mi:t/ mind/maind/ men/men/ /n/ nice/nais/ wind/waind/ mind/maind/ rain/rein/ fine/fain/

/?/ sing/si?/ wing/wi?/ ring/ri?/ long/l??/ beautiful/bju:t?fl/

/j/ you/ju:/ few/fju:/ yard/ja:d/ music/′mju:zik/ student/′stju:dnt/ excuse/ik′skju:z/ /w/ work/w?:k/ way/wei/ well/wel/ what/w?t/ twelve/twelv/ twin/twin/

/r/ red/red/ road/r?ud/ write/rait/ wrong/r??/ problem/′pr?bl?m/

音标综合练习 1./i:/ /i/ /e/ /?/

/bit/ /wi:k/ /di:l/ /ri?l/ /kid/ /dig/ /kwik/ /tip/ /zip/ /rid/ /wil/ /fil/ bit week deal real kid dig quick tip zip rid will fill /pet/ /p?k/ /g?p/ /k?g/ /n?g/ /r?m/ /b?tl/ /sed/ /′h?pi/ /ten/ /red/ pet pack gap cap nag ram battle said happy ten red /′setl/ /tr??/ /di′pend/ settle trash depend

2./a:/ / ?:/ / ? / /u:/ /u/

/a:sk/ /ma:sk/ /pa:st/ /fra:ns/ /?d/ /l?:n/ /n?:t/ /p?:z/ /f?ks/ /s?k/ ask mask past France odd lawn naught pause fox sock

/fa:/ /la:d? / /ma:k/ /l?:d/ /t?:/ /st?:m/ /p?t/ /kr?p//θ?t/ /pr?mis/ far large mark Lord torch storm pot crop thought promise /huk/ /lu:s/ /sut/ /tuk/ /mud/ /θru:/ /pul/ /wud/

hook loose soot took mood through pull wood

3./?/ /?/ /?/

/b?z/ /d?l/ /′h?ri/ /g?lf/ /′tr?bl/ /?:n/ /s?:f/ /′t?:n?/ /′beg?/ /t?k/ buss dull hurry gulf trouble earn surf turner begger tuck

/k?:b/ /?:k/ /?′merik / /′s?k?/ /′k?mp?/ /s?′vei/ /p?′veid/ /p?′h?ps/ curb irk America soccer camper survey pervade perhaps /b?:′lesk/ /′m?:d?/ burlesque murder

3./ei/ /?u/ /ai/ /au/ /?i/

/keip/ /greit/ /mein/ /pr?p?uz/ /′m?u??n/ /st?un/ /′?uv?/ /sait/

kape great main propose motion stone over sight

/raim/ /daut/ /′taipist/ /aust/ /m?ist/ /′?ist?/

rhyme doubt typist oust moist oyster 4./i?/ /??/ /u?/

/vi?/ /?′f??/ /d??/ /sk??/ /bu?n/ /gu?d/ /′ru?r?l/ /?′pi?/ /k?l?mbi?/

veer affair dare scare bourn gourd rural appear Colombia

1.关于语音的几个概念

1)字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u, 2)音标:词的语音形式。

3)音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。

4)音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple, stu'dent, tea'cher, un'der'stand

5)元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。

6)辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。 7)开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike ;b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi 8)闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it 9)重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。

2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标) 1)[i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling 2)[i] sit, build, miss, myth 3)[e] bed, desk, head,

4)[?] bad, land, bank, stamp

5)[a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt 6)[?] hot, want

7)[ ?:] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught 8)[u:] good, who, blue, soup, 9)[u] look, put, women, could 10)[Λ] cup, come, blood, rough

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11)[?:] girl, work, serve, nurse

12)[?] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday 13)[ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,

14)[ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye 15)[?u] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow 16)[au] house, town 17)[?i] boy, oil

18)[i?] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce, 19)[ε?] pear, care, there, fair 20)[u?] tour, poor, 3. 容易混淆的元音

1)[e] [?] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan; lend land

2)[i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid 3)[e] [ai] bet bite; red write; said side, head, hide

4)[au] [?:] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause 5)[au] [Λ] found fond; gown gone; down don 4. 辅音 1)[p] pen,

2)[b] bed, comb 3)[t] tell,

4)[d], day, played, wanted

5)[k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box 6)[g] big, go, guess, language 7)[m] man

8)[n] nine, knife, autumn

9)[η] bank, uncle, English, sing, 10)[l] land, world 11)[r] read, write,

12)[f] five, cough, laugh 13)[v] voice, of 14)[θ] think, 15)[ e] this, bathe

16)[s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf 17)[z] zoo, close,

18)[∫] sure, she, social, nation 19)[/] pleasure, 20)[h] hot, who, hour 21)[w] wall, what, answer 22)[j] yes

23)[t∫] child, teach, catch 24)[d/] joke, bridge, 25)[ts] boats 26)[dz] goods 27)[tr] tree

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28)[dr] dream

5. 容易混淆的辅音

1)[v] [w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well

2)[s] [θ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math 3)[z] [e] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes

4)[n] [η] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang 6. 读音规则

1)重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)

2)非重读音节

[?] banana, student, today, after, [i] orange, secret, evening, very, Monday

7. 特殊读音

1)音的连读:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all

2)失去爆破:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme

3)音的同化:this year, Would you do it? Can't you see it? 8. 重音 1)单词重音

A)双音节词

a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorry

B)

有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。

a'bout, be'lieve, ad'dress, de'cide, re'port, con'demn, res'pect, com'pare, in'form, dis'cuss, im'press, mis'take, en'force, pre'pare, em'ploy, per'mit, es'cape, pro'duce, ex'claim,trans'late

c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre- 等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。

'record, re'cord; 'insult, in'sult; 'conduct, con'duct; 'present pre'sent; 'content, con'tent d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。

'out'side, 're'tell, 'well-'known, 'un'real, 'fif'teen, 'Chi'nese, 'pre-'war, 'post-'war B)多音节词 a)

一般倒数第三个音节是重音。'difficult, 'communist, 'family, e'conomy, oppor'tunity,de'mocracy. b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。

'carefully, in'definite, 'comfortable, con'ductor, ac'cording, dis'turbance, 'complicated,es'tablishment,

c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。

cour'teous, cal'ligraphy, edi'torial, his'torian, peri'odic, mathe'matics, ex'perience,suf'ficient, i'dentify, trans'lation, re'ligious, curi'osity, pro'tective

d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter'tain, emplo'yee, mountai'neer, Japa'nese, ciga'rette 2)句子重音

A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重

B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。 C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be. D) 实词不重读的特殊情况 a) 实词第二次出现

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He thinks of that as a child thinks. b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰 I met her in the railway station. c) 代替词

Which book do you want? The small one. d) 感叹词中的 what 和how

What a good day it is! How beautiful she is! e) street 在专有名词中 Wangfujing Street. f) this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening E)虚词重读的特殊情况

a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。

Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can. I don't like you. He isn't a worker.

b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。

They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room. c) 介词在句首和句尾。

In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with. d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。 If you wish, I'll visit you. When he comes, I'll tell him. e)反身代词表示强调。

He couldn't come himself.

英语发音连读的规则

连读的条件:相邻的两词在意义上必须密切相关,同属一个意群。连读所构成的音节一般都不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可读得太重,也不可音。(连读符号:~) (1)“辅音+元音”型连读

在同一个意群里,如果相邻两词中的前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这就要将辅音与元音拼起来连读。 I’m~an~English boy. It~is~an~old book.

Let me have~a look~at~it.

Ms Black worked in~an~office last~yesterday. I called~you half~an~hour~ago. Put~it~on, please. Not~at~all.

Please pick~it~up.

(2)“r/re+元音”型连读

如果前一个词是以-r或者-re结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这时的r或re不但要发/r/,而且还要与后面的元音拼起来连读。

They’re my father~and mother. I looked for~it here~and there. There~is a football under~it. There~are some books on the desk.

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Here~is a letter for you.

Here~are four~eggs. But where~is my cup?

Where~are your brother~and sister?

但是,如果一个音节的前后都有字母r,即使后面的词以元音开头,也不能连读。 The black clouds are coming nearer and nearer.(nearer与and不可连读) (3)“辅音+半元音”型连读

英语语音中的/j/和/w/是半元音,如果前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以半元音,特别是/j/开头,此时也要连读。 Thank~you.

Nice to meet~you.

Did~you get there late~again? Would~you like~a cup~of tea? Could~you help me, please? “音的同化”

—常把/d/+/j/读成/dV/,did you听上成了/dIdVu/,would you成了/wudVu/,could you成了/kudVu/。

(4)“元音+元音”型连读如果前一个词以元音结尾,后一个词以元音开头,这两个音往往也要自然而不间断地连读到一起。 I~am Chinese.

He~is very friendly to me.

She wants to study~English.

How~and why did you come here? She can’t carry~it.

It’ll take you three~hours to walk there.

The question is too~easy for him to answer. (5)当短语或从句之间按意群进行停顿时,意群与意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音与元音出现,也不可连读。 Is~it a~hat or a cat?(hat与or之间不可以连读)

There~is~a good book in my desk. (book与in之间不可以连读) Can you speak~English or French? (English与or之间不可以连读)

Shall we meet at~eight or ten tomorrow morning? (meet与 at,eight与or之间不可以连读) She opened the door and walked~in. (door与and之间不可以连读)

失去爆破6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/

失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。

(1)“爆破音+爆破音”型

6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。

The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now. The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people. Wha(t) time does he get up every morning? This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) c

ar. The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.

We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.

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What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?

It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day. You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden. I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.

(2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。 6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。

(1)“爆破音+爆破音”型6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。 The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now. The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people. Wha(t) time does he get up every morning? This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car. The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.

We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday. What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee? It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day. You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden. I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.

(2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。 Goo(d) morning, Mr. Bell. Goo(d) morning, dear.

Uncle Li’s fa(c)tory is qui(te) near to the cinema. I wen(t) there alone a(t) nine las(t) night. -Do you know his bi(ke) number? -Sorry, I don’(t) know. The forty-firs(t) lesson is qui(te) difficult. Goo(d) luck, Lin Tao

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