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初中语法汇总

发布时间:2013-12-04 12:26:05  

1、名词

A)、名词的数

我们知道名词可以分为可数名词和不可数名词,而不可数名词它没有复数形式,但可数名词却有单数和复数之分,复数的构成如下:

1. 一般情况 +s 如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas

2. 以等s, sh, ch, x 等结尾的+es watch-watches box-boxes

3. 以o结尾的词 有生命的+es,无生命的+s tomato-tomatoes photo-photos

4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es baby-babies, family-families,

duty-duties, comedy-comedies,

5. 以f或fe结尾的变f为v再加es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves,

shelf-shelves

6. 单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer鹿子, Chinese, Japanese

7. 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice,

policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen B)名词的格

当我们要表示某人的什么东西或人时,我们就要使用所有格形式。构成如下:

一)单数在后面加’s。如:brother’s, Mike’s, teacher’s

二)复数以s结尾的直接在s后加’,如果不是以s结尾的与单数一样处理。如:

Teachers’ Day教师节, classmates’; Children’s Day六一节, Women’s Day三八节

三)由and并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个’s,但分别拥有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Ben’s room迈克和本的房间(共住一间),Mike’s and Ben’s rooms迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)

2、代词

人称代词 主格 宾格 形容词物主代词 名词性物主代词 反身代词

第一人称 单数 I me my mine myself 复数 we us our ours ourselves 第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself 复数 you you your yours yourselves 第三人称 单数 she her her hers herself he him his his himself it it its its itself 复数 they them their theirs themselves

3、动词

A) 第三人称单数

当动词是第三人称单数时,动词应该像名词的单数变复数那样加s,如下:

一)一般在词后加s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains

二)在s,x,sh,ch后加es。如:watches, washes, wishes, finishes

三)以o结尾加es。如:does, goes

四)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es。如:study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries

五)特殊的有: have-has

B) 现在分词

当我们说某人正在做什么事时,动词要使用分词形式,不能用原形,构成如下:

一)一般在后加ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing

二)以不发音e的结尾的去掉e再加ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having

三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如show –showing, draw-drawing)(即一元一辅且重读)要双写最后的辅音字母再加ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning

四)以ie结尾的变ie为y再加ing。如:tie-tying系 die-dying死 lie-lying C) 过去式

表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态

一)一般在词后加ed。如:looked , played,started

二)结尾是e的动词加d。如:lived,hoped,used

三)一元一辅且重读,双写末尾的辅音字母加ed,如stop-stopped plan-planned

四)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加ed。如:study-studied, hurry-hurried, carry-carried

五)特殊的有:见七年级下册P102 不规则动词表

二、句式

1.陈述句

肯定陈述句 a) This is a book. (be动词)

b) He looks very young. (连系动词)

c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词)

d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词)

e) There’s a computer on my desk. (There be结构)

否定陈述句 a) These aren’t their books. b) They don’t look nice.

c) Kate doesn’t go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can’t find her doll. e) There isn’t a cat here. (=There’s no cat here.)

2. 祈使句

肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Let’s learn English!

c) Come in, please.

否定祈使句a) Don’t be late. b) Don’t hurry.

3. 疑问句

1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad? d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading?

肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes, she is.

否定回答: a) No, he isn’t. b) No, you can’t. c) No, she doesn’t. d) No, they don’t. e) No, she isn’t.

2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 It’s big./ It’s small.

3) 特殊疑问句

① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.

② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies. ③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine.

④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K.

How do we contact you? My e-mail address is ***.

⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club?

⑥ 问时间 What’s the time? (=What time is it?) It’s a quarter to ten a.m.. What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock.

When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:00.

⑦ 问地方 Where’s my backpack? It’s under the table.

⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.

What’s your favourite color? It’s black.

⑨ 问人物 Who’s that? It’s my sister.

Who is the boy in blue? My brother.

Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma.

Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?

⑩ 问东西 What’s this/that (in English)? It’s a pencil case.

What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.

11问姓名 What’s your aunt’s name? Her name is Helen./She’s Helen. What’s your first name? My first name’s Ben.

What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith.

12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.

13 问字母 What letter is it? It’s big D/small f.

14 问价格 How much are these pants? They’re 15 dollars.

15 问电话号码 What’s your phone number? It’s 576-8349.

16 问谓语(动作) What’s he doing? He’s watching TV.

17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I’m a teacher.

What’s your father? He’s a doctor.

三、时态

1、一般现在时 表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态

Be 动词:She’s a worker. Is she a worker? She isn’t a worker.

情态动词:I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? I can’t play the piano. 行为动词:They want to eat some tomatoes. Do they want to eat any tomatoes? They don’t want to eat any tomatoes.

Gina has a nice watch. Does Gina have a nice watch? Gina doesn’t have a watch.

2、现在进行时 表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,结构为“be doing”

I’m playing baseball. Are you playing baseball? I’m not playing baseball. Nancy is writing a letter. Is Nancy writing a letter? Nancy isn’t writing a letter.

They’re listening to the pop music. Are they listening to the pop music? They aren’t listening to the pop music.

3、一般过去时 表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last night, two days ago参见七年级下册P100-P103

4.过去进行时

定义:表示在过去某一时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。(时间状语的范围小且具体,一般用到的动词表示具体行动,动作可延续的)

构成:was/were +doing

提示词:this time yesterday, at that time,from6-8 last night, at 7 last Sunday 及由when 引导的从句。

5.宾语从句的要点

A引导词:a.当宾语从句由陈述句转换过来时,用连词that来引导,that通常可以省略。 b. 当宾语从句由一般疑问句转换过来时,用if来引导

c. 当宾语从句由特殊疑问句转换过来时,由原来的疑问词来引导

B.语序 :在宾语从句中,均用陈述句的语序。

C. 时态:a当主句的时态是一般现在时时,从句用所需的任何一种时态

b.当主句的时态是一般过去时时,从句的时态用过去的某种时态

6.现在完成进行时

(1)定义:过去某一时刻开始一直延续到现在的动作,这一动作可能刚刚开始,也可能仍在继续,并可延续到将来。

(2)构成:have/has been +doing(have/has为助动词)

否定:助动词后+not

疑问:助动词提前

(3)标志词:for a long time all the time

For +一段时间

Since+ 时间点

Since+一段时间+ago

Since+从句

8. 现在完成时

用法:1.表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。

2.某些动词的现在完成时可表示过去某一时刻开始一直延续到现在的动作或状态,和表示延续的时间状语连用,表示持续动作或状态的动词多为延续性动词。

(2)构成:have/has +过去分词(have/has为助动词)

否定:助动词后+not

疑问:助动词提前

(3)标志词:for a long time all the time

For +一段时间

Since+ 时间点

Since+一段时间+ago

Since+从句

So far already never ever just before yet

(4)区分

Have been to +地点:某人曾经去过某地

Have gone to +地点:某人去了某地还没回来

Have been in+ 地点:某人在某地待了多长时间。

反义疑问句

两大原则:

1. 主语时态一致

He will come back in a week, won’t he ?

2. 前肯后否,前否后肯

He is a student, isn’t he ?

There aren’t any trees, are there?

特殊情况:

1. 当陈述句中含有never, few , little , hardly, nothing, nobody, seldom, none ,neither 等具有否定意义的词时,其反义疑问句用肯定形式。 There is nobody in the room, is there?

You have never been to xichang , have you ?

2. 前缀后缀不影响

It is unfair, isn’t it ?

it

This line is moving slowly, isn’t it?

they

Those are jenny’s books, aren’t they?

4.I am??., aren’t I ?

I am a teacher , aren’t I ?

5.人

everyone,everybody

they

No one, nobody , none

Every one is having a meeting, aren’t they ?

(非人称复合词)

Everthing, anything

it

something is in that table, isn’t it?

6.含think 的反义疑问句

A:当主语为第一人称,肯否看主句,反义疑问句主语看从句。

I/we think he is a teacher, isn’t he ?

I don’t think he is a teacher, is he ?

B:主语为其他人称,肯否及反义疑问句主语都看主句。

She thinks he came back last night, doesn’t she?

They thought we went to Beijing, didn’t they?

7.祈使句的反义疑问句,肯定句和否定句都跟will you ?

Don’t cut in line, will you?

Have a nice trip, will you ?

但let’s 开头的祈使句,其反义疑问句用shall we?

Let’s go home, shall we?

主动语态变被动语态时,若主动语态中的宾补是省略to的不定式,变为被动语态时需要把to补上。

一感觉:feel

二听:hear listen to

三使役: let have make

四看:see watch look at notice

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