If there's a sensitive investigation into the flaws of crime
fighters, the man the feds often call in to do the job is William H. Webster. Over the decades, the former FBI and CIA chief has headed numerous high-profile investigations into public agencies, including the Los Angeles Police Department's response to the 1992 Rodney King riots and the FBI's failure to catch Soviet and Russian mole Robert Hanssen.
But the probe into whether the FBI mishandled information about Major Nidal Malik Hasan, who is charged with killing 13 people and wounding 32 at Fort Hood in Texas, could be Webster's trickiest
assignment yet. The Nov. 5 shootings have raised a host of nettlesome issues regarding Hasan and his contacts with Anwar al-Awlaki, a radical cleric in Yemen, and why the FBI decided not to raise the alarm about Hasan even though it had tracked his suspect
communications. In the aftermath of the shootings, critics have
raised questions not only about intelligence-sharing, but also about whether the U.S. Army psychiatrist successfully used the cloak of research as a smoke screen for his personal extremism and, perhaps, murderous intentions.
At the heart of the inquiry is the troublesome revelation that the FBI knew that Hasan, who became more religiously devout after his parents' deaths, corresponded with al- Awlaki, an American-born imam who led a northern Virginia mosque where two of the Sept. 11
hijackers worshipped. After al-Awlaki departed the U.S. in 2002, eventually ending up in Yemen, his sermons and teachings—delivered in English—apparently became a source of inspiration for the Fort Dix six and some of the young men who eventually left the U.S. to join al-Shabaab, the Islamist group in Somalia.
E-mail surveillance turned up as many as 20 messages between al-Awlaki and Hasan, which an FBI-headed Joint Terrorism Task Force in Washington reviewed. At the time, the task force concluded that the correspondence matched Hasan's research into the mind-set of Muslim soldiers who turn on their comrades and was insufficient evidence to launch an investigation. Separately, U.S. Army colleagues at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington have said they raised concerns with supervisors about Hasan, his statements about Islam and whether he was mentally stable or possibly even dangerous. The Army, however, did not share the information with the FBI.
It's not yet clear how wide-ranging Webster's probe will be, and opinions vary on its scope. Bill Burck, a former deputy counsel to
President George W. Bush, said that while Webster's previous probes tended to look for policy lapses or fault, this review may be more difficult. The review could go to the heart of assessing threats posed by radicalized Americans, who have rights that terrorists from outside the country do not. "That presents a very difficult set of questions about how do you balance the traditional law-enforcement approach to deal with those threats—which is typically how we've dealt with those things in the past—with the reality that you're dealing with people that are much harder to deter," Burck says. The FBI has already turned over to the White House a preliminary internal review of the agency's actions before the shootings.
Director Robert Mueller appointed Webster, who headed the FBI from 1978 until 1987 before becoming CIA director, to perform an open-ended, independent review of FBI policies, practices and actions preceding the incident. That will include a review of the initial findings as well as any additional issues that Webster has the discretion to take up.
In a statement, Mueller said Webster would have complete access to necessary information and resources that Webster would coordinate with existing Department of Defense probes. "It is essential to
determine whether there are improvements to our current practices or other authorities that could make us all safer in the future," he said.
1、 According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true about Hasan?
A. He was mentally unstable.
B. He was a psychiatrist in the U.S. Army.
C. He kept in touch with a clergyman in Yemen.
D. He killed 13 people and wounded 32 at Fort Hood.
2、 What can be inferred from the appointment of Webster to
investigate the incident?
A. He headed the FBI and knew it well.
B. The Fort Hood incident is no easy case.
C. Director Robert Mueller had confidence in Webster.
D. He has headed many investigations into public agencies.
3、 It can be inferred from the Fort Hood incident that
A. There was something wrong with Hasan's mentality.
B. The FBI did not have sufficient evidence to start a probe.
C. It could have been stopped if the FBI had taken some measures.
D. The Army did not share with the FBI the information about Hasan.
4、 What does "discretion" mean in Paragraph 6?
A. freedom B. judgment C. responsibility D. ability
5、 Which of the following has made Webster's probe more difficult?
A. It is lacking in evidence on Hasan's motives for the murder.
B. It is an investigation into the FBI policies, practices and actions.
C. It deals with terrorism from Americans which is even harder to stop.
D. It deals with a case related to an imam in Yemen to whom it can do nothing.
Looking back, it was naive to expect Wikipedia's joyride to last forever. Since its inception in 2001, the user-written online encyclopedia has expanded just as everything else online has:
exponentially. Up until about two years ago, Wikipedians were adding, on average, some 2,200 new articles to the project every day. The English version hit the 2 million—article mark in September 2007 and then the 3 million mark in August 2009—surpassing the 600-year-old Chinese Yongle Encyclopedia as the largest collection of general knowledge ever compiled (well, at least according to Wikipedia's entry on itself).
But early in 2007, something strange happened: Wikipedia's growth line flattened. People suddenly became reluctant to create new articles or fix errors or add their kernels of wisdom to existing pages. "When we first noticed it, we thought it was a blip," says Ed Chi, a computer scientist at California's Palo Alto Research Center whose lab has studied Wikipedia extensively. But Wikipedia peaked in March 2007 at about 820,000 contributors; the site hasn't seen as many editors before. "By the middle of 2009, we have realized that this was a real phenomenon," says Chi. "It's no longer growing exponentially. Something very different is happening now."
What stunted Wikipedia's growth? And what does the slump tell us about the long- term viability of such strange and invaluable online experiments? Perhaps the Web has limits after all, particularly when it comes to the phenomenon known as crowd sourcing. Wikipedians—the volunteers who run the site, especially the approximately 1,000 editors who wield the most power over what you see—have been in a self-reflective mood. Not only is Wikipedia slowing, but also new stats suggest that hard-core participants are a pretty homogeneous set—the opposite of the ecumenical wiki ideal. Women, for instance, make up only 13% of contributors. The project's annual conference in Buenos Aires this summer bustled with discussions about the numbers
and how the movement can attract a wider class of participants. At the same time, volunteers have been trying to improve
Wikipedia's trustworthiness, which has been sullied by a few
defamatory hoaxes—most notably, one involving the journalist John Seigenthaler, whose Wikipedia entry falsely stated that he'd been a suspect in the John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy assassinations. They recently instituted a major change, imposing a layer of
editorial control on entries about living people. In the past, only articles on high-profile subjects like Barack Obama were protected from anonymous revisions. Under the new plan, people can freely alter Wikipedia articles on, say, their local officials or company heads—but those changes will become live only once they've been vetted by a Wikipedia administrator. "Few articles on Wikipedia are more
important than those that are about people who are actually walking the earth," says Jay Walsh, a spokesman for the Wikimedia Foundation, the nonprofit that oversees the encyclopedia. "What we want to do is to find ways to be more fair, accurate, and to do better—to be nicer—to those people."
Yet that gets to Wikipedia's central dilemma. Chi's research suggests that the encyclopedia thrives on chaos—that the more freewheeling it is, the better it can attract committed volunteers who keep adding to its corpus. But over the years, as Wikipedia has added layers of control to bolster accuracy and fairness, it has developed a kind of bureaucracy. "It may be that the bureaucracy is inevitable when a project like this becomes sufficiently important," Chi says. But who wants to participate in a project lousy with bureaucrats?
There is a benign explanation for Wikipedia's slackening pace: the site has simply hit the natural limit of knowledge expansion. In its early days, it was easy to add stuff. But once others had entered historical sketches of every American city, taxonomies of all the world's species, bios of every character on The Sopranos and
essentially everything else—well, what more could they expect you to add? So the only stuff left is esoteric, and it attracts fewer
participants because the only editing jobs left are "janitorial"— making sure that articles are well formatted and readable.
Chi thinks something more drastic has occurred: the Web's first major ecosystem collapses. Think of Wikipedia's community of
volunteer editors as a family of bunnies left to roam freely over an abundant green prairie. In early, fat times, their numbers grow geometrically. More bunnies consume more resources, though, and at some point, the prairie becomes depleted, and the population crashes. Instead of prairie grasses, Wikipedia's natural resource is an emotion. "There's the rush of joy that you get the first time you
make an edit to Wikipedia, and you realize that 330 million people are seeing it live," says Sue Gardner, Wikimedia Foundation's
executive director. In Wikipedia's early days, every new addition to the site had a roughly equal chance of surviving editors' scrutiny. Over time, though, a class system emerged; now revisions made by infrequent contributors are much likelier to be undone by 61ite Wikipedians. Chi also notes the rise of wiki-lawyering: for your editors to stick, you've got to learn to cite the complex laws of Wikipedia in arguments with other editors. Together, these changes have created a community not very hospitable to newcomers. Chi says, "People begin to wonder, 'Why should I contribute anymore?'"— and suddenly, like rabbits out of food, Wikipedia's population stops growing.
The foundation has been working to address some of these issues; for example, it is improving the site's antiquated, often
incomprehensible editing interface. But as for the larger issue of trying to attract a more diverse constituency, it has no specific plan—only a goal. "The average Wikipedian is a young man in a wealthy country who's probably a graduate student—somebody who's smart, literate, engaged in the world of ideas, thinking, learning, writing all the time," Gardner says. Those people are invaluable, she notes, but the encyclopedia is missing the voices of people in
developing countries, women and experts in various specialties that have traditionally been divorced from tech. "We're just starting to get our heads around this. It's a genuinely difficult problem,"
Gardner says. "Obviously, Wikipedia is pretty good now. It works. But our challenge is to build a rich, diverse, broad culture of people, which is harder than it looks."
Before Wikipedia, nobody would have believed that an anonymous
band of strangers could create something so useful. So is it crazy to imagine that, given the difficulties it faces, someday the whole
experiment might blow up? "There are some bloggers out there who say, 'Oh, yeah, Wikipedia will be gone in five years,'" Chi says. "I think that's sensational. But our data does suggest its existence in 10 or 15 years may be in question."
Ten years is a long time on the Internet—longer than Wikipedia has even existed. Michael Snow, the foundation's chairman, says he's got a "fair amount of confidence" that Wikipedia will go on. It
remains a precious resource—a completely free journal available to anyone and the model for a mode of online collaboration once hailed as revolutionary. Still, Wikipedia's troubles suggest the limits of Web 2.0—that when an idealized community gets too big, it starts becoming dysfunctional. Just like every other human organization.
6、 Which of the following is TRUE about Wikipedia?
A. It is growing very fast.
B. It is the oldest online encyclopedia.
C. It is an online encyclopedia run by users.
D. It is said to be the second largest encyclopedia.
7、 What does "blip" mean in Paragraph 2?
A. a tricky problem
B. a strange problem
C. a temporary problem
D. an unexpected problem
8、 Which of the following is NOT the factor that impeded
A. There are many other online encyclopedias.
B. The constituency is not as diverse as possible.
C. Some people have spoiled the reputation of Wikipedia.
D. The web is limited in its capability to deal with so many contributors.
9、 What is the situation Wikipedia now faces?
A. Wikipedia's control system is working effectively.
B. Wikipedia is trying to get rid of bureaucracy.
C. Wikipedia is developing healthily.
D. Wikipedia is facing a dilemma.
10、 What can be inferred from the passage?
A. Wikipedia is an accurate and fair system.
B. Wikipedia is a victim of its own success.
C. Wikipedia faces severe competition from other websites.
D. Wikipedia is getting better under the new plan of control.
Even if they produced no other positive result, the attacks on the London Underground have compelled Europeans of all faiths to think with new urgency about the Continent's Muslim minority. Such a
reckoning was long overdue. Some left-wing politicians, like London's mayor, Ken Livingstone, have chosen to emphasize the proximate causes of Muslim anger, focusing on the outrage widely felt in Islamic immigrant communities over the war in Iraq and the Israeli-
Palestinian conflict. But the harsh reality is that the crisis in relations between the European mainstream and the Islamic diaspora has far deeper roots, consoling as it might be to pretend otherwise. Indeed, the news could scarcely be worse. What Europeans are
waking up to is a difficult truth: the immigrants who perform the Continent's menial jobs, and, as is often forgotten, began coming to Europe in the 1950's because European governments and businesses encouraged their mass migration, are profoundly alienated from
European society for reasons that have little to do with the Middle East and everything to do with Europe. This alienation is cultural, historical and above all religious, as much if not more than it is political. Immigrants who were drawn to Europe because of the
Continent's economic success are in rebellion against the cultural, social and even psychological sources of that success.
In a sense, Europe's bad fortune is that Islam is in crisis.
Imagine that Mexican Catholicism was in a similar state, and that a powerful, well-financed minority of anti-modem purists was doing its most successful proselytizing among Mexican immigrants in places like Los Angeles, Phoenix and Chicago, above all among the discontented, underemployed youth of the barrios. The predictable, perhaps even the inevitable, result would be the same sort of estrangement between Hispanics and the American mainstream.
Whatever the roots of the present troubles, what is undeniable is that many immigrant Muslims and their children remain unreconciled to their situation in Europe. Some find their traditional religious values scorned, while others find themselves alienated by the
independence of women, with all its implications for the future of the "traditional" Muslim family. In response, many have turned to the most obscurantist interpretation of the Islamic faith as a salve. At the fringes of the diaspora, some have turned to violence.
So far, at least, neither the carrot nor the stick has worked. Politicians talk of tighter immigration controls. Yet the reality is that a Europe in demographic freefall needs more, not fewer,
immigrants if it is to maintain its prosperity. Tony Blair just
proposed new laws allowing the deportation of radical mullahs and the shutting of mosques and other sites associated with Islamic extremism. But given the sheer size of the Muslim population in England and
throughout the rest of Europe, the security services are always going to be playing catch-up. Working together, and in a much more
favorable political and security context, French and Spanish
authorities have, after more than 20 years, been unable to put an end to the terrorism of the Basque separatist group ETA. And there are at least twice as many Muslims in France as there are Basques in Spain. At the same time, it is difficult to see how the extremists' grievances can ever be placated by conciliatory gestures. It is doubtful that the British government's proposed ban on blasphemy against Islam and other religions will have a demonstrable effect. (What would have happened to Salman Rushdie had such a ban been in
force when "The Satanic Verses" was published?) Meanwhile, the French government has tried to create an "official" state-sanctioned French Islam. This approach may be worth the effort, but the chances of
success are uncertain. It will require the enthusiastic participation of an Islamic religious establishment whose influence over
disaffected youth is unclear. What seems clearer is that European governments have very little time and nowhere near enough knowledge about which members of the Islamic community really are "preachers of hate" and which, however unpalatable their views, are part of the immigrant mainstream.
The multicultural fantasy in Europe—-its eclipse can be seen most poignantly in Holland, that most self-definedly liberal of all
European countries—was that, in due course, assuming that the proper resources were committed and benevolence deployed, Islamic and other immigrants would eventually become liberals. As it's said, they would come to "accept" the values of their new countries. It was never
clear how this vision was supposed to coexist with multiculturalism's other main assumption, which was that group identity should be maintained. But by now that question is largely academic: the
European vision of multiculturalism, in all its simultaneous good will and self-congratulation, is no longer sustainable. And most Europeans know it. What they don't know is what to do next. If the broad-brush anti-Muslim discourse of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front in France or the Vlaams Belang Party in Belgium entered the political mainstream, it would only turn the Islamic diaspora in Europe into the fifth column that, for the moment, it is certainly not. But Europeans can hardly accept an immigrant veto over their own mores, whether those mores involve women's rights or, for that matter, the right to blaspheme, which the Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh so bravely asserted—and died for.
Figuring out how to prevent Europe's multicultural reality from becoming a war of all against all is the challenge that confronts the Continent. It makes all of Europe's other problems, from the economy to the euro to the sclerosis of social democracy, seem trivial by comparison. Unfortunately, unlike those challenges, this one is existential and urgent and has no obvious answers.
11、 According to the passage, which of the following is the major cause for the attacks on the London Underground?
A. The anger among Islamic immigrants over the Iraqi War.
B. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
C. The Islamic alienation from European society.
D. The Islamic diaspora.
12、 According to the passage, which of the following is the major lesson learned from the attacks on the London Underground?
A. The government should propose new laws stopping the Islamic diaspora.
B. The British army should pull out from the Iraqi war.
C. The government should guard against the Islamic bombers.
D. Europeans should draw their attention to the Muslim minority.
13、 The situation of the Muslims in Europe is what the following state except ______.
A. Their own religion is looked down upon.
B. They are satisfied with the economic success.
C. They are alienated in culture, history and religion.
D. The independence of women has an impact on the future of their family.
14、 The following are the measures mentioned in the passage to the solution of the Islamic problems except ______.
A. Tighter immigration laws should be proposed.
B. Tougher measures like the deportation of radical mullahs should be taken.
C. The ban on blasphemy against Islam is proposed.
D. The security of the Middle East should be maintained.
15、 Which of the following is NOT true about multiculturalism in Europe?
A. Multiculturalism might become a war of all against all.
B. Islamic and other immigrants will become liberals in Holland.
C. Group identity should be maintained in multiculturalism.
D. Multiculturalism fails to exist in Europe.
Shelly's snack shop was the name that Brian Egemo of Badger, Iowa, applied to his wife's side of the bed. In 1994 Shelly, who had been a sleepwalker as a child, began sleepwalking again. But this time, her nightly rambles took her to the kitchen for cookies, candies and potato chips, which she would bring back to bed and devour while
still asleep. "In the morning, there would be frosting in my hair and M&M's stuck to my husband's back," she says. Worse yet, she woke up feeling exhausted and sick from all the junk food. After years of this "sleep eating," her nerves were so jangled that she became unglued at the slightest upset. "Someone would knock over the salt shaker and I'd go into orbit," she says. It wasn't until 2001 that Egemo, now 37, found a doctor who could tell her what her problem was
and how to treat it.
Egemo's condition is called sleep-related eating disorder (SRFD), and it's one of two night eating problems that doctors are just
beginning to take seriously. The other is night eating syndrome (NES), in which patients wake multiple times during the night and are unable to fall asleep again unless they eat something. Although the two differ in some important ways—most notably, whether the person is conscious or not—they share many similarities. Both are hybrids of sleep and eating disorders. And both take over the lives of patients, destroying good nutrition, instilling deep shame and often causing depression and weight gain. According to psychiatrist John Winkelman of Harvard Medical School, the two conditions may affect 1 percent of the population— nearly 3 million Americans. "People who suffer from this think they're alone," says Dr. Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania Weight and Eating Disorders Program, who identified both NES and binge eating in the 1950s. "They need to know that it's a real disorder and there are treatments." With psychologist Kelly Allison, Stunkard has written a book called "Overcoming Night Eating Syndrome," due out in early May.
The consequences of night eating disorders are profound. In addition to sabotaging good-quality sleep, both conditions can
seriously undermine attempts to maintain a well-balanced diet. People with SRED occasionally try to eat such bizarre concoctions as
buttered cigarettes or smoothies of egg shells, coffee grounds and soda. But the real problem is that in the middle of the night, no one gets up and fixes healthful salads, fish or vegetables. Instead,
people reach for food that's ready to eat—most often, junk food. "It sets up a vicious cycle, where they feel bloated so they don't want to eat during the day," says Dr. Carlos Schenck of the Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders Center, who identified SRED in 1993. Not surprisingly, night eating often contributes to weight gain. Stunkard has found NES in 6 to 7 percent of people in weight-loss programs and up to 28 percent of those seeking gastric -bypass surgery.
Frustrated patients say their behavior seems totally beyond their control. "I wasn't even hungry," says pediatrician Edward Rosof, 58, of Cherry Hill, N.J., who suffered from NES for 35 years. "It was a craving, like being an alcoholic. Every night I promised myself it was the last time." But even when he tried to resist the impulse, he'd lose the battle after 10 or 15 minutes because he feared that he wouldn't get back to sleep. Other desperate patients have asked spouses to put locks on the refrigerator or even lock the bedroom door at night.
At last, new treatments are helping them unlock those doors. In a pilot study, Stunkard and psychiatrist John O'Reardon have discovered
that the antidepressant Zoloft may help NES patients like Rosof, who's dropped 40 pounds since he started taking it a year ago. And Schneck and Winkelman have found two drug cocktails that appear to help 70 percent of SRED patients. Within two weeks of starting one of them, Shelly Egemo was feeling better. Her good humor is back. Best of all, Shelly's Snack Shop is out of business.
16、 "Rambles" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to ______.
A. eating habits B. sleepwalk C. dreams D. hunger
17、 Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A. Shelly owned a snack shop. B. Shelly was a sleep walker.
C. Shelly suffered from SRED. D. Shelly is recovering now.
18、 What's the biggest difference between SRED and NES?
A. The patients can't fall asleep without eating anything.
B. NES patients are conscious when they are suffering from NES while SRED patients are not.
C. The patients suffer from both sleep and eating disorders.
D. Both may have similar harmful consequences.
19、 The following are the consequences of night eating disorders with the exception of ______.
A. The patients cannot have a good-quality sleep.
B. The patients cannot have a well-balanced diet.
C. The patients are putting on weight.
D. The patients' habits annoy their families.
20、 Which of the following concerning SRED and NES is NOT true according to the passage?
A. Both are psychologically related.
B. They have the same cause but different symptoms.
C. New treatments are offering hope for the diseases.
D. Patients of the diseases are suffering from depression.
此题是推断题。Wikipedia现在所面临的问题正是由于其快速发展而导致的。 Text C
该词出现的前一句说Shelly的夜游症又复发了，紧接着出现了“her nightly rambles took her to the kitchen for cookies, candies and potato