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主谓一致原则

发布时间:2013-12-07 12:25:38  

主谓一致原则

主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致

1. 单数名词(代词),不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数形式,复数名词(代词)作主语,谓语用复数形式。

例如: The desk is Tom’s. 这张桌子是汤姆的。

Some water is in the bottle. 一些水在瓶子里。

The students are playing football on the playground. 这些学生正在操场上踢足球。

2. many a+单数名词作主语,意义虽为“许多”,但谓语要用单数形式。

例如: Many a student has been to Shanghai. 许多学生到过上海。

3. more than one+单数名词作主语,谓语用单数。例如:

More than one student has ever been to Beijing. 不止一个学生曾经去过北京。

4. 表示时间,价格,重量,数目,长度,数学运算等的词或短语作主语时,这些通常作一个整体概念,谓语用单数形式。

例如 Two months is a long holiday. 两个月是一个长假。

Ten miles isn’t a long distance. 1 0英里并不是一段很长的距离。

5. 主语是each/every+单数名词+and(each/every)+单数名词时,谓语动词用单数。 例如:Each boy and each girl has got a seat. 每个男孩和女孩都有一个座位 。 Every man and every woman is at work. 每个男人和女人都在工作。

6. one and a half+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

例如: One and a half hours is enough. 一个半小时足够了。

7. 动词不定式,动名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

例如: To see is to believe 眼见为实。

Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes. 做眼睛保健操对你的眼睛十分有益。

8. a/an+单数名词+or two 作主语,谓语动词用单数。

例如: A student or two has failed the exam. 一两个学生考试不及格。

9. 主语为词组one of , each of, every one of, any one of , none of 等加复数名词或代词,谓语用单数。

如:One of my favorite sports is basketball.

10.somebody,someone,something,anybody,anything,everybody,everyone,everything,nobody,no one,nothing作主语,谓语动词用单数,

例如: Is everyone here today. 今天大家到齐了吗?

Something is wrong with him. 他有毛病。

Nobody was in. 没有人在家。

11. each, either, neither, another, the other 作主语,谓语动词用单数。

Each of them has an English dictionary。每人都有一本英语词典。

Neither answer is correct两个答案都不正确。

12. 以—s 结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义,谓语通常用单数形式,如news, maths, physics等,

例如: No news is good news. 没有消息就是好消息。

Maths is very popular in our class 在我们班数学很受欢迎。

13. people,police等集体名词作主语,谓语动词用复数形式, The police are waiting for the boy.

14. 由both?and?连接两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式

Both his father and his mother are both teachers. 他的爸爸和妈妈都是老师。 15 .“定冠词+姓氏复数形式”表示一家人时,谓语一般用复数。 The Smiths are having dinner.

16. a number of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数;the number of +复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。

A number of famous people were invited to party. 许多名人都被邀请参加这个聚会。

The number of the students is over eight hundred. 我们学校的学生数超过800人。

17. 当kind of,pair of, glass of 等表示确定数量的名词短语修饰主语时,谓语与kind,pair,glass等一致。

例如: This pair of shoes is Tom’s. 这双鞋是汤姆的。

There are two glasses of wather on the table. 桌上有两杯水。

18. the+形容词表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式,表示抽象概念时,用单数形式。例如:

The poor are very happy,but the rich are sad. 穷人很快乐,富人却过得不快乐。 The beautiful lives forever. 美是永存的。

19. 以here,there开关的句子,若主语在两个或两个以上,谓语动词通常与临近的主语一致。

例如: There is a book and three pens on the desk. 桌子上有一本书,三只钢笔。

Here are some books and paper for you. 这是给你的书和纸。

20. or, either?or?,neither?nor?,not only?but also?,not?but?,连接两个名词或代词作主语时,根据就近原则决定谓语动词形式。

例如: Tom or Jack is wrong. 不是汤姆就是杰克错了。

Either this one or that one is ok. 这一个或那一个都行。

21 .当主语部分含有with,together with,along with,as well as,besides,except,but,like等介词或介词短语时,谓语动词由主语的单复数决定。

例如: Mike with his father has been to England. 迈克同他的父亲去过英格兰。 Mike like his brother enjoys playing football 迈克像他的哥哥一样喜欢踢足球。 22 .“lots of/ a lot of/plenty of+ 名词”或“分数/百分数+名词”作主语时,谓语动词取决于名词的数;若是不可数名词,用单数;若名词是复数,则用复数

23. 由and连接的两个单数名词作主语时,一般用复数形式,但and所连接的并列主语是同一个人,事物,或概念时,谓语动词用单数。这两种情况区分如下:a/the+单数名词+and+单数名词,指的是同一个人或物;a/the+单数名词+and+a/the+单数名词,指两个人或物。如 The writer and teacher is coming. 那位作家兼教师来了。(作家和教师指同一个人)

The writer and the teacher are coming. 作家和老师来了。(作家和老师是两个人)

24. family,class,group,team等集体名词作主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式,若指一个具体成员时,谓语动词复数形式。

例如: People here are very friendly. 这儿的人很友好。

His family isn’t large. 他家的人不多。

My family all like watching TV. 我们一家人都喜欢看电视。

25. none 如果指量,动词用单数。若用来指数目,与可数名词连用,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数,none 如果代表不可数名词时谓语动词用单数。 None of the land has become desert.这些土地都没有变成沙漠。

26. all/most/half/two thirds of/the rest of+名词作主语,谓语动词由of后面的名词的数保持一致。

Most of his time is spent on study

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