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现代大学英语 精读1 unit 1

发布时间:2013-12-08 16:43:55  

Another School Year
Theme

Unit 1

Text Analysis
Structure

Detailed Analysis

Text Analysis

Structure

Part I: Story (Para. 1-8 ) ? the writer’s encounter with a student and his failure to convince him that a pharmacy major needs to read great writers. Part II: Argument (Para. 9-14 )

? the two-fold purpose of university education

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part I: Main Idea

? Retell the teacher’s encounter with the student. ? Occasion, student’s appearance & question, what the teacher has in mind and what he says, student’s response ? What is the student’s attitude towards reading Shakespeare and towards the teacher? Find textual evidence. ? What is the teacher’s attitude towards the student? Find textual evidence. ? How does the teacher try to explain to the student the importance of reading literature? ? How do you understand the teacher’s differentiation of the three eight hours and his emphasis on the last third besides work and sleep?

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
It would certify that he had specialized in pharmacy, but it would further certify that he had been exposed to some of the ideas mankind has generated within its history. (para. 2)
To be official proof Put in touch with Concentrate one’s effort in a special activity or field

Paraphrasing: official proof holder The B. S. certificate would be _________that the _______had special knowledge of pharmacy, and it would also be proof that some profound ideas of the past he had been put in touch with_________________________.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
I could have told him ---,but it was fairly obvious he wasn't going to

be around long enough for it to matter. (Para. 4)
to be important or have important effect on sb. /sth. an

to be present in a place; available

Pay attention to the two "it” s. The first is an introductory/anticipatory "it" while the second refers to "whether I told him all this". "For" is used to introduce the performer of the action "to matter".

I didn't actually say all this to him, because I didn't think he would stay at college very long, so it wouldn't be important whether or not he knew what university education was for.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
You will see to it that the cyanide stays out of the aspirin, that the bull doesn’t jump the fence, or that your client doesn’t go to the electric chair as a result of your incompetence. (Para. 5)

take responsibility for You have to __________________ the work you do. If you’re a pharmacist, you should make sure that aspirin is not mixed with poisonous chemicals ______________________________________. As an engineer, you shouldn’t ___________________________________. If get things out of you become a control lawyer, you should make sure an innocent person is not sentenced to death ____________________________________because you lack adequate legal knowledge

and skill _____________________________ to defend your client.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
They will be your income, and may it always suffice. (Para. 5)

Inverted sentence

May: in formal English, “may” is used in a blessing to express a hope or wish. e.g.
May they live long! May our country be prosperous and our people happy. I hope that your income will always be enough. 希望你的收入永远够用。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

“I hope you make a lot of it, ” I told him, “because you’re going to be badly stuck for something to do when you’re not signing checks.” (Para. 8) not to know what to do in a particular situation
In the middle of the speech, he was stuck for words (= he didn't know how to go on).

paying for what you’ve bought by signing checks.

Notice the sarcastic tone of the writer. If you don’t have any goal in life apart from making money to satisfy your desire for material riches, go ahead and make a lot of it. 因为除了签支票购物,你就不会知道怎么打发时间。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part I: Words & Expressions
Words Phrases
Words

certify;enroll;generate;rear;suffice Sentence
Phrases Pattern

be fresh out of/from; point to; be new to the faculty; reach for; specialize in; be around; be exposed to; average out to; more or less be usefully employed; go through; see to; stay out of; do with; preside over; maintain contact with; be out to do ; be stuck for As if + adj/participles/to do/prep. phrase

Sentence Pattern Grammar

Word Study
Word formation

3. certify
v. to confirm formally as true, accurate, or genuine Examples:

n. certification a. certified 有书面证明的, 已证实的

The National Election Council is supposed to certify the results of the election.

全国选举委员会应对选举结果出具证明。
He was certified (as) insane. certified accountant 注册会计师

Word Study
Word formation

4. enroll (BrE enrol)
join a course,school,etc. Example:

enrollment

v. to arrange for yourself or somebody else to officially

The school enrolls approximately 1,000 students.
When he failed the national college entrance exams, he decided to enroll in a private school.

Word Study
10. suffice
v. to meet present needs or requirements Examples:
These rations will suffice until next week.
Fifty dollars will suffice me. Suffice it to say / suffice to say Word formation a. sufficient n. sufficiency

is used at the beginning of a statement to indicate that what you
are saying is obvious, or that you will only give a short explanation 无须多说,只需说…就够了 Suffice it to say that afterwards we never met again... 可以说,此后我们再也没有见过面。

Word Study
The parents exposed their children to classical music at home. ? to subject or allow to be subjected to an action or an influence 使受影响 This film has been exposed. ? to subject (a photographic film, for example) to the ac

tion of light 使曝光

The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve.
毫无保留 ? of)

to make known (sth. discreditable); to reveal (the guilt or wrongdoin

揭发(有损信誉的事);揭露(罪恶或错误的行为)

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part I: Exercises

? Translate the following sentences: 1. 刚从学校毕业,他们遇到了一系列的问题,也有很多机遇。 Fresh out of college, they were exposed to a series of problems as well as plenty of opportunities. 2. 不管学习何种专业,大学生都应该接受人文教育。 College students should have humanistic education, whatever they specialize in. 3. 请确保所有同学都收到了考试延期的通知。 Please see to it that all students have been notified of the delay of the exam.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part I: Exercises

4. 人的财富各有多少,但幸福感都是差不多的。 People may differ greatly in wealth, but their sense of happiness tends to average out. 5. 在大学每天用餐花费平均10元。
Meals at the university average out to about 10 yuan per day.

6. 没有什么语言能表达我的悲伤。 No words will suffice to convey my grief. 7. 卖火柴的小姑娘伸出手去,似乎想要努力抓住火光中慢 慢消逝的祖母。(as if + different patterns) The little match girl reached out her hand, as if trying to/ desperate to / determined to / in an attempt to grab her grandmother fading in the light.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Main Idea

? How does the writer present his argument in the 2nd part? ? Education is an essential part of the purpose of university & the consequence of refusing to be educated ? In order to be educated, one needs to learn from the past (example: MIT) ? Books are an important carrier of the past, and provide people with a variety of lives. ? The mission of university is to educate the students.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

How does the writer present his argument?
Introduction He introduces the topic with his encounter with a student and with two questions: Why should we go to university? Why should we learn literature, arts, philosophy, politics, etc.? Then he proceeds to give evidence to support his view: Evidence A: distinction between technical training and university Evidence B: How to spend the 8 hours of leisure time will decide whether you are capable of penetrating insight, whether you can be democratic, tasteful and above all, whether you can raise a civilized family.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

How does the writer present his argument?
Answer/topic sentence:
… the business of the college is to put you in touch with what the best human minds have thought. Evidence C:

Nobody gets to be a human being unaided, and books can aid us in becoming a civilized human, both in terms of techniques of mankind, and in terms of spiritual resources.
Conclusion

Reiteration and summary: the function of

university and its faculty.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
If you have no time for Shakespeare, for a basic look at philosophy, for the continuity of the fine arts, for that lesson of man’s development we call history—then you have no business being in college. (Para.9)
Paraphrasing: If you don’t want to improve your mind and broaden your horizon by studying a little literature, philosophy, the fine arts and history, you shouldn’t be here at college. 如果你没时间读莎士比亚,没时间读点基础哲学书籍,没时间了解艺术 发展的过程,没时间学点和人类发展息息相关的历史课程—那你就 根本没必要上 什么大学。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

You are on your way to being that new species of mechanized savage, the push-button Neanderthal. (para 9.)
on the point of experiencing or achieving new type of humans who are intellectually simple and not developed and who can only work machines.

an uneducated, ignorant person who can only use / operate machines by pushing the buttons

You will soon become an uneducated, ignorant person who can only work machines and operate mechanical equipment (one who doesn't know anything about literature, music, the fine arts,

culture in general, etc. ).

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
? Our colleges inevitably graduate a number of such life forms, but it cannot be said that they went to college; rather the college went through them— without making contact. (para.9) Paraphrasing: Mechanized savage; push-button Neandethal

?

Our colleges always produce such people who can operate machines but who cannot think. We cannot help that. But we can’t say that these people have received a proper college education. It is more accurate to say that these college years have just passed them by without leaving anything on them. 我们的大学不可避免地会有一些这样的人毕业,但是我们不能说他们接受了大学 教育,我

们只能说他们走了过场——大学教育并没有让他们接触到人文思想。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
No one gets to be a human being unaided. (Para. 10)

Get to be/to do sth.: to reach the point at which you are, feel,know, sth.etc. His absent-mindedness is getting to be a big problem. No one can grow up the help of others. __________________ to be a _____ person without

civilized

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
? There is not time enough in a single lifetime to invent for oneself everything one needs to know in order to be a civilized human. (Para.10)

Paraphrasing: To become a civilized person, you need to know many things ________________, and you cannot find out everything by your life is too short yourself, because___________________.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

The chances are that few, if any, of you will leave your names to be cut into those stones. Yet

any of you who managed to stay awake through part of a high school course in physics, knows more about physics than did many of those great scholars of the past (Para. 11) It is possible that…

Only________, if any, of you will turn out to be great have your names cut into those stones scientists and _______________________________.But if attentive you were _________ enough in your high school physics class, any of you knows more about physics many of those scientists whose names are cut into the than_____________________________________________.
stones

very few

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

If you are too much in a hurry, or too arrogantly proud of your own limitations, to accept as a gift to your humanity some pieces of the minds of Aristotle, or Chaucer, or Einstein, you are neither a developed human nor a useful citizen of a democracy. (Para. 12)
“too… to…” structure
object of the verb “accept”

If you are too _______ to make money, too _______ to see anxious ignorant your limitations, then you couldn’t regard those great people’s minds as a gift to your humanity, and thus you developed human can’t be a _________________.
如果你因为活得匆忙而抽不出时间,或者对自己的局限不以为耻反以为荣, 因

而没有接受亚里士多德、乔叟或爱因斯坦等人的某些思想作为你为人之道的 礼物, 那么你就既不是一个心智发展完全的人,也不是一个民主国家里有用 的公民。

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

… when I say that a university has no real existence and no real purpose except as it succeeds in putting you in touch, both as specialists and as humans, with those human minds your human mind needs to include. (Para. 14)

“except” used as a conjunctive, introducing an adverbial clause

both as specialists and as humans: as persons who have specialized and are trained in a certain subject or skill and as civilized creatures and thinking animals. 要是一所大学不能使你们学生,无论作为专门人才还是普通人,去接触那些你 们的头脑应该有的那些大师们的思想,那么 ,这所大学就没有真正的办学宗 旨 ,也就没有存在的必要了 。(我说的这番话既适用于……)

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Sentence Paraphrase

The faculty, by its very existence, says implicitly: “We have been aided by many people, and by many books, in our attempt to make ourselves some sort of storehouse of human experience.” (Para. 14) Paraphrasing: We need the faculty because these teachers have a lot of human experience to pass on to young students, and they are able to do so because they have been helped by many people and many books in the past.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis

Part II: Words & Expressions
say; acquire Words Words Phrases Phrases
Sentence Pattern

put sb. in touch with; have no business doing; on one's way to; be true of; add to; in essence; in our attempt to do sth.
The c

hances are …

Sentence Pattern
Grammar

Phrases and Expressions
9. The chances are that…:
Examples: The chances are slim that the guest team will win. If you have some one on your mind, let her know. It is possible that…

Chances are you are on hers as well.

cf. There is a chance that I will see him these days. Is there any chance of rain?

To be continued on the next page.

Phrases and Expressions

chance
vi. to come about by chance; occur 偶然发生,出现 vt. to take the risk or hazard of 冒··的危险 ·· ·· Examples: It chanced that the train was late. Although there is still hope, he is not willing to chance it.

Text Analysis

Detailed Analysis
Part II: Exercises

? Translate the following sentences:
1. 我就快完成报告了。 I’m well on my way to completing this report. 2. 父母没有权利阅读孩子的私人邮件。 Parents have no business reading their children’s private mails. 3. 两国在这次峰会上不大可能达成协议。 The chances are that the two countries will not be able to reach an agreement at the summit meeting. 4.一个人幸福与否取决于财富以外的很多其他因素;这个道理放之四海而皆准。 There are many factors in determining whether one’s happy or not other than wealth; this is true of everyone everywhere. 5.本质上,他是个外向的人。 He is in essence an outgoing person.


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