第一篇 词法 三、 形容词、副词
表示人或事物的属性或特征的词叫形容词。形容词修饰名词，一般放在所修饰的名 词之前；若修饰不定代词，则需后置。副词用以修饰动词、形容词和其他副词，还可 修饰全句,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。英语中形容词与副词有原级、比较级、 最高级之分。 形容词、副词比较级、最高级一览表 种类 所有单音节 词和部分双 音节词 变化规则 一般的词后加-er, -est 以e结尾的词后加-r, -st 重读闭音节且末尾只有一 个辅音字母时双写该字母 再加-er、-est 辅音+y的，把y变为i再加er,-est 例 tall-taller-tallest 词
nice-nicer-nicest large-larger-largest big-bigger-biggest
部分多音节 词和所有多 音节词
important-more importantmost important easily-more easily-most easily
good/well -better –best
bad/ill/badly- worse- worst
many/much- more -most little- less -lest
形容词修饰名词，说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常，可将形容词分成性质 形容词和叙述形容词两类，其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词，它有级的变化，可以 用程度副词修饰，在句中可作定语、表语和宾语补足语。例如： Our country is a beautiful country. （作定语） The fish went bad. （作表语） We keep our classroom clean and tidy. （作宾语补足语） 2)叙述形容词只能作表语，所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变 化，也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如： afraid 害怕的。 （错） He is an ill man.（对） The man is ill. （错） She is an afraid girl.（对） The girl is afraid. 这类词还有： well，unwell，ill，faint，afraid，alike，alive，alone， asleep，awake 等。 3）形容词作定语修饰名词时，要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰 something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,形容词要放在 名词后面。 例如： I have something important to tell you. Is there anything interesting in the film.
4） 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly，deadly，lovely， lonely，lively 仍为形容词。如： (错） She sang lovely.（错） He spoke to me very friendly. （对）Her singing was lovely.（对）He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词，也为副词。 daily，weekly，monthly，yearly，early The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily. 5） 用形容词表示类别和整体 a.某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛
指一类人，与谓语动词的复数连接。如：the dead，the living，the rich，the poor，the blind，the hungry The poor are losing hope. b.有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体，与动词的复数连 用。 the British，the English，the French，the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor.
6)多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时，其顺序为：限定词--数词--描绘词-(大小，长短，形状，新旧，颜色) --出处--材料性质，类别--名词。 如： a small round table， a tall gray building， a dirty old brown shirt， a famous German medical school， an expensive Japanese sports car， 限定词+数量词（序数词在前，基数词在后）+性状形容词+大小、 长短、高低等形体。如： those three beautiful large square 新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如： an old brown wood table
副词主要用来修饰动词，形容词，副词或其他结构。 1）副词的位置（1） 在动词之前。（2） 在be动词、助动词之后。（3）有多个助动词 时，副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意：a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾，但宾语过长，副词可以提前，以使句子平衡。如： We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. b. 方式副词well，badly，hard等只放在句尾。如：He speaks English well. 2）副词的排列顺序： （1） 时间，地点副词，小单位的在前，大单位在后。 （2） 方式副词，短的在前，长的在后，并用and或but等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. （3） 多个不同副词排列：程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意：副词very 可以修饰形容词，但不能修饰动词。 改错：(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much. 注意：副词enough要放在形容词的后面，形容词enough放在名词前后都可。如： I don‘t know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat.
3) 副词在句中可作状语,表语和定语。 He studies very hard. （作状语） Life here is full of joy. （作定语） When will you be back? （作表语） 副词按其用途和含义可分为下面五类： （1)时间副词 时间副词通常用来表示动作的时间。常见的时间副词有：now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always等。 例如： He often comes to school late. What are we going to do tomorrow? He is never been to Beijing. （2)地点副词 地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有：here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out等。例如： I met an old friend of mine on my way home. He went upstairs. Put down your name here.
（3)方式副词 方式副词一般都是回答“怎样的？”这类问题的，其中绝大部分都是由一个形容词加 词尾-ly构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。常见的方式副词有： badly, bravely, carefully, proudly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide等。例如： The old man walked home slowly. Please listen to the teacher carefully. The birds are flying high. He runs very fast. （4)程度副词 程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词，有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。常见的程度 副词有：much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, greatly, completely, nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly等。例如： Her pronunciation is very good. She sings quite well. I can hardly agree with you. （5)疑问副词 疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有：how, when, where, why 等。例如： How are you getting along with your studies? Where were you yesterday? Why did you do that?
4)部分常用副词的用法 (1) very, much 这两个副词都可表示“很”，但用法不同。very用来修饰形容词和副词的原级，而much 用来修饰形容词和副词的比较级。例如： She is a very nice girl. I’m feeling much better now. much可以修饰动词，而very则不能。例如： I don’t like the idea much. They did not talk much. (2) too, either 这两个副词都表示“也”，但too用于肯定句，either用于否定句。例如： She can dance, and I can dance, too. I haven’t read the book and my brother hasn’t either. 3) already, yet already一般用于语肯定句，yet一般用于否定句。例如： He has already left. Have you heard from him yet? He hasn’t answered yet. 4) so, neither（nor) so和neither都可用于倒装句， 但so表示肯定，neither(nor)表示否定。 例如： My brother likes football and so do I. My brother doesn’t like dancing and neither do I.
(1) 两个人或事物的比较时（不一定每一方只有一个人或一个事物），用比较 级。 Our teacher is taller than we are. The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class. (2) most 同形容词连用而不用 the,表示 "极,很,非常, 十分"。 It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。 (3) "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..."表示 " 越... 就越..."。 The more you study, the more you know. (4) " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。 It's getting hotter and hotter. (5) 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。 This box is as big as mine. (6) the + 形容词 表示某种人。 He always helps the poor. (7) 形容词和副词最高级用于三个或三个以上的人和物进行比较。 S
hanghai is one of the biggest cities in China.
（8）as + 形容词或副词原级 + as的用法 A.在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you. B.当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词+as ， as + many/much +名词+as.如： This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can.. C.用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时，放在as的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one.Your room is the same size as mine. D.倍数+ as + adj. + as＝倍数+ the+名词 + of This bridge is three times as long as that one.＝This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine.＝Your room is twice the size of mine. E. 为了避免重复，当比较连词前后的主语说的是同一类事物时，后面的主语 要用代词that或those代替。如： They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine. The population of Indian is not so large as that of China.
1 I think Chinese is ＿＿＿ than maths. Ａ. interesting B.more interestingC. most interesting D. the most interesting ［答案］ B. ［析］ 在有than作比较的句子中应用形容词的比较级。 2 - What does Lucy like better, singing or dancing? - Singing. of course. She's known to ＿＿＿ it. A. be good at B. be good for C. be bad at D. be bad for ［答案］ A. ［析］ be good at为固定搭配，意为"擅长作某事"。初中英语中有些这样的固定用法应 记牢，而不能似是而非。如：be good at, be bad at, be poor in, be week in, be fit for 3The Huang He River is one of ＿＿＿ in China. A. The long river B. the longest riverC. the longest rivers D. the longer river ［答案］ C. ［析］ 在one of + 定冠词+最高级之后的名词应用复数形式。 4 The girl was ＿＿＿ afraid ＿＿＿ she threw her bag away. A. so, that B. too, to C. too, that D. enough, to ［答案］ A. ［析］ so…that为"如此怎样以至于如何"，此句意思是：小女孩如此害怕以至于扔下 包跑掉了。而too…to的意思为"如何如何，以至于不能作某事"。但to的后面是动词原形， 而不是从句。
5 It was ＿＿＿ yesterday than today. A. hot B. hoter C. hotter D. the hottest ［答案］ C. ［析］ 用than表达比较的句中应用比较级 。 6 Which subject do you like ＿＿＿ , English Chinese or maths? A. best B. well C. better D. good ［答案］ A. ［析］ 在两者之间应用比较级，而在三者之间或三者以上用最高级。 7 None of the students watched it ＿＿＿ . A. careful enough B. enough carefully C. carefully enough D. enough careful ［答案］ C. ［析］ 首先应判定是选用用来修饰名词的形容词还是用来修饰动词的副词。 这里
是修饰watch这一动词，应选用副词。当enough用来修饰副词或形容词时 应放于被修饰的形容词或副词之后。 8 ＿＿＿ she eats, ＿＿＿ she'll be. A. More…fat B. The more…fatterC. More…the fatter D. The more…the fatter ［答案］ D. ［析］ the+比较级表示"越来越……"本句应译为：她吃得越多，她就会越胖。
9 I don't think English is ＿＿＿ Chinese. A. as important as B. not important as C. not so important D. important as ［答案］ A. ［析］ think+宾语从句时，应采用否定主句的形式，如：中文讲，"我认为你不对"， 英文应为："我不认为你对"。 I don't think you are right. 所以不能选答案B。而C、 D均为不正确的表达法。 10 Miss Gao is a good English teacher. The students in her class ＿＿＿ English. A. are interested in B. are interesting in C. are interested at D. are interesting to ［答案］ A. ［析］ 过去分词常用来修饰人，而现在分词常用来修饰物，如：an interesting book， 实际上过去分词含有被动之意，如：interested 其含意是"被……所吸引，感动"。而 interesting 则为"使人感兴趣的"，如：an interesting man 一个有趣、风趣的人。11 The twins are together most of the time. So they never feel ＿＿＿ . A. alone B. lonely C. happily D. friendly ［答案］ B. ［析］ alone意为"独自的，一个人的"，它只能作表语不能作定语。I am not alone in doing such a thing.而lonely 意为"寂寞的，孤单的"，如：The old man felt lonely. 要体会两个词的区别，如：The old man lived alone, but he didn't feel lonely.
12 What a ＿＿＿ cough! You seem ＿＿＿ ill. A. terrible, terribly B. terribly, terribleC. terrible, terrible D. terribly, terribly ［答案］ A. ［析］ terrible是形容词，而terribly是副词，第一个空是修饰名词的，所以 应填入形容词。第二个空ill是形容词，这里terribly 是用来修饰ill的。 13 The two friends were ＿＿＿ pleased to see each other that they forgot everything. A. so B. too C. very D. much ［答案］ A. ［析］ 这里用的是so…that的固定搭配。 14 Which is ＿＿＿ , Li Lei's box or Han Meimei's box? A. heavy B. heavier C. more heavier D. the heaviest ［答案］ B. ［析］ 两者之间用比较级，三者或以上用最高级。 15 You don't like the same colours and I don't like them, ＿＿＿ . A. too B. also C. either D. neither ［答案］ C. ［析］ 在否定句中也应用either, 而不要用too，因too用于肯定句中。
16 Jim is ＿＿＿ at all his lessons. And I'm sure he'll do very ＿＿＿ in the exams. A. well, good B. good, well C. well, well D. good, good ［答案］ B. ［析］ good为形容词，如：He is good
. 他是个好人。而well作为身体状况的好坏讲时 是形容词，如：He is well为他身体不错，而作为其他意思时为副词，如：He speaks English well. 17 You look ＿＿＿ than before， why? A. more thin B. more thinner C. much more thin D. much thinner ［答案］ D. ［析］ 多音节形容词才用more或most加形容词来表示其比较级或最高级，而thin的比 较级为thinner。 18 Let's go out for supper now. I'm very ＿＿＿ . A. hungry B. angry C. tired D. thirsty ［答案］ A. ［析］ hungry-饿，angry-生气，tired-紧，疲劳，thirsty-口渴。要注意名词的词义。 19 - Can you understand me? - Sorry, I can ＿＿＿ understand you. A. hardly B. almost C. even D. ever ［答案］ A. ［析］ hardly为一否定词，用在句中时应被看作是否定句。在答语中Sorry决定了其意 为"听不明白"，所以只能选 hardly。
20 "＿＿＿ do you write to your penfriend?" "About twice a month." A. How often B. How soon C. How much D. How long ［答案］ A. ［析］ how often用来提问某一动作经多久就要发生一次，也就是提问发生的 频率。how soon是问从现在起还有多久。 21 Changjiang River is ＿＿＿ river in China A. long B. longer C. longest D. the longest ［答案］ D. 22 I'll work ＿＿＿ I can. A. so hardly as B. so hard as C. as hardly as D. as hard as ［答案］ D. ［析］ hard可用作形容词和副词，如：The desk was made of hard wood 又如：It is raining hard。 而 hardly 是副词，其词义是"几乎不"，如： Hardly did I sleep last night. 我昨晚几乎没有睡觉。而且hardly用于句首时 要采用倒装语序。as…as即可以用于肯定句，也可以用于否定句，但so…as 则只能用于否定句中。
23 It is very ＿＿＿ to listen to him. A. interested B. interesting C. interested in D. interest ［答案］ B. ［析］ interest作为名词有两个词义，①兴趣，②银行中所讲的利息。而其 形容词 interesting是"使人感兴趣的"，而interested是"感兴趣的"如：He is interested in English. 24 Things are ＿＿＿ worse than I thought. A. more B. few C. very D. much ［答案］ D. ［析］ 只有much可以修饰比较级。 25 It is one o'clock, but her father hasn't come back ＿＿＿ . A. already B. still C. too D. yet ［答案］ D. ［析］ 完成时的否定句尾要用yet， 而already则用于肯定句。 26 Comrade Chen is ＿＿＿ older than I. A. very B. more C. much D. quite ［答案］ C. ［析］ 只有much可以修饰比较级。可以修饰比较级的词还有much, far, even a little, by far等。
27 She did her homework ＿＿＿ . A. carefully B. careful C. care D. careless ［答案］ A. ［
析］ 这里应填入副词，而careless是由care加less后辍得来的，less意为"没 有"，是否定之意，如：careless-不小心，homeless-无家可归。而carefully为 副词。 28 They can't answer the question in Japanese; we can't answer it, ＿＿ ＿ . A. also B. too C. either D. neither ［答案］ C. 29 - How are your parents? - They are very ＿＿＿ , thank you. A. good B. kind C. well D. happy ［答案］ C. ［析］ 由问句得知其询问的是身体如何，所以well作为身体状况不错时应视为 形容词。 30 Peter runs ＿＿＿ in our class. A. the fast B. faster C. fastest D. most fast ［答案］ C. ［析］ 副词的最高级前可以加定冠词，也可以不加定冠词。
单项填空 1．There are many young trees on C sides of the road. A. every B. each C. both D. all 2．--- It’s so cold today. --- Yes, it’s than it was yesterday. C A. more cold B. more colder C. much colder D. cold 3．Little Tom has D friends, so he often plays alone. A. more B. a little C. many D. few B 4．She isn’t so at maths as you are. A. well B. good C. better D. best 5．Peter writes B of the three. A. better B. best C. good D. well 6．He is C enough to carry the heavy box. A. stronger B. much stronger C. strong D. the strongest 7．I bought B exercise-books with money. A. a few; a few B. a few; a little C. a little; a few D. a little; a little 8．The box is A heavy for the girl carry. A. too; to B. to; too C. so; that D. no; to 9．The ice in the lake is about one meter C . It’s strong enough to skate on. A. long B. high C. thick D. wide
10．Wu Lin ran B faster than the other boys in the sports meeting. A. so B. much C. very D. too A 11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an “A” in her maths test. A. happy B. happily C. angry D. angrily B 12. The smile on my father’s face showed that he was ______ with me. A. sad B. pleased C. angry D. sorry 13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this? C ---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this. A. a better; better than B. a worse; as good as C. a cheaper; as good as D. a more important; good as 14. ---This digital camera is really cheap! B ---The ______ the better. I’m short of money, you see. A. cheap B. cheaper C. expensive D. more expensive A 15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible. A. often B. long C. hard D. soon C 16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more A 17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a man’s first name. A. never B. usually C. often D. sometimes
18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May. ---Right. The government spoke ______ that. D A. highly for B. high of C. well of D. highly of C 19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make. ---We know, Miss Gao
. A. The more; the more B. The fewer; the more C. The more; the fewer D. The less; the less B 20. I have ________ to do today. A. anything important B. something important C. important nothing D. important something D 21.—Which is_________ season in Beijing? —I think it's autumn. A.good B.better C.best D.the best D 22.It is_________today than yesterday.Shall we go swimming this afternoon? A.the hottest B.hot C.hottest D.hotter
用所给单词的适当形式填空 Fortunately 1. My purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. __________ (Fortunate), there was no money in it. widely 2. Mobile phones are _________ (wide) used in most of the cities in China. quickly 3. He put on his coat and went out ________ (quick). 4. She is ______ (good) than Li Ping at swimming. better proud 5. A lot Chinese people are _______ (pride) of Yao Ming, a famous basketball star in NBA. snowy 6. To our surprise, he suddenly returned on a cold ______ (snow) night. politely 7. Allie asked me ______ (polite) to put the things away. 8. It’s snowing hard. You must drive carefully ________(careful). bigger 9. The earth we live on is _______ (big) than the moon. 10. Hainan is a very large island. It’s the second largest ________ (large) island in China.
用适当的形容词或副词填空(首字母已给出) 1. A large number of mouths must be fed in those less eveloped d________ countries. 2. That evening Beethoven played the music for the girl as sual well as u______. amous 3. Hawaii is f_______ its beautiful beaches. ctive 4. He often takes an a______ part in the sports meeting and he can get very good results each time. onderful 5. The performance was so w_______ that everyone gave a long and loud applause(鼓掌). usiest 6. Jiefang Road is the b_____ street in our city. wake 7. She lay a______ for hours thinking over her business. avourite 8. I like ball games very much, but my f_______ sport is playing basketball. azy 9. The boy is too l______ . He doesn’t want to do anything. 10. The dictionary is very u________ . It will help you a lot. seful