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初一规划班 阅读理解技巧

发布时间:2013-12-12 12:28:16  

专项复习——阅读理解与完形填空

一. 阅读理解

清楚难题不畏惧

1、阅读速度慢,时间不够。

2、理解太表面。

3、分析散乱。

4、缺乏对意义全面、深入的理解。

5、词汇量不足。

阅读理解题型介绍:

1. 选择答案型阅读理解

2. 判断正误型阅读理解

3. 完成句子型阅读理解

4. 回答问题型阅读理解

阅读理解解题指导:

1. 客观信息题

所谓“客观信息”,是指在短文中客观存在的事实,客观信息的答案一般都可以在原文中找到。完成客观信息题应注意以下三点:

(1)辨认事实,注意细节

(2)同义转换,着重内涵

(3)把握数据,注意推算

在有关数据推算的试题中,根据短文所提供的数据进行必要的运算时所涉及的数学知识一般都比较简单,关键在于理解原文。

2. 主观判断题

一般来说,这类问题都不可能直接从原文中找到答案,必须根据原文提供的有关信息,进行合理的推理和判断才能回答。完成主观判断题能常应注意以下四点:

(1)运用常识,合理判断

(2)根据情景,进行猜测

(3)利用情景,举一反三

(4)纵观全文,概括大意

3. 细节辨认题

文章的中心思想或主题是通过一系列的事实、细节来说明和支持的,要透彻地理解段落、文章的中心思想,就必须理解文章中的重要事实和细节。只有真正理解了全部细节,才能深刻地领悟大意,理解短文细节分下面三个步骤:

(1)首先找出文章或段落的中心思想。文章的中心思想主要体现在首句和尾句中,

有时在文中的某一句话当中。

(2)寻找重要的事实与细节,不是所有的事实和细节都重要,那些与中心思想有关的事实和细节才重要。

(3)检查已确定的事实与细节,看它们是否支持中心思想。如果这些事实与细节不能支持中心思想,就说明原来所确定的中心思想不明确或者这些事实和细节没有找准。 属于细节类的阅读理解题一般只针对某个特定的细节,题型可以多种多样,没有固定模式。常见的设题方式有:

1.Which of the following is NOT true according to the information in the passage?

2.Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

3. What is the example of... as described in the passage?

4. The author mentions all of the following except...

5. The reason for... is...

6. The author states that...

7. According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc)...

1、直接事实题:

先阅读题干,确定读材料的时候要查找的细节及事实的范围,然后利用略读的手法找出出处。

2、间接事实题:

需结合上下文提供的语境和信息进行简单的概括和判断或计算。

Mr Brown first went to look at the underground - fire when he was seven. "Through the hole(洞)in the earth you could see the orange fire, but you had to look fast because it was so hot," said Mr Brown. In 1898, he saw the fire once more(再一次).

1. Mr Brown first saw the underground - fire ________.

A. at the age of seven B. seven years old

C. in the year of 1898 D. more than(超过)80 years ago

2. Mr Brown said that we had to take a fast look at the fire because ________.

A. it was in the hole B. it was very hot

C. it was orange D. it was harmful

4. 词汇障碍题

在中考阅读题中,考生遇到的最大障碍往往有两个:一是被已认识的单词的某一熟知

含义所误导;二是被完全不认识的单词的意思所阻碍,从而出现理解偏差或理解困难,影响阅读的速度。用上下文去确定词汇的含义。

命题方式有:

1. The underlined word in the ? paragraph refers to / means ________.

2. What does “______” in paragraph... stand for /mean?

3. “______” could best be replaced by which of the following?

4. The expression/phrase “____” means ______.

5) The word “_____” is closest in meaning to _____

在阅读解题时要注意从以下七个方面着手:

(1)根据定义或解释、说明猜测生词的词义

A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases(短语). One is “ to let the cat out of the bag.” It is the same as “to tell a secret”…. Now when someone lets out (泄漏)a secret, he “lets the cat out of the bag.”

John “lets the cat out of the bag” means he ________.

A. makes everyone know a secret B. the woman bought a cat

C. buys a cat in the bag D. sells the cat in the bag

(2)根据并列关系猜测生词的词义

In the northeast of the United States, summer temperatures are very different from winter temperatures. Summer is usually hot, and winter is usually cold. Spring temperatures are warm, and

fall temperatures are cool.

The word “fall” in this passage means ________.

A. drop B. down C. autumn D. spring

(3)根据同义、反义、因果关系,构词法等猜测词义。

Jack thought for a moment and found a way. He began to stamp his foot on the floor, "Bang! Bang! Bang!"

The sound woke his grandma up. The old woman shouted downstairs, "It's twelve o'clock in the night, Jack. Why are you still jumping upstairs?"

The word "stamp" in the story means ______ in Chinese.

A. 盖印 B. 跺 C. 贴邮票 D. 承认

(4)根据生活常识猜测词义

运用逻辑推理能力,自身的生活经验及生活常识。再联系上下文能读懂的部分,可以正确猜出词义。例如:

Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold.

根据句子意思及生活经验,wither表示“枯萎”

(5)根据列举的事例猜测词义

You can take any of the periodicals: “The World of English”“.Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”, or “English Learning”.

从后面列举的例子中,可以猜出periodical是“期刊,杂志”的意思。

(6)根据构词法知识猜测词义

根据学过的构词法知识,知道词根和前缀或后缀的意义,就可猜出由它们组成的新词词义。例如:

The colors of Hawaii in Summer are unforgettable.

利用构词法常识和我们已熟悉的词happy,我们可以知道unhappy就是“不愉快的”意思。

阅读理解解题步骤:

1. 浏览全文,捕捉信息。要求考生通过浏览全文,掌握其大意了解作者的观点和写作意图。

2. 细读思考题,分析信息。通读(浏览全文)短文后,已对文章或段落大意有所了解再读考题,对要捕捉的信息进行分析、推理,这样便可先解答与主题思想有关的问题。

3. 复读全文,抓住细节。带着问题去复读,可缩小复读的范围,更便于捕捉关键的信息。复读时可边读边用铅笔做些标记,把有关的人物、事件、时间、地点、起因(即5W:who, what, when, where, why)划出来。例如:凡逢人物就圈起来,看完一遍,有几个圈就是几个人,一目了然。经过这样的处理,你对文章的内容和细节便清楚了,对其中矛盾的产生、发展和解决心里就会有底了。

4. 解答问题,选定答案。对那些明显的,有把握的题可以断然圈定。遇到不会做的问题可暂时不做,把每个问题阅读完毕,等会做的题已做完,然后再回头做剩下的题目。在做题时,如果遇到困难,再重新查阅。这次重读,要针对问题的要求,抓住重点,一次求得正确答案。

5. 再读全文,核对答案。这是最后一步,也是重要的一步,不能疏忽。这一步骤要用全文的主题思想统率各考题,把我们在阅读和答题时所得到的信息归纳整理一遍后重新再读一遍短文检查答案,看是否前后一致;意义和语言知识是否和原文相符;是否符合逻辑等。发现前后矛盾、遗漏要点等错误,要立即纠正。

要注意的是,改正原来选定的答案,一定要慎之又慎。一定要有充分的理由,才可改前答案。

阅读理解解题技巧分析

一. 事实询问题

此类题型的问题以what、who、which、when、where、how或why等词引导,就文中

某句、某段或某一具体细节设问并要求考生回答:如:

The Internet can show you a lot of jobs all over the world. If you want to find a job on the Internet, use the words “job search”or“employment”to find the websites you need.

( )What does the passage tell you to do first if you want to find a job on the Internet?

A. To type in “job search”to find the websites.

B. To write a good resume.

C. To prepare for an interview

D. To get an English dictionary

这是一道典型的事实询问题,因为它的答案可以直接从文段中找到。根据第二句话,

可以得知A为正确答案。

解这类题的主要方法是:1. 明确题意。2. 寻找答案来源。3. 找准关键词。4. 反复阅

读。

二. 推理判断题

推理判断题:主要对短文的结论、隐含意义、作者的倾向、文章的论调、写作的思路

及目的等进行考查。

解题技巧:找出作者所陈述的细节、事实以及能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词语, 进行符合逻辑的推理。

注意:不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点

(1) It can be inferred from the text that ______.

(2) From the text we know that ______.

(3) The story implies that ______.

(4) The paragraph following the passage will most

probably be ______.

(5) The writers attitude toward…is ______.

One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant,“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches(蟑螂) and two spiders(蜘蛛).”

“What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.

“Well,”replied the man,“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”

The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment, it was ______.

A. very clean

B. just cleaned by the landlord

C. tidy and comfortable

D. dirty and full of insects

做这类题要求考生在阅读同时,抓住文章的主题和细节,分析文章结构,根据上下文

内在联系,挖掘文章的深层含义。其次,对于暗含在文章中的人物的行为动机、事件中的

因果关系及作者未言明的倾向、意图、态度、观点等要进行合乎逻辑的判断、推理、分析,进一步加强理解,抓住实质性的东西。如:

Once there was something wrong with a machine in a factory. The workers could do nothing but turn to a German engineer for help, who drew a line on it and said, “Take off the part where the line is and change it for a new one.”The machine, with a new line on, began running well again. The engineer then asked for $ 30,000 for what he had done. The following were what he wrote on a bill, “The new part only costs one dollar, and knowing where the problem with the machine is costs $ 29,999.”

( )What can you conclude from this passage?

A. the engineer asked for too much money

B. the workers should pay the money

C. the knowledge is worth money

D. the new part could cost more

这篇短文是作者讲的一个故事,那么通过这个故事我们可以判断出什么呢?虽然作者没有言明,但是我们可以断定,发现问题的所在需要智慧和知识,知识是创造价值的源泉,因此此题的正确答案应为C。

三. 数据推算题

此题要求学生就文章提供的数据,以及数据与文中其他信息的关系做简单计算和推断。

Visit Swansea Zoo

Come and see the Indian elephants and the new tigers from America. The bears are waiting to meet you, and the monkeys from China are waiting to throw things at you. The lovely dogs from Australia are waiting to laugh at you, and the giraffes from Zambia are waiting to look down on you.

Tickets Opening time

Grown-ups: $ 3 9:00 am ––– 4:00 pm

Children: Over 12:$2 except Friday

Under 12: Free 10:00 am –– 3:00 pm

( )1. How much does Mr Smith have to pay if he visits the zoo with his sons of fourteen and ten?

A. $2.00 b. $5.00 C. $4.00

( )2. Which of the following is the visiting time? D. $3.00

A. 8:30 am, Wed B. 9:30 am, Fri

C. 3:00 pm, Sun D. 4:00 pm, Tue

做此类题一要抓住有关的数据,二要从众多的信息中找出那些有用的信息,三要抓住一些关键词。实际上,上述两题都可看作数据推算题,一题是算钱,另一题是算时间。 通过阅读我们发现布告中的所有数据都是有用的,那么关键词是:grown-ups, children, over 12, under 12, opening time, except Friday。第一题中Mr Smith是成人,须买3块钱的门

票,他一个14岁的儿子需买2块钱的门票,另一个不满12岁的儿子可免票,所以Mr Smith先生需花5块钱,B是正确答案。第二题C是正确答案。

四. 主旨大意题

此类题型用以考查学生对文章主题或中心思想的领会和理解。

范围一般包括: 短文标题、主题(Title);

大意或段落大意(Main idea)

技巧:剔除细节或论据,找到各段的主题句 (topic sentence)

考查形式:

1)What does the writer mainly tell us?

2)Which of the following can summarize the main idea of this text?

3)Which of the following best expresses the main idea?

4)Which is the subject discussed in the text?

5)The best title for this newspaper article is ___.

You dream each night, even though you may not remember your dreams. While you dream your eyes move and your heart beats faster. Even your brain-wave pattern changes. Some scientists think that dreaming is important for the sake of health. They claim that without dream, people would go crazy.

What does the passage mainly tells?______

A. How people stay healthy

B. How sleep is necessary

C. Why dreams are important

D. When people remember their dreams

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