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学生 初中英语完形填空解题技巧

发布时间:2013-12-12 12:28:18  

初中英语完形填空解题技巧

考察要素:篇章结构、中心思想、推理判断、词语辨析、习惯用法、固定搭配等方面的能力要求,及对所学英语的综合运用能力、快速阅读理解能力及逻辑推理判断能力

完形填空设空以实词为主、虚词为辅,单词为主、短语为辅。动词、名词、形容词、副词、代词等实词通常要占全部小题数的80%以上,而介词、连词、冠词等虚词则相对考得较少。

首先明确解题的步骤:

一: 解题步骤

? 跳读全文,掌握大意。(首句和尾句)

? 瞻前顾后,灵活答题。(运用各种策略)

? 复读全文,核实答案。 A:词汇、语法、惯用法是否合理?

B:句型结构是否完整,搭配是否有误?

C:句子是否流畅?

D:上下行文、前后逻辑关系是否一致?

F:全文是否紧凑,中心突出,浑然一体?

二:解题策略(5个方面着手)

1:词义辨析

例如:When the teacher came into the classroom,our monitor spoke in a loud ____,“Stand up!”

A. sound B. cry C. voice D. shout

… Many people think that more time is spent, more work will be done. So students have to __36__ the whole day doing homework except during the three meals. …

( )36. A. buy B. get C. spend D. take

2:各种词语搭配(形容词与名词搭配;副词与动 词搭 配;介词短语搭配;动词短语搭配;固定短语等)。注意:要区别外形相近而意义不同的搭配。如:look for, look over, look out, look after, look up等

: 因词组而构成的常见的句式:It feels+形容词+不定式。 要区别形不相似而意义相近的搭配。

1) Here’s a fellow who just walked into a bank and helped himself_____so much money.

A. for B. by C. to D. of

2)And video cameras can be used to_____people’s actions at home.

A. keep B. make C. record D. watch

3.语法判定(考察语法知识点)

(1)要注意出现频率较高的词类题,依次为动词、介词、代词、连词、形容词、副词。

选择各类词时,要注意以下几个方面:

a.名词的选择,应联系文章主题及空格前后出现的有关词,注意其性和数的一致 b.动词的选用,要注意词义和惯用搭配,还要区分近义词之间的用法差异及所给词的形式。

c.选择介词,应注意其惯用法,特别是与动词或其他词组成的固定搭配。 d.选择代词,要注意性、数、格是否准确。

e.选择连词,要注意分析前后句或上下文的逻辑关系。

1.通过因果关系猜词 通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。有时文章借助关联词(如because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,of course,therefore等等)表示前因后果。

例如:You shouldn't have blamed him for that,for it wasn't his fault.

2.通过同义词和反义词的关系猜词 通过同义词猜词,一是要看由and或or连接的同义词词组,如happy and gay

二是看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词,

如Man has known something about the planets Venus,Mars,and Jupiter with the help of spaceships.通过反义词猜词,一是看表转折关系的连词或副词,如but,while,however等;二是看与not搭配的或表示否定意义的词语,

如:He is so homely,not at all as handsome as his brother.

4.通过定义或释义关系来推测词义

5.例如:But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time.Then there is a dry period,or drought.

f.选择形容词和副词,要注意词义的区别,用于比较时,还要注意词形变化。

(2)要注意句法题,搞清句子的种类、类型、省略和倒装

a.句子的种类包括陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。一般以考查疑问句、感叹句的词序为多见,其次是祈使句的零时态等。

b.句子的类型有简单句、并列句、复合句和并列复合句。中考考查要点是在复合句里的状语从句、宾语从句和直接/间接引语,也考查简单的定语从句。

c.句子的省略与倒装很少考查,却要看懂,不能引起对文章的曲解。

(3)在语法适用方面,可以用择优法和排除法

a.择优法是把各选项代入短文中,选出在词义上符合要求,且在语法上又没有语病的答案。

b.排除法是在代入选项时如发现选项单词意义不对,或词与词搭配不妥,或存在语法错误,或与上下文有矛盾,则迅速排除不合适的选项,剩下的就是正确答案。 通过句法功能来推测词义 例如:Bananas,oranges,pineapples,coconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas.假如pineapples和coconuts是生词,

通过描述猜词 描述即作者为帮助读者更深更感性地了解某人或某物而对该人或该物作出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。例如:The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole.It is fat and walks in a funny way.Although it cannot fly,it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.

4. 上下文逻辑关系

一般的解题过程是:

(1).通读全文,掌握大意。结合选项初步弄清短文写了些什么内容。

(2).瞻前顾后,分析先行。提示作用的词或句。这些词有时可能是同义词或反义词。

例如:1) Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very ___

A. deep B. high C. cold D. dangerous

2) Mrs O’Neill asked_____questions and she didn’t scold us either.

A. no B. certain C. many D. more

and是一个并列连词;either为副词,用在否定句或否定词后加强语势,由此可以确定所填的词也应是一个否定意义的词,因此答案是A。

3)It has been many years since I was last in London____ I still

remember something that happened during that visit.

A. and B. for C. but D. as

根据句前的many years和句后的still remember答案应选表示转折的连词but.

(3).反复推敲,攻克难关。如果做不出来的话,可能要改变一下思路。如实词多与文章的内容直接相关,虚词多与文章的连贯性或句子结构直接相关,如果从内容上实在看不出要填哪个单词的话,应考虑是否需要填介词、连词等。

eg: 1. ......Li Bin is ______ at Chinese. But he isn’t good at English......

A. well B. fine C. nice D.good

2. ......Idon’t like tomatoes,but he ___①___. He doesn’t like salad, __②___ I do. My father ___③____ broccoli, but my ___④___ doesn’t......

① A. do B. does C. like D.likes

② A. but B. and C. or D.for

③ A.likes B.have C. like D.does

④ A. friendl B. sister C. mother D.uncle

4:文化背景以及生活常识(历史、地理、社会习俗、民族风情等)

(Immediately) the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the_____hospital.

A. animal B. biggest C. plant D. nearest

5:验证答案,修正错误,着重注意这几点:

文章是否顺畅;所填单词是否是最佳单词;所填单词是否有拼写错误。

1、:

(1) Many old people don’t have good ____. They can’t watch TV, but they can listen to music or news over the radio.

A. hearing B. health C. eyesight D. time

(2) Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very, very______.

.A. deep B. high C. cold D. dangerous

2:

Washington was named ___ George Washington, the first president of the United States.

A. by B. for C. as D. after

(3).:

(4).:

三:解题误区

做完形填空时,除了依据所学语言知识和解题技巧外,还应避免几个误区。

1、单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只看局部的词义辨析、搭配和语法结构,试图用语言知识解决所有问题。很多考生一拿到完形填空题就急于选择答案,不认真分析通篇文章。表面上解题速度挺快,但是这种见树不见林的做法只会影响解题的质量的效率。

2、时间安排不当,在几个选项上过分纠缠,追求完美,导致许多本可以做出的题来不及做。正确的做法是由易到难,先做会做的,再考虑不太明白 的。

四:复习建议

1:熟悉语法,培养“完整的句子意识”。

2. 坚持在阅读的基础上锻炼语篇意识和把握整体文段的能力。

3. 关注生活,注意中西文化的差异。

4. 科学选材,有效训练。体裁多样,题材丰富,语言生动地道,具有一定的教育性和趣味性。篇幅长度适中,布空合理,各考点均衡分布。

课堂练习:

(1)利用上下文语境选择。

leaf then large learn ones grow

thick has mean first easy begin

Everybody loves oranges. They are sweet and juicy. They’re in sections, so it is ______ to eat them. Some oranges do not have any seeds. Some have a ______ skin, and some have a thin skin. ?

In New York, on a Friday night, a young artist stood at the gate of a train station. He was playing his _16_. His music was so great that many people put money into his hat. The next day ,the young artist came to the same place, and played the violin as usual.

16. A. piano B. guitar C. violin D. sax

Once a king was walking around a pool with his ministers(大臣). Suddenly, he came up with an idea. He asked, “How many baskets of 41 are there in the pool?” ?. as big as the pool, there is one basket of water?

41. A. fish B. flowers C. water D. apples

(2) 根据文化背景和常识选择。

leaf then large learn ones grow

thick has mean first easy begin

In English, orange ______ both a fruit and a color. We use the name of the fruit for the color.

1.Mr Black is a doctor, he works in the ______.

2.A nurse not only works in the day, but also works during the_______.

3.He is rather busy, so he has _____time to have lunch at home.

4.We have an English test this term, it's very easy, most students can _______this test.

5.The whole class went to the zoo yesterday, they were very tired ________happy.

(3) 单词辨义和固定搭配。

…It costs £3.70 for adults, £2 for children and __43__ for over sixties and school groups. …

( )43. A. little B. few C. less D. fewer

(4) 句子结构和逻辑推理。

… Scientists also 48 that loud, fast music makes people eat faster. In fact, people 49 their food faster when the music gets faster. Some restaurants play fast music during their 50 hours. This gets people to eat faster and leave quickly. Restaurants 51 make spend even less.

( )48. A. think B. hope C. realize

( )49. A. cook B. order C. eat

( )50. A. free B. busy C. happy D. believe D. make D. sad

( )51. A. can B. should C. can’t D. needn’t

When we talked, I discovered(发现) some differences in school life between the US and China. For example, each class lasts fifty minutes in the US. It is a little __44__ than that in China. We usually have forty-five minutes in each class.

44. A. shorter B. longer C. earlier D. Later

My mother often asked me,“What is the most important part of the body?” I thought sound was very important to us as humans,so I said.“My 17 ,Mommy.”

She said,“No.Many people are deaf(聋的)?

17. A. ears B. eyes C. body D. head

(5) 根据句子所缺成分选择。

play activity favorite also and stop

life example happen but new make

…For example, learning can__59____ when you go to a museum. It can ___60.___ happen when you get a job. You learn when you __61.____ a sport or when you take a trip. …

(6)根据上下文语境

How can you think in English? I think the best way is to practice as what a football player does every day. During the ___46___ the football player will pass the ball to his teammates over and over again. So he won’t have to __47___ passing the ball in the game, he will just do it. …

( )46. A. practice B. break C. game D. day

( )47. A. wait for B. think about C. look at D. give up

(7)根据文化背景和常识

I dug a deep hole next to the rock and I dug a small incline (斜坡) up to the rock and the rock 63 down into the hole by itself. …

( )63. A. lay B. dropped C. walked D. ran

(8)根据单词词义和固定搭配

…But that winter the cold weather killed all the worms because he had not 38 them in a warm place. …

( )38. A. caught B. found C. hidden D. Put

When two people are in a conversation, the speaker will only look at the listener from time to time, in order to make sure that the listener does pay attention 48 what he or she is speaking?

48. A. for B. of C. with D. to

In the morning, the king went to visit the pond. To his surprise, the pond was only filled with water! What happened? Yes! Everyone had the same idea 48 that man.

48. A. with B. to C. as D. of

(9)根据句子结构和逻辑推理

…_47 you are in a group of six or more people, we 48 give you a special

guided tour of the centre. But you 49 to arrange(安排)this at the information desk when you 50 . …

( )47.A.When B. If C. Because D. Until

( )48.A. can B. must C. should D. have to

( )49.A.decide B. like C. hope D. need

( )50.A.return B. arrive C. leave D. travel

(10)根据上下文语境

… He bought more worms, which he took good care of. When winter came, he took them inside 40 they would stay warm. Many people bought his worms. …

( )40. A. before B. until C. though D. so

(11)根据文化背景和常识

The students had a look at their workbooks and their __35__ turned red at once.

( )35. A. faces B. noses C. necks D. hands

(12)根据词义与固定搭配

… I’m becoming more and more interested __25__ physics, and have decided that I want to __26__ it at university. I’m going to try to go to __27__ Montreal or Ottawa University, as both __28__ supposed to have good Physics Departments. …

( )25. A. in B. with C. at D. from

( )26. A. make B. discover C. study D. keep

( )27. A. neither B. either C. both D. only

( )28. A. have B. has C. are D. is

(13)根据句子逻辑

… Why do people shake hands __54__ shaking feet? This is because of the fact that a long time ago most people __55__ knives or guns. If some of them decided that they did not want to __56__, they would show their empty hands. __57__ people shook hands so that they could not __58__ knives in their sleeves(袖子). Later on, hand-shaking became a symbol of __59__. …

( )54. A. such as B. as well as C. instead of D. together with

( )55. A. lost B. bought C. caught D. carried

( )56. A. cheat B. fight C. drop D. speak

( )57. A. Perhaps B. Happily C. Carefully D. Luckily

( )58. A. hide B. lift C. pull D. push

( )59. A. success B. victory C. pride D. peace

【例题解析】

1.完形填空:阅读下面短文,选出最佳答案:

“Ring… ring…” the telephone suddenly rang. Sam got up to 1 the call. It was his aunt. “Sam, 2 are you still at home?” she asked surprisingly. Sam 1ooked at the clock. It was already 7:30 a. m. “Oh, my goodness! There’s an important 3 today,” Sam shouted out.

He hurried to wash his face and get 4 . When he was going to leave the house, he 5 that he had not put away his books. He ran quickly to the 6 and put them into the bag. He then went to the bus stop to go to school as 7 as he could. When he got into the classroom, his classmates were 8 writing. “Why are you so 9 ?” asked the teacher . “I’m sorry, sir,” Sam answered, afraid of looking 10 . “It was my clock.. It 11 to wake me up this morning and ....” “Don't say anything about it,” his teacher 12 him. “Don’t try to come late next time!” Sam said yes and walked to his 13 quickly. But when he tried to do the paper, he

could not 14 in a right way. He put his head on the desk and said, “What a 15 day it has been for me!”

1. A. find B. give C. put D. answer

2. A. why B. how C. when D. where

3. A. talk B. party C. exam D. meeting

4. A. tired B. lost C. dressed D. rested

5. A. forgot

6. A. classroom

7. A. carefully

8. A. worried

9. A. 1ate

10. A. down

11. A. happened

12. A. helped

13. A. room

14. A. think

15. A. short B. remembered C. understood D. thought B. desk C. bus D. door B. quietly C. early D. fast B. free C. busy D. careful B. ill C. lonely D. ready B. up C. out D. back B. stopped C. failed D. pointed B. knew C. followed D. stopped B. table C. seat D. teacher B. sit C. turn D. speak B. bad C. happy D. usual

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