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初中英语近义词辨析

发布时间:2013-09-21 09:02:32  

初中英语近义词辨析

中牟县郑庵镇第二初级中学 李素芳

主 要 内 容

1、“问”的方法 2、“保持”与“停留” 3、小心“前方” 4、“喜欢”两兄弟 5、“回答”两姐妹 6、“听”的艺术 7、自从与 1 8、“非常”不同 9、“花费”小议 10、如何“装满” 11、“如此”讲解

ask\ask for
【结伴同行】YOU can ask your father how to get to the book store and then ask him for some money. 【句意品味】你可以问你的父亲如何去那家书店并向他要些 钱。 【用法点拨】ask是“问”的意思,而ask for 是“请求、 向...要...”的意思,常以ask sb for sth的句型出现。 【范例比较】1、Ask that man over there. 2、He is asking that men for help. 【同步检测】根据句意用 ask\askfor的适当形式填空。 1、I want to ____you the way to the hospital. 2、There is something wrong with my computer,so I should ____my uncle ____help. 3、The teacher _____us to do our homework carefully. 4、My mother _____me to go to see my grandmother last week. 5、I can't find the way to my uncle's house,I need to

keep\stay 【结伴同行】Don't keep the patient staying in bed all the time. 【句意品味】别老让病人呆在床上。 【用法点拨】 keep 是及物动词,有“保持、留住”的意思,常 用于表示保留某物或使某人某物处于某种状态;stay 是不及物动 词,表示“停留”(在某地)。 【范例比较】1、The six students must keep their hands behind their backs. 2、They stay at home on Sundays. 【同步检测】根据句意用keep\stay的适当形式填空。 1、Today is Sunday, so I must ____at home to look after my little sister and _____our house clean. 2、We are students, we should ____our classroom clean all the time. 3、The other students must ____their hands behind their backs. 4、____ standing in the sun, and ____ quite.

in front of\in the front of

【结伴同行】There is a car in front of the house and Tom sits in the front of the car with the driver. 【句意品味】房子前面有一辆小汽车,汤姆与司机一起坐在汽 车的前部。 【用法点拨】in front of 表示“在...(某范围之外)的前面”, in the front of则表示“在...(某范围之内)的前面”。 【范例比较】1、Tom is playing with Jim in fornt of the fire. 2、The introduction is always in the fornt of the book. 【同步检测】根据句意用in front of\in the fornt of 的适当形 式填空。 1、The teacher is standing ________ the clsss and there is a big tree ________ the classroom. 2、There is a beautiful cat ________the back door. 3、We always sit_________ the car. 4、A big tree is _________ the old house. 5、The book covers always _________ the books.

enjoy\like
【结伴同行】-Do you like singing? -Yes.And Ialso enjoy listening to songs. 【句意品味】-你喜欢唱歌吗? -是的。我还喜欢听歌。 【用

法点拨】两者均可用作及物动词,都有喜欢之意。只是 like是个普通用词,语气一般;而enjoy着重表示享受...的乐趣。 两者都可跟名词、代词、动名词,而like 后还可用动词不定式。 【范例比较】 1、Tom and his friends like to play in the treehouse. 2、Do you enjoy your work,uncle? 【同步检测】根据句意用 enjoy\like 的适当形式填空。 1、My sister _____ watching TV,but I_____ listening to the radio. 2、My friends _____ to go to the mountions ,but my parents ___ swimming. 3、Do you _____ your new colour pencils? 4、Today is Children's Day.We all______ ourselves

reply\answer
【结伴而行】The reply is not an answer. 【句意品味】回答得不中肯(不称其为答复)。 【用法点拨】两者均可用作动词和名词。answer 是个通俗用词只 针对question要给出的,内容简单的回答,常与ask相呼应;reply指正 式的答复,常用作不及物动词. 【范例比较】1、Ask and answer. 2、Icalled you last night,but there was no reply. 【同步检测】根据句意用 reply\answer的适当形式填空。 1、Our homework is so difficult,Ican't find out the _____ to the questions. 2、I asked liu Ming for some money last week,but there was no _____. 3、I am new here ,I don't know the way to the park ,so I can't _____ your question. 4、An ______ is different from a ______. 5、Can you ______ me where you are from ,please give me your ______ quickly. 6、I wrote you many letters , but there was no______.

listen\hear

【结伴而行】I didn't hear anyone shouting ,because I was listening to the radio then . 【句意品味】我没有听到任何人的叫声,因为我那时正在听收音 机。 【用法点拨】listen是不及物动词,强调“听的动作”,其后若跟 宾语,须有to,即listen to sb.而 hear是及物动词,强调“听的结果”, 常用于句型 hear sbdosth.另外,listen可单独使用, 而hear 却不可以。 【范例比较】1、I like to listen to the pop songs. 2、He can't hear you speaking,because there is something wrong with his ears. 【同步检测】根据句意用 listen\hear 的适当形式填空。 1、_____! Someone is singing in the next room. 2、A:The bell is ringing,_____!Can you ____ it? B:I _____ but I can't _____ anything. 3、The radio says it is going to rain this evening,don't you _____ that? 4、In the class we must _____ to the teacher carefully or you can't _____ anything.

since and for
【相同之处】 两者都可用作介词表示时间,常与完成 时句子连用,两者引导的时间状语不能与终止性的动词的 肯定式连用。 【不同点】since后接时间点,for后接时间段;since表 时间还可用作连词和副词,而for表时间则无此用法。 【举例说明】1、She has been in shanghai since six years ago. 2、He has been a member of the football team for two years. 【同步检测】根据句意用

since的适当形式填空。 1、She has been ill____more than a year. 2、He left here ten years ago and Ihave never heard of him___ 3、It hasn't rained____two months ago. 4、Mr Brown has travelled by train_____about a week. 5、Mary has been home_____eight o'clock today. 6、They have been my friends____I was a child.

quite and very

【相同之处】两种均为程度副词,均可修饰副词和形容词,都 有“非常”的意思。 【不同点】两者与不定冠词连用时的位置不同。即依照“a(n) + very + 形容词+ 中心名词”和“quite + a(n) + 形容词 +中心名词” 或“a(n) + quite + 形容词 + 中心名词”的顺序排列。有时两者可 以通用,在程度上 very 比 quite 重。另外,very 不能直接修饰动 词,而 quite 却可以。 【举例说明】1、I feel quite well. 2、The factry is very large. 3、James is quite a small boy.is a very small boy. 【同步检测】根据句意用quite and very的适当形式填空。 1、I don't____understand you. 2、My hair is not ____the same color as yous. 3、He is____young. 4、I'll give you___a thick book to read. 5、It is a____interesting film.

cost \pay\spend\take
【相同之处】 四个词均表示“花费” 【不同点】 1)cost 的主语一般是“物”,而spend 的主语通常为 “人”。 2) costpay 通常用于花费金钱,而 spend take即可表示 花费金钱也可用于花费时间。 【常用句型】 1)It cost sb. some money. 2)sb. spend some moneyon sthin doing sth. 3)pay for sth for sb. 4)sb. pay some money for sth = sb. spend some money on sth in doing sth = sth costs sb. some money. 5) It takes sb. some time to do sth = sb. spend some time in doing sth. 【注意】take 的主语也可以是某项活动。

小试牛刀
用所给词的适当形式填空。 (cost\spend pay \take)
1)The cap ____ me 50 yuan. 2)I _____ 50 yuan on the cap.____ 50 yuan in buying the cap. 3)Now that you have no money, so I'll ____ for you. 4)He ____ 30 yuan for a pair of pants.___ 30 yuan on a pair of pants.pair of pants ____ him 30 yuan. 5)It ____ me three hours to do my homework every day.__ three hours to do ny homework. 6)To finish this book _____ my sister five years. 7)I will ____ for the meal. 8)This beautiful skirt ____ me two hundred yuan.

fill and full
【启发点拨】这两个词都有“满”的意思,但用法有别: 【词性不同】:fill 是动词,意为“充满、装满”,而full 是 形容词,意为“满的”。 【搭配不同】fill与with 搭配,而full和of搭配。 【注意】be filled with 与be full of同义,但前者强调的是动 作,而后者侧重的是状态。 【例句对比】 1、The cup is filled with hot water. 2、He fillde the hole with sand. 3、The buses in Beijing are always full of passengers. 【学会应用】 根据提示完成句子。 1、His head is ____(装满)strange ideas。 2、The hall at once _____(装满)great joy. 3、

Our school was ____ of students. 4、I____(塞满)my purse _____ money.

so and such
【启发点拨】两者均为“如此”“那么”,含义相同、词性 相同,但用法不一样。 【修饰语不同】 so 修饰副词、形容词,而such 修饰名词。 【结构不同】在修饰单数名词时so +adj+a+单数名词与 such+a+adj+单数名词 可互换。so 修饰副词、形容词,such 修饰名词,均可与that 组成固定搭配,意为“如此......以至 于......". 【例句对比】 1、He is such a handsome boy. 2、He is so handsome a boy. 【热身演练】 根据句意用so\such 的适当形式填空。 1、This is ____ nice a horse. 2、The flowers are ____ beautiful. 3、He runs ____ fast that no one can catch up with him. 4、My brother bought ____ a thick dictionary,he is ___


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