WELCOME TO ENGLISH SCHOOL
二、裁减记忆法 Monday，Tuesday，Wednesday... September，October，November... 三、归类记忆法 帽子：hat，cap等 交通工具：plane，ship，jeep，car，bus， truck 食品名称：cake，apple，bread，milk， egg，orange，banana
四、对比记忆法 thin—thick，come-go，before--after，good- bad
五、构词法记忆 派生：happy--unhappy。 转化：lift (v．)举起——lift (n．)电梯。 合成：class+room=classroom。 六、 一条龙记忆法 child- children- childhood 七、反复记忆法 八、扩大阅读记忆法
active [ '? ktiv ] 看 health [—[ luk ]v. adj.--- 活跃的；积极的 n.——健康 look helθ ] [ 'difr?nt ]adj.——不同 different ]adj.——寒冷的 分析：he——“他”的拼音；al——所有（all） 分析：act——动作；iv——四；e——“鹅” cold [ k?uld 分析：loo---外形像数字100； k--的 的近似拼写；th——“退化”的拼音首字母； 的拼音； 分析：c——“吹”的拼音首字母；old— 外形像机枪 记忆方法：他的健康越来越差，身上所有的器 分析：“第一夫人”的谐音； 记忆方法：这些活跃的动作吓跑了那四只 —老的； 官都已经退化了。 100 把机枪 记忆：我看到 鹅记忆方法：第一夫人果然与众不同 记忆方法：寒冷的风吹得老人直哆嗦。
单词 词组 句子
Present Perfect Tense
Winter has already come,
will it still be far in spring?
Winter has already come.
现在完成时的构成形式 过去 分词
用来表示之前已经发生或完成的动作或状态，而其结果却和 现在有联系: 动作或状态发生在过去,但它的影响现在还存在。
They have left.
I have had my lunch.
也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。 He has learned English since 2001.
Present Perfect Tense
I have We have He has been to Japan. known each other . found his book.
has / have + past participle
Forms of the present perfect
Statement ： have / has + p.p. Negative ： have / has not + p.p.
Question: Have / Has + sub. + p.p ...?
past now 一般过去时
I saw this film yesterday.
I have seen this film.
2）一般过去时 常与具体的表示过去的时间状语连用; 现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用，或无时间状语
一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week，…ago, in1990, in October, just now, … -- 具体的时间状语 现在完成时的时间状语: for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in the past few years, recently, … --模糊的时间状语
句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时， 不能使用现在完成时，要用过去时 （错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. （对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
already (已经): 用于肯定句I have already posted the letter . yet(已经): 用于否定句,疑问句 He hasn’t done his homework yet. just(刚刚) They have just left. ever(曾经) Have you ever been to Beijing ? never(从不) I have never seen him . before(以前) Have you seen the film before? since(自从…以来) I’ve worked in the school since 1999. for(长达) He’s lived in Shenzhen for 6 years.
in the past several days / weeks/ years(在过去的…)
have not written to my parents recently.
so far(到目前为止) So far she has learned 5 English songs. up to now(到目前为止) this morning/month/year(今天早上/这个月/今年)
3）现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如live, teach, learn, work, study, know. 一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。
She joined the League three years ago. (加入的动作不是延续的) She has been in the League for three years (since three years ago). (在团内的状态可延续) She has been a League member for three years (since three years ago). (是团员的状态可持续)
He has finished the work. I’ve known him since then.
他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果) 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)
since 用来说明动作起始时间— “自从……” for用来说明动作延续时间长度— “长达……”
I have lived here for more than twenty years. I have lived here since I was born. My aunt has worked in a company since 1949. I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.
注意：并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时 I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。) I have worked here for many years. (现在我仍在这里工作。)
比较 have/has been to have/has gone to
He has gone to Shanghai. 他(已经)去上海了。
He has been to Shanghai. 他(曾经) 去过上海。
He went to Shanghai last week. 上周他[做了一件事:那就是]去了上海
He has been to Shanghai. 他(曾经)到/去过上海 [在他人生中曾经有过这样的 经历,但他人现在肯定不是在上海而是回来
了] He has gone to Shanghai. 他已经去上海了 [也许刚动身出发,也许已经到了,也许 还在路上,反正他人不在这里] He has been in Shanghai for 10 years. 他呆在上海迄今为止已经10年了 [现在还在上海没 有离开呢] He lived in Shanghai for 10 years. 以前他在上海住过10年 [现在不在上海了] 含 义 上 的 差 别 由 时 态 导 致 的 辨 析 这 些 句 子
work visit ask play stay worked visited asked played stayed stop drop rob plan prefer
carry worry try cry
stopped dropped robbed planned preferred
carried worried tried cried
like live move
liked lived moved
cost cut hit hurt set put shut read
bring buy think teach catch
feel leave tell sell say lay
brought bought thought taught caught
felt left told sold said laid
brought bought thought taught caught
felt left told sold said laid
come become run
begin fall fly forget take wear write
came became ran
began fell flew forgot took wore wrote
come become run
begun fallen flown forgotten taken worn written
1. He died 10 years ago. --- He ____ ____ ____ for 10 years / since 10 years ago. 2. He borrowed the book 2 weeks ago. --- He ____ ____ the book for 2 weeks. 3. He bought the motorbike a month ago. ---He ____ ____ the motorbike for a month. 4. He arrived here three days ago. --- He ____ ____ here since three days ago. 5. He left here 2 years ago. --- He ____ ____ ____ from here for 2 years. 6. The film began 30 minutes ago. --- The film ____ ____ ____ for 30 minutes. 7. They opened the door an hour ago. --- The door ____ ____ ____ for an hour. 8. They closed the door an hour ago. --- The door ____ ____ ____ for an hour. 9. He joined the army last year. --- He ____ ____ a ____ for a year. --- He ____ ____ ____ the army for a year. --- It ____ a year ____ he joined the army.
延 续 性 动 词 和 瞬 间 性 动 词 之 间 的 转 化
1. He died 10 years ago. --- He has been dead for 10 years / since 10 years ago. 2. He borrowed the book 2 weeks ago. --- He has kept the book for 2 weeks. 3. He bought the motorbike a month ago. ---He has had the motorbike for a month. 4. He arrived here three days ago. --- He has been here since three days ago. 5. He left here 2 years ago. --- He has been away from here for 2 years. 6. The film began 30 minutes ago. --- The film has been on for 30 minutes. 7. They opened the door an hour ago. --- The door has been open for an hour. 8. They closed the door an hour ago. --- The door has been closed for an hour. 9. He joined the army last year. --- He has been a soldier for a year. --- He has been in the army for a year. --- It is a year since he joined the army.
延 续 性 动 词 和 瞬 间 性 动 词 之 间 的 转 化 (keys)
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. for Mr. Brown has had his TV ________ 15 years. since I’ve taken driving lessons _________ last month. for My sister has had her cell phone _
_______ a month . since My friends haven’t visited me ___________ my birthday. We haven’t used our carfor ________ a long time . She hasn’t had a good cup of coffee _________ years. for since Tom has worn glasses _________ he was 7 years old.
按要求改变句子。 1. She has done her homework. (改否定句) She hasn’t done her homework. 2. She has already told us the news. (改否定句) She hasn’t told us the news yet. 3. The rain has already stopped. (改一般疑问句) Has the rain stopped yet? 4. I have waited here for two hours. (划线提问) How long have you waited here ? 5.He has lived in ShangHai since he left Beijing. (划线提问) Where has he lived since he left Beijing? 6. They have bought a new car, ______ __________? (反义疑问句) haven’t they 7. She has learned French since 2002. (同意句) for She has learned French ______ 2 years. since ago She has learned French _______ 2 years __________.
用have/has been to, have/has gone to填空：
1.—Where is your brother? has gone to —He ____________ the shop. He’ll be back soon. Have been to 2. — ______ you ever _________ to America? —Yes, I have been to New York twice. ___________ have been 3. —Here you are at last! Where _____ you _____? have been to —I _____________ London. 4. —David _______________ Australia. has gone to —I’m sure he’s already arrived. 5. —Is Benny here? —No, he __________ the school library. He left has gone to five minutes ago.
1.The English professor arrived here about a week ago has been The English professor ____ _____ here for about a week .
2.Her husband started to work on the farm three hours ago .
has worked Her husband _____ _____ on the farm for three hours . 3.The French musician came to China last month , and he is still here . has been in The French musician _____ _____ ____ China for a month . 4.He joined the army in 1985 . since Hehas been _____ _____ ____ the army ____ 1985 . in 5.He joined the League half a year ago . member for He has been a League ______ ______ half a year .
6.The bus left five minutes ago .
has been away The bus _____ already ____ _____ for five minutes . 7.The girl bought a new school bag in September . has had The girl _____ ____ the school bag since September .
8. The shop closed last winter . has been closed The shop ____ ______ _______ since last winter . 9. The film began ten minutes ago . has on The film _____been _____ for ten minutes . ____ 10. The dog died two days ago . has The dog _____ been ______ dead _______ for two days . 11. The meeting ended last month . has been over The meeting _____ ____ ________ for a month .
根据情景用动词的适当形式填空 left haven’t seen A： I ____________(not see) George since he__________ (leave) this have seen school a year ago . ______ you ever _______(see) him again ?
met B： Yes, I have. I ________(meet) him a few days ago . meet A： Where did __
_____ you _______ (meet) him ? met B： I _______ (meet) him in the museum . He was looking at some paintings saw said when I ________ (see) him . We ________ (say) hello to each other .
宾 语 从 句
引导词 that 陈述句 if/whether 一般疑问句 疑问词 特殊疑问句 陈述语序 语序：
主句为现在时态，从句可以是需要 的任何时态 主句为过去时态，从句应使用相 应的过去的时态。 时态： 从句如果描述的是客观真理、科 学理论等则永远用一般现在时态。
直接引语： 直接引述别人的原话.直 接引语的前后必须加引号。 间接引语： 转述别人的话。间接引 语前后不加引号。
1）直接引语为陈述句 2）直接引语为疑问句（一般疑问句、特殊 疑问句） 3）直接引语为祈使句
直接引语如果是陈述句，变为间接引语时， 用 连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句的谓 语动词可直接用引语中的say, 也可用tell来代替， 注意，可以说say that, tell sb. that，不可直接 说tell that
e.g. He often says,“China is great.” → He often says (that) China is great. Tom says,“I am a student.” → Tom says (that) he is a student. He says,“I leave my book in your room” → He said (that) he left his book in your room.
一般疑问句 间接引语用连词whether或if引导，原主句中谓 语动词say要改为ask ，语序要变为陈述语序
? He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” ? He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.
? He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?”
? He asked whether I was interested in English.
注意：大多数情况下，if ,whether 可以互换，但句中 出现or (not),或放在介词后作连接词，只用whether。 ? He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”
? He asked me whether I spoke English or French.
? I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”
? I asked him whether he would take bus or take train. ? “Is he all right?”They cried out. ? They cried out whether he was all right.
原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主 句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达，语序 改为陈述句语序
? He said to me，“What's your name?” ? He asked me what my name was. ? He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” ? He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.
直接引语是祈使句，则改为 tell/order/ask sb. (not) to do sth. 其他变化同上。
He said, “Please come here tomorrow.”
He asked me to go there the next day.
The teacher said, “Don’t talk any more.”
The teacher told us not to talk any more.
引号内的第一人 称变间引后与主 句主语的人称保 持一致 引号内的第二人 称变间引后与主 句宾语的人称保 持一致
一 随 主
二 随 宾 三 不 变
She said,“ I likeShe said that she liked tennis Tennis.” He said to Lily, He told Lily that “ you must get she must get up early up early”
She said to me , She told me that 引号内的第三人 称在变间引后去人 “ They want to That they wanted help him” help him 称不变
1) He said,“ My brother failed in the exam.” He said ____brother had failed in the exam. his
2) He said to Mary,“ How is your mother now?” he asked Mary how _____mother was then. her
3)My teacher said, ‘‘ she is a good she student. ’’ My teacher said ____was a good student
4) He said to me,“he I’ve left her book in your her my room” He told me that ___had left ___ book in ___
1." We want you to take a message for her." said the Greens.
The Greens told me that theywanted me to take a message for her .
2."Are you willing to lend us a hand?" she said to him. She asked him whether he was willing to lend them a hand.
He says,“Is Tom a student or a teacher？” → He asks whether Tom is a student or a teacher. He asked me, "Do you like playing football?“ → He asked me if/whether I liked playing football. My sister asked me : “ What is your friend?” →My sister asked me what my friend was. Jack asked me, "How do you like the film?" →Jack asked me how I liked the film. The solider ordered,“Be quiet.” → The solider ordered us to be quiet. He said to her,“Open the door, please.” →He asked her to open the door. She says,“I will go to Beijing next month.” →She says (that) she will go to Beijing the next month. He often says “ I shall tell you about them.” →He often tells me that he will tell me about them.
He says, ‘‘ I will do it tomorrow” He says that he will do it tomorrow.
如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时，直 接引语变成间接引语时，从句的时态要 做出相应的改变．
一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 不变
1.“ I am ill today.” said my mother.
My mother said that she was ill that day.
2.“We work hard at English.” he said. He said that they worked hard at English.
1.They said to me, “We are working hard at a company.”
They told me that they were working at a company.
2.“I am writing a letter now.”she said.
She said that she was writing
a letter then.
１. John said, “I like reading adventure stories. ” John said that he _____ reading adventure stories. liked ２. S
he said to me, “I broke your CD player. ” had broken She told me that she ____________ my CD player. ３. He said, “I’ll come here this morning.” He said he_______ go there that morning would ４. He says, “I have finished my homework.” He says that he had finished his homework. ___________ ５. He said, “they are playing games over there?” He said that they_______ playing games over there. were
１. 直接引语若表示的是客观事实或真理时， 变间接引语时时态不变． ２. 当引语中的时间状语表示过去某一具体时间 时，谓语动词时态不需改变．
1.Our teacher said, “ Light travels much faster than sound.” Our teacher said that light ______ much faster travels than sound. 2.“I graduated in 1966.”My brother said. My brother said that he graduated in 1966.
1.The teacher said to the students, “The earth is round.” The teacher told the students that the earth is round. 2. My father said to me, “I was born in 1961.” My father told me that he was born in 1961.
now today tonight ago yesterday last night then That day That night Before/earlier The day before The night before
The next/following day
The next/following …
1. “What does this word mean?” she asked me. She asked me what that word meant.
2. “Can you see that map on the wall?” he asked m He asked me if I could see that map on the wall. 3. “Do you like these toys?” Jane asked us. Jane asked us if we liked those toys.
4. “Bring those balls to me.” said my sister. My sister asked us to bring those balls to her.
1. “I like reading adventure stories,” said John.
John said that he liked reading adventure stories. 2. “I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friend. Sarah told her friends that she didn’t like computers.
3. “Ann, have you seen my blue notebook?” Peter asked. Peter asked Ann if she had seen his blue notebook. 4. “How can you do that?” Mary said to Ann. Mary asked Ann how she could do that. 5. “What difference does it make?” Peter asked Jim. Peter asked Jim what difference it made.
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day
2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now
3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.”
Mr Black said that __ a long way __.
A. I had walked…
B. he had walked…that week
C. I walked…last week D. he has walked…this week
4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day
5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that
6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a
Jane asked ____ about _____.
A. that he heard…a week ago
B. what he had heard…the week before
C. what he had herd… a week ago
D. if he heard…the week ago
7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time
8. Jack said to her, “Where do you spend your holidays?” Jack asked her where ____ holidays. A. she spent her B. you spend your
C. she spend her
D. you spent your
9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you left here yet?”
Black asked me why ____ yet.
A. I hadn’t left there
B. I haven’t left here
C. hadn’t I left there
D. haven’t I left here
10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise