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发布时间:2013-12-13 16:32:35  


非谓语动词to do, doing, done除了不能作谓语,可承担句子的任何成分。

1.功能:to do表达:具体,一次性,完整的,将发生的(几乎同时发生)的动作。 所有的助动词,无论vt.vi.还是be 或do,都有to do结构。

doing表达:主动或正在进行的动作。做名词多表达状态,性质,心境, 抽象,经常性,已发生的动作。

done表达: 被动或完成的动作。凡已经形容词化了的done,大都可以 即作定语,又作表,和宾补。

2.词性:to do,doing有名,形,副词的功能。done只有形,副词的功能。

3.成分:to do,doing在句中担当主,表,定,状宾和宾补。

而done 只做表,定,状和宾补成分。

4.句式:非谓结构表,肯定,否定,疑问(一般,特殊, Wh多接to do形式)。 否定式在其前加not,有时也用never。

He promised never to make such a stupid mistake.



1.to do做主语,往往用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式放至句子的后面。 例如:It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.

It's··· for sb.和 It's ···of sb.


1) for sb.句型中的形容词对物,一般是表特征,特点,客观形式的形容词, 如:easy, hard, difficult, important, interesting, impossible等。 It's very hard for students to learn two languages.

2)of sb句型中的形容词修饰人,一般为表示性格,品德,心智能力,表示主观感情或态度的形容词。

如:good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。

It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。 用for还是用of 的另一种辨别方法:



You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。

He is hard. (非所表达的意思,不通,因此用for)

3)It takes sb. some time/money to do sth.

4)It’s best for sb. to do sth. 对某人来说做某事是最好的

5)It’s time for sb. to do sth. 是某人做某事的时候了

2.doing 做主语, doing 短语作主语可不倒装。

Playing computer games too much is bad for our eyes.


It’s no use (useless. no good等),There is no +doing.

It is no use regretting the past mistake. 后悔过去的错误没用。 There is no joking about such matter. 这种事开不得玩笑。


1.to do 做表语可表示职业,职责,性质或将来具体一次做的事。

My job is to clean the room every day. 我的工作是每天清扫房间。 His dream is to be a doctor. 他的梦想是成为一名医生。


My favourite outdoor activity is singing and dancing.(相当于名词) doing相当于adj时,其逻辑主语是句子的主语,表人的感觉“令人?”多表示物。 The report is exciting. (adj.)

3.done 做表语,


We were relaxed after having sport in the playground.



The glass is broken。(表状态adj.)

The glass was broken last night。(表被动)

3)不及物动词的done和主语是主动关系,表示主语的动作发生过的状态。 The sun is risen. 太阳已经升起。

Those days when we used foreign oil are gone.我们用洋油的日子过去了。



1.to do 做定语

1)to do做定语总是放在被修饰的词后,表示将来,通常,必须或应该发生的主动动作。与该名词有多种逻辑关系。


He is always the first to come.

B: 动宾关系:

I would like something to eat/drink.=that I will eat(可扩写为定语从句) I have a lot of work to do. =that I should do

C: 动状关系:

A schoolbag is a bag to put textbooks in. ??放课本的包。

The old man had no room to live in.=The old man couldn’t live in (修饰time,place, way, need等无介词)

The old man had no money and place to live.

There is no time (for sb. ) to do sth.

There is no need (for sb.) to do sth. 对某人来说没必要做某事。

2)表示将来发生的被动动作时用to be done 形式。

Are you going to take part in the sports to be held next week?


1)doing 若表示所修饰的名词的用途,就相当于名词的性质。(也称动名词) My grandpa often goes to the swimming pool with a walking stick.(拐杖)


There are a lot of falling leaves in the air. ( 正在进行的动作) The sleeping baby is my cousin. (即进行又主动的动作) 错句: Do you know the man giving us a talk yesterday? 改成who gave 解析:doing做定语既是n. 也是adj.形式相同,含义有别。


与所修饰的词有逻辑上的主谓关系,表示该名词正在进行的动作。 The waiting room is so crowded.候车室 (n.= the room for waiting) Two thieves were among the waiting people.(adj.=the people who are waiting)


1)表示发生过的,或说不清也没必要说明何时发生的被动动作时用done(源于及物动词) The washing machines made in Haier sell well。海尔造的洗衣机很畅销。 Most people all over the world enjoy clothes made in China.(被动的动作)


Look at the risen sun。看已经升起的太阳。 (发生过的动作) There are a lot of fallen leaves on the ground . (同上)

3)表示正在进行的被动动作时,用being done 形式。(高中)

The car being repaired is my uncle’s.

四.作状语: 其逻辑主语是句子的主语。(done 表示被动)

1.to do作状语


例如He ran fast to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 In order to catch the first bus, she got up early

I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2)作结果状语,可以表示没有预料到的或事与愿违的结果,不定式要放在句子后面。 I awoke to find my bag gone. 我醒来发现包不见了。

He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间,没发现什么。


I'm glad to see you. 见到你很高兴。

She wept to see the sight. 她一看到这情形就哭了。


He must be a fool to say so.

You will do well to speak more carefully.

to do 做状语的短语。除worth和busy外,多数be adj.都可以和to do形式连用。 be glad/happy to do sth. 高兴去做某事

be sorry to do sth. 对做某事感到抱歉

be afraid to do sth. 害怕做某事

be excited to do sth. 对做??感到兴奋

be/get ready to do sth.准备做某事

be surprised to do sth. 对做某事感到惊奇

be frightened to do sth. 害怕去做某事

be amazed to do sth. 对做某事感到惊讶

too?(for sb.) to ?太??以致不能?? ==not? enough to do

prefer to do sth. rather than do sth. 宁愿??而不愿??(常考) try/do one’s best to do sth. 尽力去做某事

take turns to do sth. 轮流做??

can’t wait to do sth. 迫不急待地去做某事

get/have a chance to do sth. 得到一个做某事的机会

2.doing做状语,表示时间,原因,条件,结果和伴随的动作,相当于一个从句。 1)Entering the room, I found the mobile phone stolen. (表时间) = when I entered the room,????

Seeing that it was raining hard,Kitty put on her raincoat.(表原因). Using this pen, you can write more beautifully. (表条件) The girl went to school, wearing a red skirt. (表伴随)

She studied hard, becoming a top student in her class. (料想的结果) The heavy rain came pouring down. (表方式)

2)若是在谓语动词前发生或强调已经发生过的主动动作,用having done.(高中) Not having received a reply, she wrote to him again.由于没收到回信? Having lost his key, Mr. Li couldn’t enter his room.由于丢了?进不了屋子。 常用短语:

be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事;

be worth doing 值得做某

have fun(a good time)(in)doing. 做某事高兴

have problem, (difficult ,trouble) (in) doing sth做某事有困难; spend time (in) doing sth. 花时间(钱)做某事 play a role in doing sth. 在做?方面起作用(新人教初二上U4)

例如:Being a student,I must student hard. (原因状语) He ran out of the room, shouting loudly. (伴随的动作做状语)

3.done 做状语: (高中部分)

1)与所修饰的句子的主语是被动关系时,若不必说明或说不清是何时发生时用done. Given enough sunshine, the flowers could have grown better.(表条件)

A woman entered the room,followed by two girls. (表伴随的动作)

2)如果强调已经发生过了的被动动作,就用having been done (现在分词被动


Having been shown the lab,we were taken to see the library.

五.做宾语 被领着看了实验室后,我们又被带去看图书馆。


like, love, hate dislike,start begin, continue, prefer等 其后跟to do 或doing区别不大。但是绝非完全相同。

eg: like to do 表示想要做某一具体的动作。

like doing 表示一般或抽象的多次的正在进行的动作。

I like reading,but I don’t like to read today.



finish enjoy practice keep持续 imagine想象 allow 允许 mind介意 stand 忍受 consider考虑 suggest建议 avoid避免

2)跟to do

want, plan, would like, learn, hope, wish, help, need

decide, expect期盼,ask,agree, seem似乎, afford承担起

refuse拒绝, promise答应,pretend假装,beg 祈求,choose

prepare,long渴望, happen 碰巧,manage设法,fear畏惧 offer提供 used to do sth. 过去常做某事 fail to do未能做

补充:to do结构下文略do, 但是to be结构下文略保留。

Would you like to go with me? Would you like to be a teacher? I’d like to. I’d like to be.


stop to do(停下来去做) stop doing(停止做)

remember to do(记住去做) remember doing(记得做过)

forget to do(忘记去做) forget doing(忘记做过) try doing(试着做) try to do(设法做)

go on to do(接着做另一事) go on doing(继续做同一事)

can’t help to do(不能帮助做) can’t help doing(情不自禁做)

mind doing(介意做) mind (not) to do(当心,注意)

be afraid to do sth.不敢做 be afraid of doing 担心,害怕做sth. mean to do 打算做?? mean doing 意味着做??


1.to do做宾补:如果表示发生过的(即动作全过程)或将来发生的主动的动作就 用to do形式。

例如:They often see the boys play football.(动作全过程)

want, ask, wish, tell, need, like, order, would like, invite, teach, wait for,expect 期盼,get让, follow, send, allow允许, promise advise warn警告, elect 选举, encourage鼓励, consider考虑


1.feel, find 2.hear, listen to

3.let,have, make 4.watch,look at,see,notice,observe *5.help 两随便


This book will help you (to) improve your English.

This book will help you to use(write, speak, read)English.

因为,书能起到提高的作用,可以略to,却不能做到write, speak, read。必须留to.


以上动词除去三使,let,have,make 再加上keep,leave, stand


When I passed there, I saw the boys playing football. (动作正进行)


例如:He speaks loudly to make himself heard clearly.


Where can I have my computer repaired?


(on, in, of, about, at, with, without, for, from, up, by等后) be good at, be afraid of, be interested in, instead of, insist on坚持 stop sb. from, thank you for, feel like, give up think of? how about, do well in, be fond of 喜爱, be proud of自豪要 be tired of, excuse ?for, keep?from, succeed in 成功做? to作介词的情况

例如:look forward to doing sth 期望做某事;

be/get used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事;

make a contribution to 为?做贡献

pay attention to doing 注意做某事




3.to do的进行式to be doing表两动作同时并正在进行。


1. 判断是否需要非谓语

如果句中有连词and, but,so则需要的是谓语动词。如果句中没有连词,那么所需要的才是非谓语动词。

2. 如果需要非谓语动词,判断是否用固定搭配。

3. 如果不是固定搭配,判断非谓语的逻辑主语。先找真正的主语,如果真正的主语


4. 判断非谓语动词与谓语动词的关系。


told by an old hero. 2) We sat down an old hero that day.

3)We sat in the classroom, to the story told by an old hero that day.

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