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初中形容词比较级最高级解析

发布时间:2013-12-14 09:36:57  

一、形容词和副词的概念

形容词:是修饰名词(人或事物),表示名词的性质,特征或属性一种词类。

副词:用来修饰动词、形容词及其他副词的词叫副词。

二、形容词和副词的用法

①形容词作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前。

如: a new book, two big trees, a lucky boy等。

②形容词放在系动词be 、look、 get、keep、turn、feel、become、seem、 taste、 smell 、sound等之后。

如:1.I am short and heavy. 2.She looks fine.

3.The trees turn green. 4. He feels happy.

5.That sounds interesting. 6.I feel well. (adj.)

③如果形容词修饰不定代词something, anything, everything, nothing等时,要放在不定代词后面。

如: something special nothing new somewhere interesting something else

④副词放在所修饰的动词之后、形容词和副词之前。如果前面是行为动词,则后面用副词。 如: 1.She works hard .(修饰动词)

2.I am very busy.(修饰形容词)

3.He runs too uickly .(修饰副词)

4.We play happily. (修饰动词)

5. I like math very much. (修饰动词)

⑤通常在形容词后加-ly变成副词。

slow → ______ real → ______

usual →______ careful→______

easy → ______ happy→ ______

heavy →______ angry→ ______

lucky →______ safe→ _safely_____

terrible→_terribly_____

⑥下列词既是形容词又是副词

如: hard, late, early, far, near, alone,straight, fast等

He works hard.(副词,努力地)

It’s hard work. (形容词,难的)

She is alone at home, but never feel lonely.

She lives alone in Shanghai. (adv.)

They stood there straight. (adv.)

She has straight, black hair. (adj.)

He is so early every day. (adj.)

He gets up early every day. (adv.)

三、形容词和副词的级

形容词和副词有三个等级:原级、比较级、最高级

1.原级:即形容词和副词的原形。

small, good, pretty, big, many,hard, happily, slowly, quickly

① 程度副词very,too,so,quite等修饰形容词和副词的原级。

如:very tall、 too hot、 so cold quite interesting

② as?as ,(与?一样) not as(so)?as(与?不一样)中间用原级。

The story is as interesting as that one.

This question is not as / so difficult as that one.

She is as pretty as her mother.

The book is as new as that one.

The story is as interesting as that one.

The question is not as / so difficult as that one.

My bike is not as / so good as yours.

2.比较级:两个人或物之间的比较。表示“较??”或“更??一些”。标志词:than (比)

单音节词通常是-er结尾;多音节或部分双音节词通常在之前加more.

如:smaller, better, taller, older, more, harder,

thinner, happier, more loudy more interesting , more quickly

3.最高级:三个或三个以上的人或物之间的比较。标志词:in+范围, of all, of +the+具体的数

字,表示“最??”的意思。(两者以上用最高级)

单音节词通常是-est结尾;多音节或部分双音节词通常在之前加most. 在形容词的最高级前

必须加the;副词之前可以不加。如 :smallest, tallest, biggest, best, earliest, thinnest, most

carefully

单音节和少数多音节的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成分规则和不规则。

变化如下:

构 成 方 法

单音节词和少数多音节词 一般在词尾加-er/?/或-est/ist/ cold colder coldest

fast faster fastest

以字母e结尾的形容词,加-r或-st nice nicer nicest

large larger largest

重读闭音节词只有一个辅音字母时,应先双写辅音字母;再加-es或-est

big bigger biggest hot hotter hottest

以“辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词,先改“+y”结尾的双音节词,先改“y”为“i”,再加-er

或-est easy easier easiest early earlier earliest

多音节词和部分双音节词在词前加more或most

tired more tired most tired easily more easily most easily

表示“较不。。。”和“最不。。。”时,可以用less和least.

difficult less difficult least difficult

有些形容词的比较等级变化是不规则的。常见的有:

good/well better best

bad/ill worse worst

many/much more most

little less least

far farther/further farthest/furthest

给出下列词的比较级和最高级

important ______________ _________________

easy___________________ ___________________ wet___________________ ____________________

happy________________ ____________________

careful ________________ __________________

thin _________________ __________________

good________________ ____________________ hot __________________ ____________________ easily ________________ ____________________

many________________ ____________________ nice ________________ ____________________

big _________________ ____________________

heavy______________ ____________________

delicious____________ ____________________

much_______________ ________________

比较级的用法: ?than?

1.汤姆比杰克高.

2.这只箱子要比那只箱子大.

3.那些苹果比这些大.

4.第一个问题很容易,但第二个更容易.

形容词最高级的用法 (?in?; ?of?)

那个短发的女孩是我们班最高的.

今天是一年中最热的一天.

他的房间是三个中最干净的一个.

上海是中国最大的城市.

The girl with red hair is the tallest in our class.

Today is the hottest day of the year.

His room is the cleanest of the three.

Shanghai is the largest in China.

注意:

1.比较级与最高级的结构可以转换,意思不变。

The Changjiang River is the longest river in China.

=The Changjiang River is longer than any other river in China.

=The Changjiang Rive is longer than the other rivers in China.

2.当某一事物与其他事物作比较时,被比较事物中不能包括本身。

He is taller than any other student in his class.他比班上其他学生够高。

Shanghai is larger than any city in Hubei.上海比湖北任何一个城市都大。

3..如果比较对象相同,可用that/those代替第二个比较对象。

The weather in Shanghai is better than that in Wuhan.上海的天气比武汉的天气要好。 The text in Book III are much easier than those in Book IV.

4. 形容词的比较级 + and + 形容词的比较级 (前后形容词是同一个)越来越?? She is becoming thinner and thinner.

Our country is becoming richer and richer.

There are more and more students in our school.

Living in the world is becoming more and more difficult.

5.the + 形容词的比较级 + ?? + the +形容词的比较级表示“ 越??,就越??” The more you eat, the fatter you will be.

The harder you study, the more you will get.

The smaller the house is, the less it will cost.

The sooner, the better.

6.the + 形容词比较级 + of 短语 两者中比较??的一个

She is the prettier of the two girls.

The bike is the older of the two.

His is the taller of the two.

This one is the more beautiful of the the two picture.

7.形容词比较级的修饰。比较级前面可以用even(更加),much(??得多),far(??得多),a little(??一点),a lot(大量)等词语表示程度。

eg: She is far better than me at writing.

This pen is much better than that one.

Tom is a little shorter than his friend Jim.

8.如果主语是物主代词+名词,那么后面要用名词性物主代词。

His shirt is more expensive than mine.

9.The city is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

one of+ the+最高级+复数名词

10.Who is older, Jim or Tom ?

Who is the tallest, Jim , Mike or Tom

Which language is ____ , English, French or Chinese?

A. difficult B. more difficult C. the most difficult

Which/Who?+ 比较级,A or B?

Which/Who?+ 最高级,A ,B or C?

11.This is the third largest city in China .

当表示“第二,第三”等意思时,经常在最高级的前面加second, third,等词。

12.It’s our largest machine in our factory.

当最高级前有物主代词修饰时,其前不加定冠词the.

13.倍数表达

This room is twice larger than that one.

写出下列词的比较级最高级

big nice long new cheap young late safe heavy easy hard high few old thin expensive interesting carefully

quickly good bad

little far many/much

Follow ups(随堂练习)

1、---Mr Zhou, all of the students in our group, who lives ____?

---I think Li Lei does.

A. fat B. father C. farthest D. farest

2、The Changjiang River is ____ than any other river in China.

A. shorter B. longer C. shortest D. longest

3、Bob never dose his homework ____ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

A. so careful B. as carefully as

C. carefully as D. as careful as

4、____ she is, ____ she feels.

A. The more busy, the more happy B. The busy, the happy

C. Busier, happier D.The busier, the happier

5、The weather is getting ________ . (越来越糟糕)

用词的适当形式填空。

1.Which do you like ______(well),apples or oranges?

2.Who is ______(old),Jim or Tom ?

3.Jack is running _____ and ______(fast) .

4.Our country is becoming ______and ___________ (beautiful).

5.He is ________(tall) of the the two boys.

Find out the mistakes in the sentences below.(找出错误的地方并改正)

1.All of us felt happily at her birthday party.

2.I am more older than Harry.

3. Her coat is newer than you.

4. The weather in Beijing is colder than in Xiamen.

5. Sue is one of the tall girls in her class.

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