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初中定语从句总结

发布时间:2013-12-14 10:35:25  

定语从句

定语从句在句中相当于一个形容词,起限定语的作用,修饰说明名词、代词或主语的全部内容。通常在被修饰的词语(即先行词)之后,由“关系词”引导。定语从句的三种功能:

1.连接功能:连接从句,连接主句和定语从句

2.语法功能:在定语从句中充当句子成分(主语、宾语、定语、状语)

(定语从句中的关系词分为关系代词和关系副词两种)

that which who whom whose when where why

注: 关系代词在句中充当主语、宾语,因此定语从句中不能再出现关系代词所替代的名词或代词。

1. 关系代词在从句中

① 作主语)

The dog 作主语)

② The number of people Here comes the girl wants to see you .

2. 关系代词在句中① The noodles (作宾语)

This is the book that / which I want to read .

The letter that / which I received yesterday was from my father .

② Mr Li is a manwe should lear from .

3. 关系代词在从句中做定语

① The novelcover was broken blongs to me .

② Henery is the boymother is our English teacher . I know the person company produces computers . This is the person

4. 关系代词在句中作表语时可省略(只能用that)

She is not the girl

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定语从句中关系代词与关系副词的选择

1. 明确关系代词,关系副词在定语从句中的不同作用

关系代词which , that , who在定语从句中作主语或在及物动词或介词后作宾语

关系副词when , where, why在定语从句中作状语,即定语从句中不缺主语、宾语,只缺时间、地点或原因状语

2. 分析句子结构,明确句法成分

关系词在从句中作宾语还是作状语,关键取决于从句中的谓语动词。如果定语从句中谓语动词是及物动词,应观察其后有无宾语。如果没宾语,则应考虑使用能充当宾语的关系代词which或that。如果句子中有宾语,就考虑关系副词when或where等

关系副词(when , where , why )

1. When的用法(在定语从句中做时间状语)

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing .

We will never forget the happy time when we worked on the farm .

He came at a time when (at which ) we needed help .

2. where的用法(在定语从句中做地点状语)

This is the house where we lived last year .

The factory where his father works is in the west of the city .

After living in Pairs for fifty years , he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child .

3. why的用法(在定语从句中做原因状语)

There are several reasons why we can’t do that .

He couldn’t give the teacher a good reason why he was late for school .

Is this the reason why ( for which ) he refused our offer ?

The reason why ( for which ) she was ill is that she had eaten bad meat .

4. 比较

I’ll never forget the days that / which I spent with my teacher .

I’ll never forget the days when I worked with you .

It is the house that / which was built two years ago . It is the house where / in which I was born .

The reason which / that he gave was an excuse .

The reason why he was late was the rain .

Do you know the reason why he didn’t turn up ?

一.只能用that的定语从句

1. 先行词为不定代词all everying nothing anything little much none时或被这些词修饰时 ,关系代词只用that

All that can be done has been done .

2. 当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时,只用that

This is the most beautiful park that I have visited .

2

The Titanic is the most dangerous film that I’ve ever seen .

The best one that I’ll choose will be you .

3. 当先行词被序数词the first , the second , the last等修饰时,只用that The first lesson that we have learned will never be easily forgotten .

This is the last class that we will have this term .

4. 当先行词被the only , the very , the last修饰时,只用that

( some any few much no very only )

The only student that may be elected is in our class .

I have no question that will be asked .

There was little that interested him at the meeting .

This is the very book that I am looking for .

5. 当先行词既指人又指物时

We often talk about the persons and things that we remember .

The characters and the animals that are in the picture are very native .

The train ran over a boy and his dog that were just crossing the railroad .

6. 当主语是以who或which开头的疑问句时,为避免重复而用that Who is the girl that is standing there ?

Who is the boy that shook hands with you just now ?

Which is the hotel that you stayed at last month ?

7. 当way做先行词时,关系代词可以有三种形式 ①that ②in which ③× I don’t like the way that / in which / × you speak to your mother like that . 8. 先行词在句中作表语

Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be .

二.只能用which的定语从句

1. 非限制性定语从句(有逗号隔开)

2. 介词后面

定语从句练习:

1. This is the bag _____ my mother bought yesterday.

A. that B. who C. whom D. this

2. The man _____ lives next to us is my English teacher.

A. whom B. which C. who D. /

3. The girl _____ you saw in the street is Mary.

A. that B. whose C. which D. as

4. Is this the factory _____ a lot of students visited yesterday?

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A. the one B. which C. who D. whom

6. The only language _____ is easy to learn is the mother tongue.

A. which B. that C. / D. it

7. The girl handed everything _____ she had picked up in the street to the police.

A. which B. in which C. that D. all

9. Please show me the book _____ you bought yesterday.

A. which B. whom C. whose D. this

10. This is the best book _____ I have been looking for all this year.

A. who B. whom C. which D. /

11. This is the only article of these that _____ written by him.

A. was B. were C. is D. are

12. The man _____ was here just now is a doctor.

A. whom B. who C. / D. he

13. The boy _____ has two lovely dogs.

A. who live next door B. which lives next door

C. whom lives next door D. that lives next door

14. Those _____ made no mistakes in today’s exercises please raise your hands.

A. which B. whom C. that D. who

15. The farm _____ we stayed last week is a lovely place for a holiday.

A. when B. where C. that D. at that

16. He is the most careful boy _____ I know.

A. what B. which C. as D. ./

17. This is the school _____ Mr. Smith once taught.

A. in that B. when C. where D. there

18. Have you visited the house _____ the famous scientist was born?

A. where B. in that C. that D. which

19. The factory _____ Mr. Li used to work was closed last week.

A. when B. where C. that D. which

20. Do you still remember the day _____ we first met?

A. that B. when C. what D. on that

21. October 1,1949 is the day _____ we’ll never forget.

A. when B. that C. where D. in which

22. October 1, 1949 was the day _____ the People’s Republic of China was founded.

A. which B. when C. where D. in which

23. Is this the shop _____ sells children’s clothing?

A. which B. where C. in which D. what

25. I still remember the sitting-room _____ my mother and I used to sit in the evening.

A. what B. which C. that D. where

26. Have you seen the girl _____?

A. that I told B. I told you of C. whom I told D. I told of

28. Finally the thief handed in everything _____ he had stolen to the police.

A. which B. that C. what D. whatever

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29. The lecture spoke of some writers and novels _____ were known to us all.

A. which B. that

A. what C. who D. what D. where

D. matter 30. I can still remember the sitting room _____ my mother and I used to sit in the evening. B. which C. that 32. The only question _____ is to find our way home. A. that mattered B. that matters C. which mattered

34. The farmers used wood to build a house _____ grain can be stored.

A. with which B. where C. in that D. which

1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father?

-Yes, he’s our headmaster.

A. he B. who C. which D. whom

2. Is this the river _____I can swim?

A. which B. in which C. that D. the one

3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know.

A. where B. which C. that D. it

4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day?

A. that you bought B. you bought it

C. that you bought it D. which you bought it

5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands.

A. which agrees B. who agree

C. who agrees D. which agree

6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing.

A. that B. it C. which who

7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate

A. who’s B. whose C. that of which.

8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister.

A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who;

9. I love places ______the people are really friendly.

A. that B. which C. where D. who

10. The world ______ is made up of matter.

was 5

A. in that we live B. on which we live

C. where we live in D. we live in

Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。

1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.

2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.

3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.

4. The house _____we live in is very old.

5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?

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参考答案:

Keys:1-5ACABA 6-10BCCAD 11-15CBDDB 16-20DCABB 21-25.BBADD 26-30.BDBBD 31-34ABDB

I. 1-5BBCAC 6-10 ABCCD

Ⅱ. 1. that 2. which / that 3. who / that 4. that / which 5. who/ whom/ that

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