it 的特殊用法 指时间: What time is it? It’s eight o’clock now. 指天气: It is a fine day today. It is raining cats and dogs. 指距离: It’s only 15 minutes’ drive. How far is it from here?
做笼统主语: Who’s is it?
Oh, it’s you, Mary.
做形式主语 : It’s no use crying loudly. It’s important to learn English. 做形式宾语: Do you think it difficult to keep slim?
形容词性 my their
名词性 mine ours theirs 作主语
Mine is a new handbag.
Hers was a small room.
That car is ours. These chairs are yours. 作宾语 Look at theirs. You may use mine.
2、形容词性物主代词严格来说不是代词，是形容词，因 为他们不能作别的成分，只能作前置定语 My watch is quite old now. Can’t you tell me your story ? Our chairs are different from their chairs? 三、指示代词 this, these, that, those
作主语: This is a special present. 作表语: What he wants is just this. 作宾语: Take these with you. 作定语: Have you visited those villages?
指示代词的特殊用法 常用来代替前面的名词，以免重复 The winter here is much warmer than that in Beijing. The dishes in this restaurant are better than those in the restaurant we visited two days ago. 有时用于代替上下文的一句话或情况 The song goes like this. That is why we have to work hard. They had a car crash, and that delayed them for 2 hours. 四、反身代词 myself /yourself / himself herself / itself / ourselves yourselves / themselves 注意：Help yourself to some fish. / Help me to catch some fish.
作表语: You are yourself. 作宾语: He blamed himself for the mistakes 作同位语: I will finish it myself.= I myself will finish it. 五、相互代词 each other, one another We should help each other. They’ll inform one another. Don’t look down upon each other’s influence. We’ll remember one another’s friendship. 六、不定代词 one, ones, either, neither, other, another, none, each, every, both, all, any, some, many, much, (a) few, (a) little
还有由any--, some---, no---, 等合成的不定代词
one 指人或物，表示：一个人或一个。 One has one’s own right to choose. He is the one the policemen want to catch. One should not always tell lies.
I have a small kite. He has a larger one. 2、either, neither, both 的用法 either, 两者中的一个（任何一个）
These are expensive shirts. Do you have cheap ones?
both:两者都 1),Either is right. Either of them is right. Either answer is right. Either of the answers is right. You may choose either of them. 2),Neither is wrong. Neither answer is w
rong. Neither of the answers is wrong. Neither of them is wrong. 3),Both are OK. Both of you are OK. Both of the boys were honest. Both the boys were honest.=The boys were both honest. ---Neither of the boys was honest. 3、all 的用法：三个、三个以上的人或事 none 表示 all 的否定
eg: All are rubbish
All the books are to be sold. All of the books are to be sold.
None of the girls are waitresses / is a waitress.
None is / are wonderful.
None of us are / is pleased with them.
4, the other eg: There are two pandas. One is big and the other is small. the others eg: Twenty students are doing their homework in the classroom, the others / the rest are playing football on the playground.
eg: We should learn from other good students.
others eg: Some went to disco, others went to karaoke.
eg: Here are three apples. One is red, another is green and the third is imported. 5, some , any A some 一般用于肯定句中，any 一般用于否定句、疑 问句、条件句中 I have some books. Do you have any?
He doesn’t have any.
疑问句一般不用some ，只有当表示邀请或期待对方给 与肯定回答时才能用some Shall we have some coffee here? some 修饰单数名词时不是“一些”的含义，而是“某 个” She is waiting for some classmate. 6, few, little , a few, a little ---- some little---less---least few---fewer---fewest
a few ---- several
Few visitors have arrived. A few visitors have arrived.
We know little about the machine. We know a little about the machine.
only / just a little, many
only / just a few,
quite a few =
7, many, much 的用法
much 指不可数的事物，只能与不可数名词搭配，主要 用于否定句和疑问句
a lot of / lots of / plenty of / = many / much
Many are from the North. We can see many foreigners everywhere. They don’t have much now. Do you know much about the company?
Tom doesn’t have much money now.
many = quite a few = a large number of
much = huge amounts of
8, each, every
Every student has got a new plan.
Each student has got a new plan.
Each has got a new plan.
Each of the students has got a new plan.
Each of us has a new plan.
on either side of the street on both sides of the street on every side of the square each of us = every one of us ≠（ everyone of us 不存在）
eg： Someone has cleaned the blackboard.
Everybody should work hard， shouldn‘t they？
Everyone is trying his best to work hard. I have something important to tell you. Everyone is here, aren’t they? 复合不定代词 + else eg: something else, anyone else
eg: The boys sings best in his class.
The boy sings better than any other student in his class. The boy sings better than any of
the other students in his class.
The boy sings better than anyone (anybody) else in his class.
No other student sings better than the boy in his class. Nobody (No one )else sings better than the boy in his class.