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过去完成时(详细讲解)

发布时间:2013-12-15 14:36:50  

The present perfect tense:
Have / has + the past participle I have received a letter from Lily recently.

Has he handed in her homework yet?
He has just gone to Beijing. They have never been to the USA. We have lived here for ten years.

past perfect tense

过去完成时由had +过去分词构成 表示过去的过去 生的动作
构成方式: 肯定句: had+动词的过去分词 否定句: had not+ 过去分词 一般疑问句:had+ 主语+ 过去分词 肯定回答: Yes, 主语+ had.

否定回答: No, 主语+ hadn’t.

基本用法:

1. 过去完成时表示在过去某时或某个动作之

前发生的动作或存在的状态或表示经历或经验.
(1) 我说自从你搬到这儿以来妈妈一直为你的懒惰

而生气.

I said mother had been angry about your laziness since we moved here.
(2) 我到达电影院之前电影早已经开始了.

The film had begun before we got to the

cinema.

2. 过去完成时表示过去某一时间以前开始一直 延续到那个时间并可能延续下去的动作。常和by 或since, for引导的表时间的从句或短语连用, 但必须要与一个表示过去时的动作相对照.
1. 他来我们学校之前已经在那所学校工作了三年.

He had worked in that school for three years before he came to our school.
2. 当Millie到达电影院的时候, 电影已经开始了半个小时了.

The film had already been on for half an hour when Millie got to the cinema.
3. 自从他离开南京我们就一直没有见过面.

We hadn’t seen each other since he left Nanjing.

3. 过去完成时表示在某一动作之前已经完 成的动作. 过去的时间由before, after, when引导的时间从句表示出来.
1. 我在你回来之前就已经把晚饭准备好了.

I had finished cooking dinner before you came back.
2. 当我赶到学校时, 已经开始上课了.

The class had begun when I got to school.
3. 在我到家之前他已经走了.

He had left before I got home.

4.在told, said, knew, heard, thought等 动词引导的宾语从句中,一般用过去完成 时。
1. 她说她从来没有去过巴黎。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
2. 我觉得我以前见过他。

I thought that I had seen him before.
3. Tom说他借了这本书两周了。

Tom said he had borrowed the book for 2 weeks.

kept

5. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, mean, suppose等,用过 去完成时表示“原本……,未能……”。
1.结果比我们想象的要好。

The result was better than what we had expected.
2. 我们期望你会来的,但是你没有来。

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

试作比较:
昨天我见到王先生了.自从他离开北京我们就一直未曾见 过面。

? I saw Mr. Wang yesterday. We had not seen each other since he left Beijing.
自从他离开北京我们就一直未曾见过面。

? We have not seen each other since

he left Beijing.

试比较: 1. 我在这工作已经

五年了。 2. 到2005年8月,我在这工作已经五年了。

过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去, 但侧重对现在产生 的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关. 其结构为”助动词 have/has+过去分词”; 过去完成时则是一个相对的时 态, 它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调”过去的 过去”,只有和过去的某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它. 到目前为止我已经学会了3000个单词.

I have learned 3000 English words so far.
到那时我已经学会了3000个英语单词.

I had learned 3000 English words till then.

过去完成时与一般过去时的区别

1. 时间状语不同.过去完成时在时间上强调 “过去的过去”,而一般过去时只强调过 去某一特定的时间

? They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.
(说明不到10点就在车站了)

? They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.
(说明10点到车站的)

2) 在没有明确的时间状语做标志时,谓语 动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判 断,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的用一 般过去时. 在妈妈回来前,我已经把作业写完了。

I had finished my homework before my mother came back.

3) 当两个或两个以上的动作用and或but连 接时,按时间顺序只需用一般过去时代替 过去完成时;另外在引导的从句中由于这 些连词本身已经表示时间的先后,因此也 可以用过去时来代替过去完成时

? He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper. ? I (had) called her before I left the office.

More practice had left ?When I arrived there, they___________(leave) already. had started ?The film______________(start),when we got to the cinema. had read ?I ___________(read) the book before I started school.

had tried ?They thought that they___________(try) their best.
?The poor girl never saw her grandpa because he had passed away __________________ (pass away) before she was born.

?I _______________ (not realize) she wasn’t Chinese hadn’t realized until she spoke.

选择填空 ( c )1.--- “Did you see Tom at the party?” ---“No, Mary told me that he ___ by the time I got there.” A. left B. was leaving C. had left D. has left ( A)2. He said that he ____ his lunch yet. A. hadn’t had B. hasn’t had C. wouldn’t have D. was having ( D)3. By the end of last year we ____ each other for ten years. A. have known B. knew C. were knowing D. had known ( c)4. I saw Li Lei yesterday. We hadn’t seen each other ______ I left Beijing. A. after B. before C. since D. until

(

)6. I learned_______ the city for a long time. A. she has been in B. she has gone to C. she had been in D. she had gone to ( )7. He said that he _______ a cold for three days. A. has B. had caught C. had had D. has got ( D )8. I saw Kate with a new radio in her hand yesterday, but she told m

e she______the radio for ten days. A. has bought B. had bought C. has had D. had had

c

c

(

B )9. The film ______ when I got there.
A. has begun B. had already started C .began D. have already begun

(

when we got to the cinema. A. had already been on B. had already begun C. have already been on D. have already begun

A )10. The film _______ for ten minutes

1. 他来我们学校之前已经在那所学校工作了三年.

He had worked in that school for three years before he came to our school.
2. 当Millie到达电影院的时候, 电影已经开始了半个小时了.

The film had already been on for half an hour when Millie got to the cinema.
3. 自从他离开南京我们就一直没有见过面.

We haven’t seen each other since he left Nanjing.
4. 到上学期末,我们已经学历4000多个单词.

By the end of last term, we had learnt over 4,000 words.

5. 我们完成这项工作比预料中的时间要早的多.

We finished the work much earlier than we had expected.
6. 贝尔在30岁前发明了电话.

Bell had invented the telephone before he was 30.
7. 在他搬进这个小区(residential quarter)之前,那对夫妇已经 在这儿住了三年了.

The young couple had lived here for three years before he moved in the residential quarter.

More practice: 1. He told me he ________(meet) her before. had met 2. She thanked me for what I had done _______(do) for her son. 3. I ________(learn) 300 words by the end of last month. had learnt 4. He _______(leave) his office when I arrived there. had left 5. She _________(visit) the city three times before she had visited died in 1997. 6. They knew she ___________(borrow) a lot of money had borrowed for her daughter. have taken 7. Great changes __________(take) place in my hometown since 1996. has lived 8. He __________(live) in Beijing since he was born. 9. He told me he ________(live) in Beijing since he was had lived born.


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