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鲁教版英语7年级下册同步知识详解精练

发布时间:2013-12-16 13:33:40  

Unit 1 Can you come to my party?

学习目标

1.掌握本课时重点词汇; 掌握形容词比较级的变化规则。

2.通过观察分析,对人物进行比较,寻找不同和相同点。

3.讨论人与人之间的不同和相同点,从而发展观察能力、分析能力和判定能力。

要点精讲

1.Can you come to ……? 表示面对面的邀请,或征求对方的意见

肯定回答: Sure / Yes . I‘d love to .否定回答: Sorry , I can‘t .

Can you come to my birthday party?-下周六你能参加我的生日聚会吗?

=Would you like to come to my party?

Sure , I‘d love to . 当然愿意

Sorry , I can‘t . I have a piano lesson.

I‘d love to, but I have to go to the doctor.

I‘m sorry, too. I have to go to the doctor.

2.concert n. 音乐会 give a concert举行音乐会 give a piano concert举行钢琴演奏会in concert 一齐

(1)The musician will give us a violin concert in our school next week .

下周那位音乐家将在我校举行小提琴演奏会。

(2)They acted in concert in order to find out the thief .为了查到那个小偷他们一齐行动。

3.whom 谁 (宾格)who (主格)

(1)I am going to Tibet with my uncle for vacation next year .明年我打算和我叔叔去西藏度假。 Who / Whom are you going to Tibet with for vacation next year?

(2)Who is he talking with ? = Whom is he talking with? 他在和谁说话?

(3)常见搭配for whom, to whom, with whom

4. calendar n 日历, 日程表 the lunar calendar 阴历 the solar calendar 阳历

(1) According to the school calendar , our final exam will be in February , 2013.

根据学校的日程表,我们的期末考试将在2013年一月进行。

(2)You should write everything you have to do next week on the calendar .

你应该把你下周得做的事情写在日历上。

5. tomorrow n 明天, 用于一般将来时。 the day after tomorrow 后天

(1)Today is Sunday ,so tomorrow is Monday. 今天是星期天,所以明天是星期一。

(2)Children will go sighting the day after tomorrow. 后天孩子们将去观光。

6.invite vt , 邀请 invite sb. to sp. 邀请某人去某地

(1)Thanks a lot for inviting me to your birthday party . 非常感谢你邀请我参加你的生日聚会。 invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事

1

(2)We invited them to join the art club. 我们邀请他们参加艺术俱乐部。

7.invitation n 邀请 get an invitation 收到邀请

(1) Thanks a lot for your invitation to visit your hometown next week.非常感谢你邀请我下周你们家乡游玩。

(2)Did you get an invitation to her concert ? 你收到他的音乐会的邀请了吗?

Thank you for asking!=Thanks for inviting me.=Thanks for your invitation.

Thank you for your advice. Thanks for helping me.=Thanks for your help.

8.Training n 训练 锻炼 培训

(1) You can do the job after a training course 在接受培训课程之后你可能做这项工作。

(2) have …… training 进行……训练

I‘ll have basketball training with the school team next Wednesday .

下周三我将和校队的同学一起进行篮球训练。

9. chemistry n. 化学 have a chemistry class 上一节化学课

chemist 化学家a chemist‘s shop 药店

(1) –Can you come to the movies with us tomorrow ?

- Sorry , I can‘t . I‘ll have to study for the chemistry test.

明天你能和我一起去看电影吗?对不起, 我不能。 因为我得即将进行的化学测验做准备。

(2)Are you busy now? – Yes , I‘m having a chemistry class.你现在忙吗?是的,我在上化学课。

(3)- Who will teach us chemistry next year. 明年谁将教我们化学?

(4)My mother had a bad stomachache yesterday , so I went to a chemist‘s shop to get some medicine for stomachache. 昨天我母亲胃痛得很厉害,所以我去药店给好买了点治胃痛的药。

10.another adj又一个,再一个

(1) That‘s quite another matter. 那是另一回事。

another pron另一个, 指三个或三个以上中的另一个。

(2)I don‘t like this coat . Please show me another one. 我不喜欢这件大衣。请再给我看一件。

(3)She has three pens ,One is red ,another is black and the third one is blue.. 她有三支钢笔, 一支是红色的, 另一支是黑色的,第三支是蓝色的。

(4)- Maybe another time. 也许下次吧

other别的 other + n(复数)

(5)We study Chinese ,math,English and other subjects at school .我们在学校学语文,数学,英语和其它的课程。

(6)What other things can you see in the shop? 你在商店能看到其它什么东西了吗? one …… the other一个……另一个…...(两者中的一个…...另一个…….)

(7)I have two children .One is a son . the other is a daughter.

我有两个孩子。一个是儿子,另一个是女儿。

(8)Here are two flowers. One is red, the other is white .

这儿有两朵花。一朵是红色的,另一朵是白色的。

others别人 some ……others ……一些……另一些……

(9) When he was young , he was always ready to help others. 他小的时候总是乐于助人。

(10)Some people believe it , others not .一些人相信,其他人不信。

the others表示一定范围内除去一部分以外后其余的全体。

(11)These apples are bad, but the others are all good. 这些苹果坏了,可是其余的都是好的。

11. project n. (学校里的) 课题,作业, 项目

2

(1) He will try to do a project on English names . 他将尽力做有关英语名字的项目。

(2)- Can you play tennis with me on Sunday ?

- Sorry ,I can‘t . I have to finish the chemistry project.

12.whole adj全部的 , 完整的 all 全部的

(1)在单数名词前多用whole ,在复数名词前多用all.

the whole school 整个学校 all the students 所有的学生

(2)all 可以修饰不可数名词, whole 一般不修饰不可数名词

all the money 所有的钱all the food 所有的食品

(3)在表示时间的名词前既可以用whole 也可能用all 但要注意其结构不同

all the month = the whole month

He‘s jumping and singing the whole day .

He looked at the whole school ,but he couldn‘t find it anywhere.

13.over 结束 be over 结束 come over 顺便来访, 过来 go over 过一遍,复习

over =more than 多于over and over = again and again 反反复复地

We didn‘t leave the room until the meeting was over .会议结束我们才离开房间。

(1)-Can you come to play tennis with me tomorrow ?

– Sorry , I can‘t .I‘ll have to go over all my lessons.

明天你能来和我一起打网球吗? 对不起, 我得复习所有的功课。

(2)I‘d like you to come over to my house for Mid- autumn.我想让你到我家来过中秋节。

(3)I spend over two hours finishing all the homework yesterday .昨天我用了两个多小时做作业。

(4)The teacher asked mi to do my homework over and over . 老师要求我反复做作业。

14.free adj 自由的,空闲的, 免费的 be free = have time 有空

(1)Are you free this evening ?

(2) Please come to help me with my English if you are free.

(3) Our teachers have a free lunch every day .

15.too much 太多

I have too much homework this weekend. too much 太多+不可数名词

He talks too much.

There are too many people there. too many 太多+可数名词复数

The box is much too heavy. much too 很,非常+形容词

16.What‘t today? It‘s Thursday, the 24th.

What‘s the date today? It‘s December 24, 2009

What day is it today? It‘s Thursday.

17.Class与lesson

class;lesson两者都作“一节课”解时可以互换。例如:

We are not going to have any classes/lessons next week.下星期我们不上课。

class和lesson还有其它含义,这时两者通常是不能互换的。

Class的意思有:“课堂;班级;阶级”,lesson没有这些含义。例如:

There are forty-six students in our class.我们班有四十六名学生。

lesson的意思有:“功课;科目;(课本中的)一课;教训”,但class不可以。例如: They are doing their lessons.他们正在做功课。

18.be able to和can

can是情态动词,没有人称和数的变化,其后与动词原形连用,通常只有两种时态形式:can(一 3

般现在时);could(一般过去式)。例如:

Can you speak English? 你会讲英语吗?

I could run very fast when I was a boy. 小时候我跑得很快。

说明:口语中can可用来表示将来要做的事。例如:

He can come tomorrow. 他明天能来。

able是个形容词,常用于be able to这一短语中,其后也接动词原形,但它有人称和数的变化,它还可用于各种时态,弥补了情态动词can(could)的不足。例如:

Paul isn't able to come because he is ill. 保罗不能来,因为他生病了。

Sorry, I wasn't able to come. 对不起,我没能来。

I'm sorry I haven't been able to give you much help. 对不起,我没能给你多少帮助。

在作“能够”,“能”讲时可以互换,但作为情态动词的―can‖的其它作用,如“表请求,委婉”、表“推测”时,―be able to"则不能用了。

19.till与 until

till 与 until 的意义和用法相同,但句首一般不用 till 而用 until。

两者皆可用作介词和连词, 但两者都不能没有宾语, 因此都不是副词。

要注意在使用 until 或 till 表示汉语“直到...才”的时候, 当动词是“非延续性动词时”,常常要把汉语的肯定句改为否定句。

Walk till you come to a white house. 走下去, 一直走到一座白房子为止。

He didn't return till ten o'clock. 他到十点才回来。

We walked until it got dark. 我们一直走到天黑了下来

We can't go until Thursday. 我们要到星期四才能去。

20.Whole与 all

all一般用于数量多的全部比如all of us就是我们全部whole一般用于指一个物体的全部。这两个词意思相近。但与限定词和名词连用时,它们的词序各不相同。试比较:―all + 限定词 + 名词‖、―限定词 + whole + 名词‖

all与 whole都可以和单数名词连用。例如:

Mary spent all the summer at home.玛丽整个夏天都是在家里度过的。也可以说成: Mary spent the whole summer at home.

all my life我的一生=my whole life

whole与all都可以和单数可数名词连用,但whole更为常见。例如:

Mary wasted the whole lesson.

(较 all the lesson更常见)玛丽把整整一堂课都浪费掉了。

He ate the whole chicken.

(较…all the chicken更常见)他把整只鸡都吃掉了。

all通常与不可数物质名词连用,而 whole则不能。例如:

正:Jane has drunk all the milk.

误:Jane has drunk the whole milk.珍妮喝光了所有的牛奶。

You can easily spend a whole day there.(whole多与可数名词连用)

你可以轻松地在那里呆上一整天。▲但有些抽象名词前可用 whole。例如:

Can you tell me the whole truth?(=Can you tell me all the truth?)

你能告诉全部事实真相吗?

the whole of或all(of)可放在专有名词,代词和限定词之前。例如:

The whole of/All of London was under water. 整个伦敦都被水淹没。

He has just read the whole of Gone With The Wind.(=…all of Gone With The Wind.) 4

他刚把《飘》全部看完。

I don't understand the whole of/all of it. 这件事情我并不完全了解。

21.jeans, pants, slacks, shorts, trousers

jeans :指劳动布裤或牛仔裤。

pants :常用词,在美国,泛指各类裤子,在英国指衬裤或短裤。

This jacket will match those pants nicely.这件夹克和那条裤子会十分相配。

slacks:美国指比较宽松的便裤,英国人指妇女外面穿的长裤。

He wore slacks. 他穿着宽松长裤。

shorts:指短裤或裤衩。在美国主要指 男用短衬裤

trousers:指长裤,用于较正式场合。英美用法都一样。

a new pair of trousers 一条新裤子

22.happen和take place

happen常指具体事件的发生,特别指那些偶然的或未能预见的―发生‖。既可指愉快的事,也可指不愉快的

事。常可表示―碰巧;恰好‖之意。如:

New things are happening all around us.

It happened that I had no money on me.

take place通常指―(某事)按计划进行或按计划发生。‖此外还有―举行‖之意。如:Great changes have taken place in China since

The meeting will take place next Friday.

23.have to 与must的区别

情态动词不能单独作谓语,后面必须接动词原形一起构成谓语,have to 也是这样。

情态动词没有人称和数的变化,而且所用的时态也受到一定的限制,但是have to 有人称和数的变化,可用于多种时态中,在一般现在时中,当主语是第三人称单数时,要用has to, 其余人称用have to;一般过去时中用had to;一般将来时中用will have to, 例如:

She has to go to school by bus.她不得不乘公共汽车去上学。

If you get ill, you'll have to see the doctor. 如果你生病的话,你就得看医生。

have to 和must 都有“必须”的意思,那么它们 有哪些不同呢?

含义和用法上的区别:

have to 强调客观上需要做某事,即表示外界条件的需要不得不做某事,含有“形势逼迫”的意味;must 强调说话者主观上认为必须做某事,含有“主观判断”的意味, 例如: My bike was broken on my way to school. I had to walk there.

我的自行车在上学的路上坏了,我不得不走路去上学。

(我本来不愿意走路,可是自行车坏了,不想走路也不行。)

We must learn English well. 我们必须学好英语。(主观上有这种想法。)

否定式的区别:

have to 的否定式意为“不必”,must的否定式意为“禁止;不允许”。因此,以must开头的一般疑问句的肯定回答为―Yes, 主语+must‖,否定回答为―No, 主语+needn't / don't have to‖。例如:

---Must I finish the homework now? 我必须现在完成作业吗?

---Yes, you must. (No, you needn't / don't have to) 是的,你必须现在完成。(不,你不必。) 5

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