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鲁教版英语8年级下册同步知识详解精练

发布时间:2013-12-16 13:33:47  

Unit 1 Have you ever been to an amusement

park?

学习目标

1.掌握如何谈论英语学习:tour guide, flight attendant

2.掌握如何谈论曾经去过的地方:Have you ever been to …? Yes, I have been to …; No, I haven't. space museum, water parsement parth America, European

3. 掌握现在完成时的用法:have/has+动词过去分词.

要点精讲

1. me neither. 我也没去过。

(1)英语中表示后者与前者情形相同,―也不……‖时,常用neither引起的倒装句neither+助动词/系动词be/情态动词+主语。如:

I'm not all. neither is she. =she's not all, either.

我个子不高,她个子也不高。

They can't cook. neither can we. =we can't cook, either.

他们不会做饭,我们也不会。

(2)如果表示后者与前者情形相同,―也……‖,常用so引起的倒装句,so+助动词/系动词be/情态动词+主语。如:

My friends are happy. so am i.=i'm happy, too./i'm also happy.

我的朋友高兴,我也很高兴。

They will leave by air. so did he. =you will also leave by air.

他们要乘飞机走,你们也是。

2. Most of us have probably heard of mickey mouse, donald puck and many other famous disney characters.大概我们大多数人都听说过米老鼠、唐老鸭及其他迪斯尼的著名人物。

(1)辨析: hear, hear of, hear from

hear 为动词,有听见和听说之意。作―听见‖解,只强调结果。作为:―听说‖解,其后一般跟从句。如

My grandma can't hear very well.我奶奶听觉不好。

I hear that they miss us very much.我听说他们很想念我们。

I heard him singing in the next room.我听见他在隔壁房间里唱歌。

I heard that he was singing in the next room.我听说他在隔壁房间里唱歌。 hear of听说,听到,其后跟名词或从句。

Have you ever heard of edison? 你听说过爱迪生的故事吗?

heard from 意为―收到......的信‖,―得到......消息‖。

注意:hear from 的宾语应该是―人‖,而不是―信‖。

Have you heard from joan recently? 最近你收到过琼的来信吗?

(2)famous adj. 意思是―著名的,出名的,极好的

The composition he wrote is famous.他写的那篇作文是极好的。

Lu xun is one of the famous writers in china.鲁迅是中国著名作家之一。

辨析:be famous for ,be famous as与be famous to

be famous for因为……而出名/著名,for后接表示特点、特长的名词,表示人或物闻名的原因

Einstein was famous for his theory of relativity.爱因斯坦以他的相对论而闻名。

Sanya is famous for "tianya haijiao". 三亚以其天涯海角而驰名。

The village is famous for its green tea.这个村庄以绿茶而出名。

be famous as以……身份出名,for后一般接表示职业的名词。

The village is famous as a green tea producing place.这个村庄是产绿茶的地方。

Hanhong is famous as a pop singer.韩红以流行歌曲而闻名。

be famous to 对某人来说是著名的,to后常接人。

The summer palace is famous to the people in china.

颐和园在中国人心中很著名。

The pop singer is famous to the young people.

流行歌曲对那些年轻人来说是闻名的。

3.Perhaps we have ever seen them in movies. 也许我们在电影中见过他们。

perhaps adv.或者,也许,有可能。该次在句中的位置不同,其意思与语气也不同,请看下列例句:

Perhaps he will leave for home也许他要离开这里回家。

He will perhaps leave for home他开辟要离开这里回家去。

He will leave , perhaps for home他要离开这里,恐怕要回家去。

He will leave for home, perhaps.恐怕他要离开这里回家去吧。

辨析: perhaps, probably与maybe

三者皆为副词,都有也许、大概之意。 perhaps也许,是也许如此也许不如此的意思。probably大概、肯定的成分比较大。maybe或许,比perhaps普通,不够庄重。

My mother will be at home but perhaps she won't.

我妈可能在家,但也可能不在家里。

He has probably gone to england.他大概去英国了。

Maybe your book is on my desk.或许你的书在我桌子上。

4.In fact, there are now four different disneyland amusement parks around the world.实际上,全世界现在有四个不同的迪斯尼游乐场。

(1)different在该句中意为不同的。其名词是difference。常用于be different from短语中. My ideas is different from yours.我的观点与你的不一样。

The weather in australia is quite different from that in china.

澳大利亚的天气与中国的大不相同。

(2)around作为介词,有―在……周围,到处,大约之意‖。

I traveled around the world.我周游了世界。

It's around/about ten o'clock.大约有10点了。

around还可作副词用,表示在周围,在附近,到处,各处等。

They found nothing around.他们发现附近没什么东西。

We travel around together.我们一起到各地旅游。

5. This means that you can find disney characters all over the roller coaster.

那意味着你会在旱冰场上到处看见迪斯尼的知名人物。

(1)mean表示―意味着‖用来表示人的言论或行为,某一标志或词语的意思所指。 What do you mean? 你的话是什么意思。

What does this word mean?=what's the meaning of this word?这个词是什么意思?

(2)意欲,打算

He means to go tomorrow.他打算明天去。

He meant no harm; he only meant to help.他没有恶意,仅想帮忙。

(3)有意义,有价值,常和much, little等连用。

His work means o lot of him. 他的工作对他意义很大。

It doesn't mean a thing to her that we are all waiting because she's late.

因为他迟到我们都在等他,可他却认为这不是什么大不了的事。

6. You won't have any problem finding rice, noodles, dumplings.

你回毫不费力地找到米饭、面条、水饺。

have problems (in) doing 这一结构表示―做谋事很费劲‖。介词in指某一方面,在句中可省略,后面接动词+ing形式。

problem是可数名词,在句型中作―困难、麻烦‖解,这里problems还可以用difficulty或trouble代替,但这两个词在句型中作不可数名词用。

We had some problems getting to the top of mountain.

到达山顶我们费了很大劲。

I didn't have any problems finding my uncle's house.

我毫不费力地找到我叔叔家。

He had some problems working out the problem.

他解这道题很费劲。

注意:这一句型的否定句还可改成do something without any problems/difficulty/trouble句型。 He didn't have any problems finding my house.=he founding house without any difficulty/trouble. 他毫不费力地找到了我的家。

7. It might seem strange to go to a zoo when it's dark.天黑时去动物园好像很奇怪。

seem在此为―好像、似乎‖之意,其后加形容次。

He seems unhappy today.他今天好像不高兴。

She seems sad.她似乎很伤心。

它的常用句型如下:

(1)seem +(to be) +n.

They seem (to be)doctors.他们好像是医生。

He seems a students.他们好像是学生。

(2) seem +(to be) +介词

It seems like years since i last saw mr green.

从上次遇到格林先生,好像与过了许多年。

(3) seem to do something.

He seems to be happy. 他好像很高兴

My mother seemed to know that. 我妈妈好像知道那件事。

(4) it seem that +

it seems that he is happy.

=He seems (to be) happy 他好像很快乐

It seems that she is thinking.

=It seemed that she was sleeping then.他好像在考虑什么。

语法句型

现在完成时

1.表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

如:

The car has arrived.

车子来了。(结果:车子已在门口)

Someone has broken the window.

有人把窗户打破了。(结果:窗户仍破着)

现在完成时句子通常有recently,lately,since,for,in the past few months/years等词做时间状语。

肯定形式:have/has + done

否定形式:have/has + not +done

一般疑问句:have或has放于句首。

2.现在完成时的用法

(1)现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,而对现在有影响。所以常常后面不用时间状语。现在完成时所表的动作离说话人的说话时刻可近可远。

如:

He has gone to london. (说话人认为他不在该地)

He has been to london. (说话人认为他在该地)

(2)现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去。常用for和since表示一段时间的状语或so far,now,today,this week (month,year)等表示包括现在时间在内的状语。

例如:

He has studied english for 5 years.

He has studied english since 2001.

Now I have finished the work.

注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如:come,go,die,marry,buy等的完成时不能与for,since等表示一段时间的词连用。

(3)现在完成时还可用在时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作。 例如:

I‘ll go to your home when i have finished my homework.

If it has stopped snowing in the morning,we will go to the park.

典型分析

1.Mary isn‘t here. She has ____ the shop.

A. been to

B. went to

C. gone to

D. /

【答案】C

【解析】have been (to) 指―到过某地‖, 说话时此人很可能不在那里,已经回来,侧重指经历。have gone to表示―去了某处‖,―到某处去了‖,现在已不在说话的地点了。因此从本题句意来看应该选择C。

2.My husband doesn‘t want to see a movie tonight, and _______.

A. neither do I

B. Neither have I

C. do neither I

D. I don‘t do

【答案】A

【解析】neither用于否定句后表示―也不‖,neither后要倒装。

中考案例

1.(2012年贵阳) ―Whose notebook is this?‖ ―It _______ Jim‘s. It has his name on it.‖

A. can‘t be

B. must be

C. can be

D./

【答案】B

【解析】表示猜测。can‘t be 意为―不可能是‖;must be 意为―一定是‖;can be 表示猜测,一般用于否定句或疑问句中,不用于肯定句中。根据句意:这是谁的笔记本?它一定是吉姆的,因为上面有他的名字。

2.(2012年温州) I like soft and gentle music. It____ nice.

A. tastes

B. looks

C. sounds

D. feels

【答案】C

【解析】由music可知答案选C项,意为―听起来‖;而tastes―尝起来‖;looks―看起来‖;feels―摸起来‖均不合语境,故排除。

针对训练

1.Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago?

A. where

B. that

C. on which

D. the one

2.It was in the factory__ produced TV sets __our friend was murdered.

A. which;which

B. that;which

C. that;that

D. where;that

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