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湘教版英语9年级下册同步知识详解精练

发布时间:2013-12-17 12:33:04  

目录

Unit 5 Learning about China. ............................................................................................................ 2

Topic 1 Could you tell me something about the places that you visited? ................................. 2

Topic 2 Confucius, a pioneer in the field of education. ............................................................ 7

Topic 3 The dragon has become a symbol of the Chinese nation. .......................................... 11

中考链接 ................................................................................................................................. 22

单元测试 ................................................................................................................................. 23

Unit 6 Entertainment and Friendship .............................................................................................. 24

Topic 1 I would rather watch TV plays than sports shows. ..................................................... 24

Topic 2 He is my favorite character in Chinese literature. ...................................................... 28

Topic 3 I will remember our friendship forever. ..................................................................... 31

中考链接 ................................................................................................................................. 35

单元测试 ................................................................................................................................. 36

期中测试......................................................................................................................................... 38

期末测试......................................................................................................................................... 39

参考答案......................................................................................................................................... 40

Unit 5 Learning about China.

单元目标

1.掌握一些单词短语的用法

2.语法:定语从句;连词用法;疑问句

3.学习一些交际用语

Topic 1 Could you tell me something about the places that

you visited?

要点精讲

一、单词短语

attract 吸引,引起

tourist 旅行者

fetch (去)取(物)来

guide 指南,手册,向导

introduce 介绍,引见

province 省份

plateau 高原

Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 青藏高原

Potala Palace 布达拉宫

Jokhang Temple 大昭寺

above 在……的上面

surround 围绕,包围

attraction 向往的地方,有吸引力的事

tourist attraction 旅游胜地

pagoda 宝塔

Leifeng Pagoda 雷锋塔

scenery 风景,自然景观

surrounding 周围的,周边的

location 地点,位置,定位

oriental 东方的,亚洲的 pearl 珍珠 Oriental Pearl 东方之珠

peak 山巅,顶峰 Victoria Peak 太平山顶

gambling 赌博 gambling house 赌场

ruin (复)废墟,遗迹 毁坏,毁灭 Ruins of St. Paul 大三巴牌坊

island 岛屿

various 各种各样的

latest 最近的,最新的,最晚的

bar 酒吧,(卖东西的)柜台

PC=personal computer 个人计算机

license 执照,许可证

giraffe 长颈鹿neck 脖子,颈项rather 相当,颇,宁可

below 在……下面

freeze 结冰

thick 厚的,浓的

mild 温暖的,暖和的(天气,尤指冬天),性情温和的

sunshine 阳光

flour 面粉,粉

plain 平原

a number of 一些,许多

lie in 位于

have fun 玩得开心

come true 实现

so … that 如此……以至于……

not only …but also 不仅……而且

be known as 作为……而著称

think of 想起,考虑,认为

break down 损坏,分解,抛锚

take away 拿走

二、语法句型

定语从句

定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中作定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who,whom,whose,that,which等。

关系副词有:when,where,why等。

(一)关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1.who,whom,that

这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2.whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如:

They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which)cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3.which,that

它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:

A prosperity (兴隆,繁荣,旺盛)which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

The package (which / that)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

4.关系代词that 的用法:

(1)不用that的情况

(a)在引导非限定性定语从句时。

(错)The tree,that is four hundred years old,is very famous here.

(b)介词后不能用。

We depend on the land from which we get our food.

We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

(2)只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况

(a)在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。

(b)在不定代词,如:anything,nothing,the one,all,much,few,any,little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。

(c)先行词有the only,the very修饰时,只用that。

(d)先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。

(e)先行词既有人,又有物时。

举例:

All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。

Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

(二)关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1.when, where, why

关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于―介词+which‖结构,因此常常和―介词+ which‖结构交替使用,例如:There are occasions when(on which)one must yield(屈服,投降,弯下去). 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

Beijing is the place where(in which)I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

Is this the reason why(for which)he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2.that代替关系副词

that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和―介词+ which‖引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:

His father died the year(that / when / in which)he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

He is unlikely to find the place(that / where / in which)he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

(三)判断关系代词与关系副词

方法一:用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

I’ll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

判断改错

(错)This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(错)I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对)This is the mountain village(which)I visited last year.

(对)I’ll never forget the days(which)I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

方法二:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago?

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

答案:例1 D, 在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既作了主句的表语,又可作从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。变为肯定句:

例2 A 而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用得不对,所以选A。变为肯定句:This is the museum where the exhibition was held.

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)。

(四)限制性和非限制性定语从句

1.定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:

This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2.当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:

Charles Smith, who was my former(以前的,从前的)teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3.非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。 说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

4.介词+关系词

(1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。

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