表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或 结果。 eg, I have spent all of my money.(含义是:现 在我没有钱花了.) Tony has (just/already) come. (含义：托尼 现在在这儿) My father has gone to work.(含义是:我爸爸 现在不在这儿)
（2）也表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现 在的动作或状态（常与for（+时间段）,since （+时间点或过去时的句子）连用.
eg, I have already studied English for two years. Mary has been ill since three days ago,
构成 have/has +过去分词
动词的过去分词的构成与过去式相似, 分为规则和不规则( 171 ) 规则：(1)、一般动词，在词尾直接加“ ed ”。 work---worked---worked ,visit---visited--visited (2)、以“ e ”结尾的动词，只在词尾加“ d ”。 live---lived---lived , (3)、以“辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词，将 "y" 变为 "i" ，再加“ ed ”。 study---studied---studied ,cry---cried---cried (4)、重读闭音节结尾，末尾只有一个辅音字母， 先双写该辅音字母，再加“ ed ”。 stop---stopped---stopped , drop---dropped—dropped
1. 以already“已经”（用于肯定句） , just“刚刚”和yet“还没 有”（用于否定句或疑问句）为标志 He has already done his homework. 他已得到她的帮助。
He has just seen the film.
She hasn‘t come back yet. 他还没有回来。
This is the best film I have ever seen. 好的一部电影。 这是我曾经看过的最
He has never been to Beijing. 他从没有到过北京。
He says he has been to the USA three times. 他说他已经去 过美国三次了。
4. 以so far（到目前为止）为标志
He has got to Beijing so far. 到目前为止他已到了北京。
She has passed the exam so far. 到目前为止她已经通过了 考试。
5.①for+时段 ②since+过去一个时间点为标志（ since + 时间点/ since+…ago/since+从句-过去时）
eg, I have lived here since 2002. =I have lived here since ten years ago. =I have lived here that I came here
have/has been to…曾经去过某地（已经返回原地） have/has never been to …从未去过某地 have/has gone to…去了某地（未回来，要么在那个 地方或者在去的路上，现在不在说话现场） have /has been in…一直在某地（还在所呆的地方）
eg , Where is your father？He has gone to Shanghai.
My father has been to Shanghai. My father has been in Shanghai for two months. /since two months ago.
I have never been to Beijing.
die, join, come，go ,leave, join ……）不能直接 与for since 连用。要改为延续性动词动词
have buy----have borrow -----keep go out----be out leave ----be away begin-----be on finish----be over open----be open close -----be closed die----be dead join—be in.
.( be become of…) marry- be married return---be back
come/arrive/reach/get to-----be in
1. have arrived/ got to/reached /come/gone/moved to →have been in…相应的介词 2. have come/gone back/returned → have been back 3. have come/gone out →have been out 4. have become → have been 5. have closed / opened→ have been close/open 6. have died → have been dead； 7. have left. → have been away from 8. have finished → have been over； 9. have married → have been married； 10. have begun → have been on 11. have borrowed/bought →have kept/had 12. have lost → haven’t had 13. have got to know → have known 19. have/has gone to → have been in 15. have joined→have been a member of
A)选用have, has填空: 1.I _______ told him the news. 2.She ________ come back from school. 3.You ________ won the game.
B)按要求改写下列各句: 4.They have bought a computer.(改成否定句) _________________________________________ 5.He has lost his book. (先改成一般疑问句,再作肯定与否定回答) _________________________________________
6. -Where have you _____, Kate? -I've ______ to the bank. A. gone, gone B. been, been C. gone, been D. been, gone 7. Her grandfather ______ for two years. A. died B. has died C. has been dead D. has been died 8. It's six weeks ______ I met you last. A. when B. since C. before D. for
现在完成时练习（二） 一、 单项选择。
1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what‘s happened to him .（呼和浩特） Ａ. knew Ｂ. have known Ｃ. must know Ｄ.will know 2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? Ａ. already Ｂ.never Ｃ.ever Ｄ. Still
3、Have you met Mr Li ______？
Ｂ. ago Ｄ. a moment ago
4、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . Ａ. has changed ; well Ｃ. has changed ; better Ｂ. changed ; good Ｄ. changed ; better
5、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .
Ａ. was ; studying Ｃ. has ; studied Ｂ. will ; study Ｄ. are ; studying
6、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . Ａ. know Ｂ. had known Ｃ. have known Ｄ. Knew 7、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice . Ａ. will see Ｂ. have seen Ｃ. saw Ｄ.see
8、—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really ? When _____ there ? Ａ. will they go Ｂ. did they go Ｃ. do they go Ｄ. have they gone
9、—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . Ａ. Did ; do ; finished Ｂ. Have ; done ; finished Ｃ. Have ; done ; have finished Ｄ. will ; do ; finish
11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 . Ａ. joined Ｂ. has joined Ｃ. was in Ｄ. has been in
12、—Do you know him well ? — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . Ａ. were Ｂ. have been Ｃ. have become Ｄ. have made
13、—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months . Ａ. been Ｂ. gone
Ｃ. come Ｄ. arrived 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . Ａ. has begun Ｂ. had begun Ｃ. has been on Ｄ. began 15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army . Ａ. is Ｂ. has Ｃ. will Ｄ. was
16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . Ａ.has gone Ｂ. went Ｃ.will go Ｄ. has been 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . Ａ. have been in Ｂ. have been to Ｃ. have gone to Ｄ. have been 18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they 19、 has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20、 His uncle____for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university