Definition of paragraph ?A paragraph is a natural component of a complete article. A paragraph is relatively self-independent in structure and idea. So a paragraph is often regarded as a miniessay.
I. structure and types of paragraphs ?A paragraph is generally composed of three parts:
?Topic sentence ?-----indicating the main idea ?Supporting sentence ?----- help explaining the main idea ?Concluding sentence ?----- making a conclusion, and it is often necessary to link with the topic sentence
Structure of a paragraph
? Topic sentence
? Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Supporting sentence Supporting sentence
1 how to write the topic sentence
? Three points:
?(1)a topic sentence must be a complete sentence, rather than a sentence fragment.
1. There have been more and more tourists, including a large number of foreigners. There are more and more tourists, ever many foreigners choosing to travel abroad.
?2. With the rapid improvement in economy, the life of people more and more better. ? With the rapid development of economy, people’s life becomes much better-off. ?3. Nowadays, with the development of the society, people under more pressure, maybe it from economic, study, family and so on. ? Nowadays, with the development of the society, people are under more intense pressure from every aspect of life, such as work, study and family.
?(2)a topic sentence comes in two parts, topic words(indicating object to be discussed) and expression of thesis(indicating the particular aspect of the thesis). ?E.g. The Women Movement has had several effects on the English language.
?Case study: ? 1. Day by day, the world become more and more small, interpersonal communication are more and more intense, and so it is between cultures. Sometimes if we want to, or maybe have to understand some foreigner better, we had better to learn their cultures, and that is the importance of traveling abroad. ? redundant sentence and unclear viewpoint
2. There are much beautiful scenery in the world. And in the long run, it is important for us to travel abroad. Pay attention to the logical thinking.
? (3)a topic sentence can be neither too general nor too specific. ?Position of the topic sentence: topic sentence can be put in the beginning, in the middle and at the end of a paragraph. It depends how the paragraph is developed. ? For example, if a paragraph is developed by deductive method, the topic sentence is often put in the beginning; if a paragraph developed by comparative or contrastive method, the topic sentence put in the middle; and if by conductive method, the topic sentence put in the end.
?Case: ?1. It is no deny that more and more people appreciate traveling abroad. ? (Too general) ? 2. We should travel abroad to know more things, which can broaden our eyes. (Too specific)
?Good example: ? With the development
of economy and transportation, a large amount of people have made traveling abroad a new fashion. The phenomenon exists for that they have discovered the importance of traveling abroad.
2 How to write supporting sentences Supporting sentences are the extension and specification of the topic sentence. ?Basic requirements： A: in the meaning, supportive to the theme; specific and typical B: in the form and also in the meaning, coherence and proper organization C: necessary quantities of supporting materials
II basic requirements of para. writing ?Unity ?Completeness
?All sentences in a para. should serve to support the main idea and irrelevant sentences should be avoided. 一个段落应该只说明一个问题，或一个问题的 某一方面；应该只叙述一件事情， 或一件事 情的某一个阶段。也就是说，一个段落内的各 个句子必须从属于一个中心，任何游离于中心 思想以外的句子都是不可取的。
一个好的段落应该具有统一性。统一性就是一个中心 思想统领整个段落。每个细节都应支持主题句，不应 有无关的细节。为了支持主题，要尽可能多地提供细 节，但又要避免滥用细节。
_______Supporting Sentence 1
__________ Supporting Sentence 2
________________ Supporting Sentence 3
_____________________ Supporting Sentence 4
例文：Millions of years ago, Australia was linked to Asia by a land bridge. Then an earthquake caused the land bridge to sink. The sea rushed in, and Australia became an island. Later, this island became a British colony. Many animals that once wandered back and forth across the land bridge were left in Australia. And 这一段讲的是远古时期的澳大利亚，当时连 kangaroos were among them. Though they 人类都没有，但然不必提它后来沦为英国的 were killed off by large animals in other 殖民地的事了。此句应删掉。 places, they were about to survive in Australia.
?Case : ? When traveling abroad, we see the living conditions, enjoy the culture, feel the thoughts the local people hold which are more advanced than the ones within our nation, which make us get such idea that if the advanced certain things can do something in our country? ? ( writing quite randomly without a central idea, and it is a supporting idea lack of unity)
Completeness(段落的完整性) ?Completeness means a clear and sufficient treatment of the main idea of the paragraph.
?一个段落的主题思想靠发展句来实现，如果只有主 题句而没有发展句来进一步交待和充实，就不能构 成一个完整的段落。
In my English study, I have many difficulties. My first difficulty is that my vocabulary is not large. The second difficulty I have is that I can not write well. The third difficulty is that my listening comprehension is
not good enough. Now I have a plan to study English well.
篇章结构： 主题句：I have many difficulties. 发展句：具体说明困难 My first
difficulty…; The second difficulty …; The third difficulty ….
结尾句： Now I have a plan…
本段落看似完整，有头有尾。但由 于缺少实质内容—即对学英语的困 难的原因的分析，文章显得空洞无 物；此外，结尾句讲到了plan,具体 内容有没有交待，给人留下话好像 没说完的感觉。 修改如下：
In my过渡句 study, I have English many difficulties. The following are some of them. My first 分析词汇量小的害处 difficulty is that my vocabulary 进一步分析问题的原因I can is not large. As a result, not read fast and understand well. As I am coming to middle age, it is not so easy to keep many new words in mind quickly.
The second difficulty I have is that I can not write well. As I have been very busy with my work which really doesn’t need any foreign 造成这一问题的原因 language, I seldom have a chance to write something in English. The third difficulty is that my listening comprehension is not good enough. This is because I had little training in listening while I was at college.
主题句 To get over these difficulties, I have worked out a plan. I plan 表明目 to read one or two pages of 的 English, such as China Daily, 21st Century English or some 具体措施-1 easy novels, in order to memorize the words on the one hand and keep in touch with the current news on the other.
具体措施-3 I will try to keep a diary in English and practice writing at 具体措施-2 a week. And finally I least twice will try to listen to English 结尾句，表明态度 cassettes two or three days. I believe that so long as I practice, I will be able to read, write, and understand better.
?Case: ?Firstly, traveling abroad help us to experience the new environment. Second, traveling abroad give us a chance to get to know different cognitive people. Finally, it let us experience difficulties to sharpen our own. ? ( Without SUPPORTING examples to make your argumentation convincing)
?Case: ? Third, travel abroad can develop the economy of the countries over the world. To make the economy of the world develop quickly. It is very important for the development of the world.
?(Nothing specific we can see in the viewpoint)
?Good example: ?Enjoying the scenery must be a reason for why people travel around. Places of interest abroad such as Fujiyama in Japan, Black Forest in Germany, lavender in Provence must be places that every one is yearning for .
Two sides: 1)coherence in thoughts (logical relation in idea ) 2)coherence in form (use of necessary transitional words or phrases) 连贯性包括意连—内在的逻辑型；和形连—使用过渡 词语、过渡句等方式。两者常常不可分割。只有形连 而没有意连，句子之间
如何取得连贯性的建议 1）使用同一时态 如果随意而毫无理由地改变时态， 那么不管作者连句的技巧多么高超， 段落也不可能取得连贯性。在写作 时，可以使用现在时或过去时。选 用哪一种取决于作者处理材料的方 式。
2)使用某种逻辑顺序 常用的逻辑顺序有： 1）时间顺序 2）空间顺序 3）重要性顺序 4）熟悉度顺序
3) 使用连接成分 使用某些连接词和短语，重复某些 关键词，可以大大增加段落的连贯 性。某些连接词、短语和关键词可 以起粘着物的作用，把各部分连接 起来，使句子间的关系更加清楚。
如何做到行文连贯？其中的一个技巧就是恰当使用连 结词。只有恰当使用了语句之间的连接成分，才能使 全文结构紧凑。
开始陈述 to begin with，to start with，let’s begin with, first of all, in the first place，above all, at first 1. I thought today was going to be really bad. To start with, it was raining, and rainy days make me sad. 2. I don’t agree that animals should live in the zoo. To begin with, / First of all… they have no freedom … 3. At first, I thought it might be a dog, but I can’t see a dog. 4. I thought today was going to be really bad. To start with, it was raining, and rainy days make me sad.
顺序列点 / 显示事件的先后顺序 firstly / secondly / thirdly；first / second / third, then, next, after this, after that, before this, before that eg. 1. First I need your name and address. Second, when’s your birthday? 2. He even handed out advertisements at a local supermarket. Then he told the teachers at school about this problem. 3. At 8 o’clock I have math. I don’t like math. Then at 9:00 I have science. Next, at 10:00, I have history. 4. After that, they went to the Outdoor Pool where there was a giant octopus.
表示 “另外, 还有” what’s more, besides, also, in addition, still, as well as No, I can’t have any pets because my mother hates them. Besides, out apartment is too small. Also, pigs need a lot of love. Still, it’s a great place to visit I’m lucky to be here for my six-month English course. Predicting the future can be difficult as well as embarrassing.
结束陈述 finally，lastly，in the end 1. First cut up three bananas，three apples and a watermelon. Next put the fruit in a bowl. Then put in two teaspoons of cinnamon and a cup of yogurt. Finally mix it all up. 2. He thought about going to Greece or Spain, but finally decided on Canada.
提供例子 like Some champions, like the golfer Tigerwoods, make billions of dollars a year. such as All the restaurants have famous food from Holland, such as cheese. for example Lillian Li, for example, said that the best way to learn new words was by reading English magazines. for instance It’s true that some ads ca
n be very useful. For instance, they can help you to compare two different products…… let’s say And receiving gifts isn’t always easy, either. Let’s say your grandmother give you an orange sweater.
表示转折关系 1. but She used to be short, but now she is tall. He has 46 soccer balls and 32 volleyballs. But he doesn’t play sports. 2. however However, life with a pig isn’t always perfect. 3. instead In Sweden, people don’t need to spend too much money. Instead, making a meal is enough. 4. on the other hand On the other hand, people who are stressed out and angry might have too much yang in their lives. 5. on the contrary The young man didn’t enjoy his old job. On the contrary, he finds the new job very interesting. 6. while William Ritchie loves the wallet, while his classmate Gina Ardelles loves the watch.
换一种方法表述 1. In other words 2. That is to say 用于陈述事实 1. In fact I love it. In fact, I think it’s probably my favorite. 2. To tell you the truth
显示资料来源 according to According to an ancient Chinese legend the emperor ShenNung discovered tea when he was boiling drinking water over an open fire. 改变话题 by the way I’d like to start a snow globe collectors’ club. By the way, what’s your hobby? as for As for homework, 95% students do homework everyday.
对一个话题进行总结 In short In short, the film was the best I’ve ever seen. All in all In a word
?Case: 1. I think the importance of traveling abroad has three points.
2. If we always live in the same place, our eyes will become smaller. 3. Certainly, we cannot only want to have a fun, we should have a study heart and make full use of it. 4. In general, though traveling abroad is expensive, it is better than bad.
3 how to write a concluding sentence ?2 rules ?A: obvious indication of the ending of the paragraph, some signal words for ending: in summary; in a word; in brief; in conclusion; to conclude; in short; in other words ?B: summarization or emphasis on the main idea to make the idea more impressive
Sample concluding sentences in writing tests
? 1. Taking into account of all these factors , we may reach the conclusion that _____ . ? 2. All reliable evidences point to one saying , that is _____ . ? 3. For the reasons presented above , I strongly commit to the notion that _____ . ? 4. While it is true that _____ , I think that _____ . ? 5. Given the factors I have just outlined , I can only say that _____ . ? 6. This is not to say that _____ . But in terms of _____ , it is _____ . ? 7. Therefore , it is easy to draw the conclusion that _____ . ? 8. Recognizing the fact that _____ should drive us to conclude that _____ . ? 9. To put all into a nutshell , I _____ . ? 10. In a word , I support the statement that it is better to _____ because
结尾段 ? 1．重复中心思想: 回到文章开头阐明的中心思想 或主题句上，达到再次肯定和强调的
效果。 (例1)A sense of humor is really one of the keys to happiness. It gives zest to life to make it worth living. (例2)With all these benefits, it is no wonder that sports and games have now become more popular with people than ever.
?Case: ?Taking all these factors into consideration, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that: the importance of traveling around is really worth the whistle.
?2．作出结论: 文章最后用几句话概括全文内 容，并进一步肯定文章的中心思想或作者的 观点。
(例1)In conclusion, a good teacherstudent relationship can be mutual beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably, and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job.
?Case: ?From the above-mentioned, we can easily find that traveling abroad is a good thing that benefits us a lot. Since we all know the importance, we should often travel around to open our mind if opportunities are offered.
?3．应用引语: 用格言、谚语或习语总结全文，既 言简意赅又有更强的说服力。 (例1)If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest way to permanent success. Remember the famous saying. "God helps those who help themselves." (例2)If we stick to studies day after day, there is nothing that can't be achieved. As an old saying goes: "Constant dropping of water wears away a stone."
?Case: ? The one who travels far knows more. ? Read ten thousand books, travel thousand miles.
? 4．用反问结尾: 虽然形式是问句，但意义却是肯定的， 具有明显的强调作用，引起读者思考。 (例1)Therefore, listening skills must be consciously improved. Since it is such an important means of learning and communication, why should we not develop this ability as far as possible? (例2)So，what can we benefit from wealth if we do not have health?
?Case: ?In recent years, there are an increasing number of people flock to travel agencies to travel abroad for holiday. Why is traveling so popular?
? With so many importance of traveling abroad mentioned, can you still resist the temptation of traveling?
?5．提出展望或期望: 表示对将来的展望或期待读 者投入行动。
? (例1)I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world the language is sure to be spread world widely.
?Case: ?In the end, if what I say can’t arose your interest, just pack up your bag and study the world by yourself. And you’ll find a new world of wonder. ?But many people dare not take the first step. Let’s have a try, you will get something you never know before.