The Present Perfect Tense( 现在完成时态 )
(一)现在完成时表示过去某时发生的动作到说 话时已经完成,对现在产生的影响或结果。 可用 一个一般过去时和一个一般现在解释。
这种用法一般不带明显的时间状语,但可以 already ,yet, just, once, twice等副词用
She has had lunch. She is full now.(现在的情况) She had it an hour ago.（过去的动作） （现在完成时把过去的动作和现在联系起 来并着眼于现在）
(二)未完成用法。表示动作或状态开始于 过去， 一直 延续到现在，这个动作并未结束还会继续延续下去。 这种用法一般可以与表示延续性的时间壮语连用,如 (1)for+数词+时间名词 e g. You have learnt/ed English for over three years. Mrs luo has taught Chinese for about 30 years. He has done his homework for an hour. (2)since+ 时间点/具体的过去时间 e g. You have learned English since 2003.
He has been in the army for ten years. He has lived here since 1977. He has lived here for 29 years.
B:since+S(主）+V-ed+others. You have learnt English since you came to No.1Middle School.
He has lived here for 29 years.
since…, for…, all one’s life in the past/last few years, so far,.
for: +一段时间 for two weeks for three years since 过去的某一时刻 since then since last month 一般过去时态的时间状语从句 since she left
注意:for 和since 所引导的时间状语都表示一段时间.
He has been away for a week. 对划线部分提问都用
He has been away since last week. How long
3.Special usage: a.要表示某人曾去过某处，或去过某处多少 次。要用have/has been to +a place
She has ever been to Beijing. (现在已不在北京，从结果上和现在联系起来） b.要表示某人一直在某处。
She has been in Beijing for two years. （现在仍在北京，从时间上和现在联系起来） I have been in this town since 1977.
c. 要表示某人到某地去了。即说话人不在 说话的地点。
He has gone to Shanghai. 他已经去了上海。
Ex: Say ―W‖or ―R‖ to the following sentences。 You have gone to Shanghai.( W)
Your pen-friend,Tom has gone to Shanghai. ( R) I have gone to Shanghai.( W )
Examination point: Say ―W‖ or ―R‖ to the following
sentences. A.He has bought a book.( R ) He hasn’t bought any books for a long time. ( R ) He has bought the book for two weeks.( W ) He has had the book for two weeks. ( R )
B.The old man has died. ( R ) The old man has died for two years. ( W ) The old man has been dead for two years. ( R )
段时间的时间 状语连用,但是可以转换成对应的延续性动词后接段 时间. 结束性动词与延续性动词的转换:
buy– have catch (get) a cold –have a cold
join the army – be a soldier / be in the army go to school– be a student/ be in school finish – be over begin—be on leave—be away fall sleep – be asleep close – be closed die—be dead
1.我们买这本书三年了. We have had the book for three years. We bought the book three years ago. 2.他感冒三天了. He has had a cold for three days. He caught a cold three days ago.
3.我借的这本书一周多了. I have kept the book for a week . I borrowed the book a week ago. 4.我成为一个学生两年多了. I have been a student for over two years. I became a student two years ago. 5.Mr Black死了三年了。 Mr Black has been dead for three years. Mr Black died three years ago.
1 Can you make sure ___ the gold ring? A.where Alice had put B.where had Alice put C.where Alice has put D.where has Alice put
2 When I was at college I ___ three foreign languages,but I ___ all except a few words of each. A.spoke;had forgotten B.spoke;have forgotten C.had spoken;had forgotten D.had spoken;have forgotten
3 ----I’m sorry to keep you waiting. ----Oh,not at all.I ___ here for only a few minutes. A.have been B.had been C.was D.will be ―(for) only a few minutes‖说明几分钟前来到 了这里，一直到现在。
5 My dictionary ___. I have looked for it everywhere but still ___ it. A.has lost; don’t find B.is missing; don’t find C.has lost; haven’t found D.is missing; haven’t found
4 ---___ the sports meet might be put off. ---Yes,it all depends on the weather. A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C.I’m told D.I told ―被告知”是过去的事，对现在的影响 是“我已知道”
6---Do you know our town at all? ---No, this is the first time I ___ here. A.was B. have been C. came D. am coming
7---Where ___ the recorder? I can’t see it anywhere. ---I ___ it right here, but now it’s gone. A.did you put; have put B.have you put; put C.had you put; have put D.were you putting; have put
8 --- Who is Jerry Cooper? --- ____? I saw you shaking hands with him at the meeting. A.Don’t you meet him yet B.Hadn’t you met him yet C.Didn’t you meet him yet D.Haven’t you met him yet
9 You don’t need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A.had met B. have met C. met D. meet
1. You’ve never seen such a wonderful film before, _______? A haven’t you B have you C do you D don’t you 2. --Ann has gone to Shanghai. ---So ____ her parents. A do B gone C have D done 3. – I have watched the game. --When ____ y
ou ____ it? A have watched B do watch C did watch D will watch
4. Mr. Green ____ in China since five years ago.
A lived B has lived C lives D is going to live 5. His grandma ______ for two years.
A died B has been dead C was dead
D has died 6. You haven’t changed your mind,_______? A do you B are you C have you D did you
7. --- Where is Han Mei now? --- She ____ to Shanghai. She will be back in two days. A has gone B has been C goes D had gone 8. I’ve never _____ to the United Stated, but I went to Canada a few years ago. A go B gone C got D been 9. How long have you _____ the football team of the school? A been on B been at C joined D played 10. ---Where have you _____ these days? ---- I have _____ to Dalian with my friends.
A been , gone B been , been C gone , been D gone, gone
11. How long have you ____ this dictionary?
A bought B borrowed C had D lent
12. –Excuse me, ____ you seen the film yet? --- Yes, I _____ it last night. A have, see B have, have seen C have, seen D have, saw 13. He has never ridden a horse before,_____? A is he B isn’t C hasn’t D has he