Do elderly couples really look alike?
You?ve probably seen it before---two elderly people walking hand in hand down the street and looking very much like each other. They look so much alike that they could be brother and sister.
Do you believe that people who live together for many years would look alike? It?s strange, but scientists say it?s true.
How scientists proved it?
In a study, scientists found young couples only showed similarity by chance. However, elder couples were very likely to look like each other. The similarity could be very subtle and could be found in wrinkles, furrows, etc. Besides, some couples look far more alike than other couples. The reason behind it
The scientists thought of several possible reasons:
1. Diet.“We are what we eat.”As couples usually share the same diet, will they probably look alike? For example, if both partners eat a high fat diet, their faces will tend to look fat. However, the scientists ruled this out using another small study.
2. Environment. Will elderly couples show similarity because they live together in the same area for a long time? The environmental factors such as sunshine and wind affect the skin in similar ways. The scientists ruled this possibility out as well.
3. Empathy. This is the theory the scientists believe in. Couples grow to look similar because they are empathizing with each other. They copy each other?s facial expressions. For example, if one partner often smiles in a certain way, the other is likely to copy it. In this way, their faces share similar wrinkles and furrows.
A look into the future
Some people still don?t believe in the“empathy”theory. And, some think growing to look more like your partner is a horrific idea. Others, though, think there?s something very sweet and romantic about it.
What can music do? As a personal expression? To increase patriotism? Or as a way to pass on traditions?
Sweet music for milking
Scientists believe farmers could get more milk from their cows by playing classical music in the cowshed.
In 2001, a group of UK psychologists played music of different tempos to some cows. Beethoven?s Pastoral Symphony* was a big hit in the milking shed. But when noisy music was played, there was no increase in milk yield. According to research, calming music can improve milk yield, probably because it reduces stress.
Music can help plants grow faster as well. In 2007, South Korean scientists proved that playing music, especially classical pieces, to plants really helps plants grow more quickly. Muzak*, more than music
Today, you hear muzak almost everywhere. Muzak is functional music rather than
entertainment; it affects those who hear it.
Music is art, but Muzak is science. And when you use the science of Muzak: In an office, workers tend to work more efficiently, and feel happier. In a factory, people feel better and, with less fatigue and tension, their jobs seem less monotonous. In a store, people seem to shop in a more relaxed and leisurely manner. That?s why we say Muzak is much more than music. Music as symbol
At the mention of the 1988 Seoul Olympics (汉城奥运会), what comes into your mind first? The theme song Hand in Hand (汉城奥运会主题曲《手拉手》), of course! It is one of the most favorite songs in Olympic history. As a successful Olympic song, Hand in Hand is easy but not simple. The song conveys the common dream of people around the world—peace and the spirit of the Olympics. Anyone, who saw the moment when 18,000 spectators sang Hand in Hand together with the singers on the stage, would feel the power of music.
Susan Boyle: A Dream Come True
Her appearance on the reality show Britain?s Got Talent (真人秀节目“英国达人”) lasted just a few minutes, but that was enough to bring 47-year-old Scottish church volunteer Susan Boyle to instant fame.
On the show, viewers saw the plain and plump (胖胖的) Boyle step onto the stage and say that her dream is to be a professional singer like Elaine Page*.
The judges snickered. There was laughter from the audience, and viewers, both live (在现场) and at home, were ready to see another hopeless loser. But when Boyle opened her mouth and sang I Dreamed A Dream (《我曾有梦》) from Les Misérables (《悲惨世界》), the judges were shocked, the crowd went wild, and—Boyle became a star.
A global phenomenon
The rise of Susan Boyle has been a global phenomenon.
From Japan to Denmark to the U.S., the clip of Boyle?s performance has fascinated viewers. Her clip was the most watched video on global network YouTube the week before last (上上周), attracting over 12 million hits (点击). Boyle?s face has appeared on the front pages of newspapers in Britain and other countries. She has been offered a seat on Oprah?s sofa*, and it has been predicted that she will have a worldwide number one album.
Boyle has shattered the prejudices surrounding age, appearance, and talent in the entertainment industry (娱乐业). She has proved that you don?t have to be young and attractive to be talented, and recognized as such.
“This is completely unprecedented,”says Andrew Llinares, executive producer (监制) of Britain?s Got Talent.“We have had big responses in the past, but we have never seen anything like this before. People love an underdog and she is the ultimate underdog.”
（材料四）地球需要“休息”：不仅仅是每年一小时的演示，更是我们365天的努力。 Electric Heroes
On March 28, where were you when the lights went out? Well, if you were like the millions of people around the world who were celebrating Earth Hour*, you were... in the dark! On that day, at that hour (8:30 to 9:30 p.m.),“electric heroes” in 4,000 cities in 88 countries chose darkness over the lights to show their concern for global warming (全球变暖).
An electric hero is someone (like you!) who limits their energy use whenever possible. It can be a simple thing such as turning off the lights when you leave a room, or just spending less time on the computer or watching television. These small energy savings can add up to big energy savings when done by millions of people. And that?s important for a country like China.
China?s economy has been growing rapidly, and its energy consumption has been growing even faster. Most of the energy China uses comes from fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. They are called fossil fuels because they come from living (有生命的) material that died millions of years ago. All living things are made of carbon, and when they are burned as fossil fuels, the carbon is released into the air in the form of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (导致“温室效应”的气体). It is these greenhouse gases that scientists say are the cause of global warming. As part of the five-year plan announced in 2006, China has promised to reduce energy consumption by 20 percent by the year 2010. So far, they are on track to achieve that goal; mostly by making industry more efficient. But more can be done, and that?s where you come in(我们还可以做更多，而这正是你可以参与其中的).
By being more aware of the energy you use and by using less energy whenever possible, you can help reduce greenhouse gases. It?s so simple to do... and so heroic, too!
Green Car Technology
Climate change is one of the biggest threats facing the world. Vehicle emissions add to greenhouse gases linked to climate change. Car manufacturers all over the world have spent a lot of time and money making“greener”cars, which do less harm to the environment. There are various types of green cars, and different technology is used.
Electric vehicles have been around for a number of years, but now their numbers are increasing with popularity. An electric car is powered by an electric motor that draws its power from an on-board battery pack (电池组), which acts as an energy store (能量储备). Batteries, usually Nickel metal-hydride (镍氢) or Lithium-ion (锂), are charged by simply connecting the vehicle to a main power supply. One feature of most modern electric cars is the braking system (刹车系统) which allows the battery to be topped up when the brakes are applied.
Hybrid cars generally use a combination of two power sources. The most common hybrid cars currently available on the market use both electric motors and petrol engines (汽油发动机). Batteries charge and act as a storage device to power an electric motor, usually working when the vehicle is travelling at low speed or stuck in traffic, therefore hybrid cars are ideal for city driving. The petrol engine, usually a small efficient unit, then powers the car when more power is needed, such as at higher speed. This allows the engine to operate only at its most suitable speed. Biodiesel cars
Biodiesel is produced from renewable energy sources such as rapeseed (油菜籽), sunflower, or soybean oil. Biodiesel is green as it has the potential to be carbon-neutral. In other words, the carbon dioxide emitted from the vehicle is balanced by the absorption of it from the atmosphere during the fuel crop?s (燃料作物) growth.
（材料六）富豪大亨们并非都像 “Green Orchids” 中的富翁Harry Saleem那样贪婪成性。世界上最富有的一些人正在用自己的财富为拯救这个星球出力。
Eco Barons: Save the Earth
Scientists and environmentalists have reached a growing consensus that time is running out for Planet Earth. The polar ice caps (极地冰盖) are melting. One in eight bird species is vanishing. Air, water, and ground pollutants are poisoning major population centers…
But according to a recently published book, there is“a secret plan to save the Earth.”This plan is being carried out by a group of“eco barons.”
Who are“eco barons”then? They are a band of visionaries—some of the world?s wealthiest tycoons and entrepreneurs—who are using their wealth, their energy, their fame, and their knowledge of law and science to persuade the world to take a new direction to save the Earth. These people, both men and women, are the modern-day heroic counterparts to the evil 19th century robber barons who originally set the world on the path to environmental destruction.
Bill Gates and Warren Buffet (“股神”沃伦·巴菲特) are among the eco barons. These two canny investors, who regularly swap places at the top of Forbes magazine?s annual list of world billionaires (福布斯年度亿万富豪榜), have spent some of their financial power on different areas. Gates has backed alternative fuels such as oil from algae (藻类), while in Buffet?s case, it?s wind power and electric cars.
Douglas Tompkins, the founder of the North Face and Esprit clothing lines, has also embraced environmentalism. He was always an outdoor adventurer—he would regularly disappear for months-long trips to the forests of South America—so when he burned out in the business world, Tompkins took his fortune, worth hundreds of millions of dollars, and began steadily buying acre after acre of threatened virgin forest (原始森林) in Chile (智利). Tompkins and his wife have obtained more than two million acres for conservation in Chile.
“Sucking Up”in the Workplace on the Rise
Whether it?s called“buttering up the boss,”“sucking up”or“managing up*,”experts say ingratiating behavior in the workplace is certain to be on the rise as workers worry about keeping their jobs in tough economic times.
“People who tend to?manage up?anyway are managing up more. They really want to make sure people are noticing what they?re doing,”says Max Caldwell, a workforce expert.“It?s a mentality of?I not only want to do a good job, but I want to be seen as doing a good job.?”
According to Jennifer Chatman, professor of organizational behavior (组织行为学) at the University of California at Berkeley (加州大学伯克利分校), that behavior increases when stakes are high.“It?s what we do when we feel ourselves vulnerable to the decisions of others,”she says. “In such an environment, underlings may be more likely to praise bad decisions or excuse poor judgment by a boss and avoid being frank,”says Chatman.“It can be bad for business, keeping the yea-sayers (应声虫) around.”
But according to some researchers,“sucking up”works.
A study by the University of Texas (德克萨斯大学) found: challenging a chief executive less, complimenting the CEO more and doing the CEO a personal favor increased the likelihood of being appointed to a corporate board (公司董事会) by 64 percent.
Stephen Viscusi, a writer, suggests a simple change in work habits.“If you come in five minutes earlier than the boss and stay five minutes later, the boss doesn?t know how long you?re there. He just knows that you?re always working.”
Others like writer Bill Hanover rule out ingratiating behavior altogether. “If you value self-respect, the respect of your peers and leaders, then sucking up your way to a promotion will leave you ashamed.”
（材料八）我们取得进步时总希望听到别人的赞美，但让我们取得进步的往往是别人的批评。 The Value of Truth
I feel good when people I trust say good things about me. It helps me to have positive thoughts about my abilities, and it brings a smile to my face. Most of us know people who always emphasize our best characteristics and who make us feel good about ourselves. People like that are important in our life. They are valued friends who make us feel warm and loved.
I also know people who always have negative opinions about life and the world in general. They never have anything positive to say about anything. Most of the time, I try not to pay much attention to this type of person or their negative comments. However, there are also many people in my life whose opinions I value and trust very much. When they offer objective criticism of me, I try my best to listen very carefully to this type of advice. There is a saying that the truth is not always pleasant, but it is almost always the truth.
As we progress through life, it is good to push ourselves, and to test our limits. The phrase,“You can do better”is most valuable when we believe it to be the truth. No matter how difficult the task, it becomes just a little bit easier when we know that improvement is still within our grasp.
Some of us possess the desire to work hard and to improve without outside motivation. However, most of us require the prodding of a trusted person to help us move forward with our lives. We should be happy when we have people around who care enough about us to tell us the truth, and to offer the encouragement that allows each of us to be all that we can be.