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外研版八年级英语综合语法

发布时间:2013-12-18 14:46:20  

1、一般过去时态

2、现在完成时态
3、过去进行时态

4、反意疑问句
5、动词不定式 课时:3个标准课

要求:四人小组分工合作完成!
时间状语 规则动词过去式 的构成规则

一般过去时
用法

各种句式结构

“直”
过 去 式 的 构 成 规 则

一般情况下在动词原形后直接加-ed. 如:want—wanted

“去”以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,去掉e再加-ed. 如:hope—hoped “双”
重读闭音节单词需双写最后一个辅音字母

再加-ed.如:stop—stopped

“改” 以辅音字母+y结尾的动词改y为i,再加ed.如:study—studied 注意:不规则动词变化,要逐一熟记。

2.实义动词过去式的句式。 ①肯定式:主语+动词过去式+其它。 如:They had a good time yesterday.

②否定式:主语+did not(didn’t)+动词原形+其它。
如:They didn’t watch TV last night. ③一般疑问句:Did+主语+动词原形+其它? 肯定回答:Yes,主语+did. 否定回答:No,主语+didn’t.

如:Did they have a meeting two days ago?

Yes,they did. / No,they didn’t.
④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+did+主语+动词原形+其它? 如:What time did you finish your homework?

3.一般过去时的用法: a.主要用于过去某个时间发生的动作或状态。 My father worked in Shanghai last year.

b.表示过去经常或反复发生的动作,常与often,always等 表示频度的时间状语连用。
I often went to school on foot.

c.与when等连词引导的状语从句连用。
When he got home,he had a short rest. 4.一般过去时的时间状语:

a moment ago(刚才),yesterday morning,last night/ week,the day before yesterday(前天),just now(刚才), in 2006, three days ago等

用所给动词的正确形式填空

went 1. I __________ ( go) to school yesterday.
played 2. She_________ ( play ) football last week. is singing 3. Look! Jack _________ ( sing ) now. read 4.You_____(read)the new paper the day before yesterday. saw 5. I _________ ( see ) Jack in the zoo last weekend.

did 6. I __________ (do) my homework last night
7.She will open _________(open)the mailbox the day after tomorrow. will help 8. I _______ ( help ) the little baby drink the milk the next morning. will work 9. The farmers __________ (work) on the farm next week.

watched 10. My parents_________ ( watch) TV last Monday.

句型转换
1. I went to the party last Friday. (改为一般疑问句) Did go ______ you ______ to the party last Friday? 2. I had a nice time last Sunday. (改为一般疑问句) Did have ______ you _______ nice time last Sunday?

3. We went to London two years ago. (对划线部分提问) go When ______ you_______ to London? ______ did
4. He did his homework in the morning. (改为否定句) didn’t do He_____ ______ his homework in the morning.

要求:六人小组合作完成

谓语构成
时间标志词

规则动词过去分词 的构成规则

现在完成时
各种句式结构

用法

谓语构成: 助动词have / has +动词的过去分词

(1)表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,

用 法
标 志 词

常与already (已经), ever (曾经),yet ,just (刚刚), before (以前) 等词连用。 (2)表示过去发生的动作持续到了现在, 常与for或since引导的时间状语连用。 (1)just,never, ever, already, yet等 (2)for +一段时间;since+点时间或 引导时间状语从句(一 般多为过去时) (3)so far(到目前为止); in the past/last+表示一段时间的词语

肯定式:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 I have lived here for ten years. 各 Lucy has lived here since 2001. 种 句 否定式:主语+haven’t/hasn’t+过去分词+其他 式 结 They haven’t had breakfast yet. 构 一般疑问句: Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他? Have you ever been to Beijing?

特殊疑问句: 疑问词+have/has+主语+过去分词+其他? How long has he lived here?

1、see— seen 3、study— studied 5、write— written 7、catch— caught 9、play— played 11、make— made

2、hear— heard 4、stop— stopped 6、teach— taught 8、go— gone 10、live— lived 12、forget— forgotten

(一)考查现在完成时的一般用法 ( B )1 . ——Kitty, will you go to see the film Cold Mountain this evening? ——No,I won’t.I_______it already. A.saw B.have seen C.see D.will see

( D )2.Gone with the Wind novel.She_______ it twice.
A.read B.is reading

is

a

well—known
D.has read

C.reads

( A )3.——How long_____ you_____ here?
——For about two years so far. A. have; studied C. do; stay B. did; live D. have changed

(二)考查非延续性动词与一段时间连用的表达方式 ( B)1.——Oh.Mrs.king, your dress looks nice. Is it new? ——No,I_____ it since two years ago. A.had B.have had C.bought D.have bought

( C )2.Jeff borrowed a history book from his friend.

He____it for a week.
A.has borrowed B.has lent C.has kept D.lend

( C )3.The students are sorry to hear that the famous singer_____for half an hour. A.has left B.has gone C. has been away

D. has gone away

(三)考查have/has been to,have/has gone to与have/has been in的区别 ( A )1.——Where's your father? ——He____ Shanghai.He’ll be back next week. A . has gone to D.have been to B . has been to C . have gone to

( B )2.——Where is David? ——He_____to England on business. A.is going B.has gone C.has been D.goes

( B )3.——_____
— ----Yes, twice. A.Have; gone

you ever_____ to the United States?

B.Have; been

C.Do;go D.Were; going

(四)考查for与since接时间状语时的区别

( A )1.——What a nice dog! How long have you had it?
----_____two years. A.For B.Since C. In

( D )2.Miss Gao has taught in this s

chool____ 1993. A. for B.at C.in D.since (五)考查现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

( C )1.---He has already gone to England.
---When______ he_______ there? A.will; go B.is; going C.did; go D.has; gone

( D )2.—Have you read this book?—yes, I____it two weeks ago.. A.am reading B.have read C.will read D.read

(六)现在完成时在特定语境下的使用

( B )1 . ——Helen , I told you to do your home-work as carefully as you can?
——Yes,but I——fewer mistakes than I usually do. A.was making B.have made C.will make D.had made ( D)2.——Has the match started?

——Started?
A.is winning

Finished!Guo Yue______.
B.wins C.will win D.has won

( B )3. Xiao Wang_____ English for thirteen years. So he can speak quite good English. A. had learned C. will be learning B. has learned D. learns

( C )4. The film_______for half an hour. A. has begun C. has been on B. has been begun D. began

( B )5. You don’t have to describe her. I______her several times. A. had met B. have met C. meet D. met

( D )6. Miss Yang is not at home. She____to the school library. A. went B. has been C. goes D. has gone

( B )7. He has never visited the Great Hall of the People._____? A. hasn’t he B. has he C. does he D. doesn’t he

谓语构成
时间状语 现在分词V-ing 构成规则

过去进行时
用法
各种句式结构

谓语构成: was/were+ 现在分词V-ing

用法:表示在过去的某一时间正在进行的动作
或存在的状态

时间状语:
at this time yesterday(昨天这个时候) at that time last week(上周那个时候) at nine yesterday evening(昨晚九点时) from seven to ten last night(昨晚从七点到十点)等, when或while引导时间状语从句的主、从复合句。

I was reading a newspaper when he came in.
他进来时,我正在看报。

While I was walking home, I met Mr Green.
我步行回家时遇到了格林先生. My father was reading a newspaper while my mother was cooking. 妈妈做饭时爸爸在看报。 注:while 引导时间状语从句的主、从复合句,两个过 去进行时并用,表示动作同时发生。

肯定式:主语+was/ were +v-ing +其它

各 种 句 式 结 构

He was sleeping when she arrived. 她到达时他正在睡觉。 主语+ was/were not +v- ing+其它 否定式: They weren’t planting trees at nine yesterday . 昨天早上九点他们不在植树。 一般疑问句: Was/Were+主语+v-ing +其它? Was he playing football when you rang me?你打电话给我时.他正在踢足球吗? 特殊疑问句: 疑问词+was/were+主语+v -ing +其它? What was Peter doing at this time last week? 上周这个时候彼特在于什么?

用was/were填空:
was 1、I___ listening to the music. was 2、She___ playing the piano. were 3、They__ looking at the flowers. were 4、We___ having a picnic. was 5、Lingling ___ watching TV. were 6

、Two boys___ reading book. were 7、Your uncle and aunt__visiting the Great Wall. was 8、Everyone___having lunch. were 9、People__ working on the farm. were 10、Some women__ singing pop music.

用所给动词的适当形式填空。 were having 1.You____________ (have) a meeting at 9 last Monday morning. were playing 2.They__________ (play)football when I passed. 3.She___________ (take)a walk when we had a talk. was taking trying 4.____they _______ (try)to draw horses Were blackboard when the teacher came in?

on

the

5. The students were listening _________ (1isten)to the teacher carefully while he was teaching 。

按事实回答

回答

概念

当我们陈述一个事实, 而又不是很有把握, 就可以在陈述句后加 一 个简短问句,称为 反意疑问句。

意义
……… , 对吧/是吧?

反意疑问句

构成
陈述句+简短问句

规律

〖助动词/系动词be/情态动词
+主语(代词)〗

陈述句是肯定的, 简短问句用否定形式; 而陈述句是否定的, 简短问句就用肯定形式; (前肯后否,前否后肯)

二、祈使句用于反意疑问句中
这种类型较特殊,前一部分是祈使句,后一部分是肯 定疑问形式。 句 型 1:Let’s+ 动 词 原 形 + 其 它 , shall we? 例 : Let’s go for a walk, shall we? 而 Let us go for a walk, will you? 句 型 2: 其 它 形 式 的 祈 使 句 , will Come into the classroom, will you? you?

Please be careful, will you?
Don’t panic,will you?

注意:There be句型
1﹒There is an old picture on the wall, isn’t there? 2. There aren’t any children in the room, are there? 3.There wasn’t a telephone call for me, was there?

4.There were enough people to pick apples,
weren’t there?

5.There will be a basketball match tomorrow, won’t
there?

★ 值得注意的是有时英语的谓语动词并不用否定式 ( 即 没 加 上 not ) , 而 是 用 上 了 “never, little, few, hardly, nothing, nobody”等表 否定意义的词,后半部分应用肯定疑问式。 ① You have never been to Beijing, have you? ② Mr. Fat has few friends here, does he? ③ There is little milk in the bottle, is there? ④ He could do nothing, could he?

完成下列反意疑问句:
didn’t she 1. Mary listened to pop music,______ ______? has he 2. He has never been to Shanghai_____ _____? does he 3.He has few friends at school,______ _______? doesn’t it 4.The music sounds beautiful,_______ _______?

can you 5.You can’t dance to jazz,______ _____?
were there 6.They weren’t at the concert,______ _______? shall we 7.Let’s stop writing,_______ _______? will you 8.Don’t be late,_______ ________?

动词不定式
动词不定式是初中英语的语法重点之一,也是每年中考英语 试题的考点之一。它是动词的一种非谓语形式,没有人称和 数的变化,不能单独作句子的谓语。其构成形式为"to+动词 原形

",to为动词不定式的符号,本身无意义。动词不定式 具有两大特点:

1.具有动词的特点,因此,后面可以跟表语、宾语或状语, 构成动词不定式短语。
2.具有名词、形容词或副词的特点,可以在句子中用作主语、 宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、表语及同位语等。

一、动词不定式作主语

( C)

1. It's hard for us ______English

well. A. learn B. learns C. to learn D. learning ( D )2. It's very nice _________ you to get me two tickets _________ the World Cup.

A. for, of
C. to, for

B. of, for
D. of, to

[简析]动词不定式作主语时,可以直接放在谓语动词前面 的主语位置,也可以用先行词it作形式主语,而将真正的主语 (不定式)置于后面。常见的句式有:(1)It is +形容词(of sb)to do sth.(2)It is +形容词(for sb)to do sth.(3)It takes sb some time to do sth.(4)It is +名词短语(for sb)to do sth.

句式(1)中常用nice, kind, clever, good, right, wrong, foolish, careless等形容词,与介词of搭配,这些形 容词常表述不定式逻辑主语的属性或性质; 句式(2)中常用hard, difficult, easy, important等形容词,与介词for搭配,表示 不定式表示的动作、行为的性质。

二、动词不定式作宾语

( C )1. He wants ______ some vegetables.
A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys ( A )2. Don't forget ______ your homework with you when you come to school. A. to bring B. bringing C. to take D. taking ( D )3. He found it very difficult ______. A. sleeping B. sleeps C. slept D. to fall asleep [简析]在want, like, agree, hope, wish,

learn, begin, start, decide, hate, choose, forget, remember等动词后面,可以接
不定式作宾语。如果其后接形容词补足语时,则可以用 it作形式宾语,而把作真正宾语的不定式放到后面。

三、动词不定式作宾语补足语
( B)1. Robert often asks us ______ his Chinese, so his Chinese is much better than before.

A. help him
B. C. to help with

B. to help him with
D. helps him with

( C)2. Mr Li often teaches his Japanese friends ______ Chinese food. A. cook B. cooks C. to cook D. cooked [简析]不定式可以用作宾语补足语。后面可以接不定 式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask, teach, expect, tell, allow 等。

四、动词不定式作状语
( A)1. She went ______ her teacher. A. to see B. looks C. saw D. seeing

( C)2. Meimei likes English very much. She does her best ______ English well.
A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learns

[简析]go, come, try, do / try one's best等动词或短语动词作谓语时,其后常常可以 接不定式作目的状语。

( C)3. I'm sorry ______ that. A. hears B. hearing C. hear D. to hear ( B )4. I'm sorry ______ you. A. trouble B. to trouble C. troubling D. troubled ( A)5. My mother was very glad ______ her old friend. A. to meet B. meet C. me

t D. meets [简析]"be +形容词+ to do sth"结构中的不定式 作状语,常表示原因或方式。

五、动词不定式作定语 ( C)1. Would you like something ______? A. drink B. drinking C. to drink D. drinks

( D )2. I have a lot of homework ______.
A. do B. doing C. did D. to do ( D )3. He is not an easy man ______. A. get on C. get on with B. to get on D. to get on with

[简析]不定式作定语时,常放在被修饰的词语之后,与被 修饰的词语为逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系;如果不定式的 动词是不及物动词,其后要加上必要的介词或副词,构成的 短语动词相当于及物动词。

六、不带to的动词不定式 ( B )1. We saw him ______ the building and go upstairs. A. to enter B. enter C. entering D. entered ( D )2. So much work usually makes them ______ very tired. A. to feel B. feels C. feeling D. feel
( C )3. Your father is sleeping. You'd better______. A. not wake up him B. not to wake up him C. not wake him up D. not to wake him up

[简析]1.在see, watch, hear, feel等感官动词和make, have, let 等使役动词后面作宾语补足语的不定式不 带to.

2.在"had better"后面接不带to的不定 式。

七、动词不定式的否定形式 ( B )1. The old man told the child ______ noisy. A. not be B. not to be C. to not be D. be not ( C )2. There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have, not to be B. have, not be C. be, not to be D. be, not be [简析]动词不定式的否定形式通常是在不定式符

号to的前面加上not,如果是不带to的不定式就直 接在动词原形前面加上not.

八、某些动词后面接不定式和接动词-ing形式的区别 ( A )1. Please stop ______ a rest if you feel tired. A. to have B. having C. have D. has

( C )2. ——Why didn't you buy some bread on your way home?
——Sorry, I forgot ______ some money with me.

A. take B. taking C. to take D. took
( C )3. ——Let's have a rest, shall we? ——Not now, I can't stop ______ the letters. A. write B. to write C. writing D. and write 4. Jim was badly hurt, so he had to stop walking ______ (walk).

双宾语用法要点
此结构由主语+及物谓语动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语 (事物)组成。如,
He brings me cookies every day.

She made me a beautiful dress.
但若要先说出直接宾语(事物),后说间接宾语(人),则 要借助于介词to或for,如,

He brings cookies to me every day.
She made a beautiful dress for me. 用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。 用for侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。

常跟双宾语的动词有:
(需借助to的)bring, give, lend, hand,

offer, pass, pay,
teach,等。

return, send, show,

(需借助for 的)buy, call, cook, choose, draw, get, make, sing,等。


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