宾语(表语) 从句 定语从句
没有(所 1We will go hiking if tomorrow is fine. 以可前置） 2When the UFO arrived, what was you doing? 动词或词 1Please tell me what you did last night. 组 2I am interested in what she likes. 名词/代 1 the girl who he loved deeply married last year. 词
1. I meet a friend who I made in Shanghai. 2. It is the right book that I have looked for.
主句现在类，从句无要求； 主句过去类；从句过去类 宾语从句 1. I knew what he was. 2. I know what he was. 3. I know what he is. 同时出现类型： 时间 状语从句
前引：根据主从句的三种时间关系，分为主 从句同时发生、主从句都没有发生、主从句一前一后发生三类句型， 每种句型分别对应独特的句式
What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
What are you doing when the UFO arrives?
过去配过去 I would leave if he came. I will leave if he comes.
The train had been away when I arrived.
前引：根据主从句的三种时间关系，分为主 从句同时发生、主从句都没有发生、主从句一前一后发生三类句型， 每种句型分别对应独特的句式
过去类：….过去进行 when 一般过去 现在类：…现在进行… when 一般现在
过去类：过去将来 when 一般过去 现在类：一般将来when 一般现在 过去完成 when 一般过去
? ? ? ? ?
You are copying when I teach You were copying when I taught I will leave as soon as he arrives I would leave as soon as he arrived The train had left before I arrived at the station ? After the train had left, I arrived
词 what when which who whom where whose why how that while
状语从句 宾语从句 定语从句 Do _to do..
? 1、因为,可引导原因状语从句 (because/ since/ for/ as都 可引导原因状语从句) ? 例:As he wasn’t well, I went there along.因为他不舒服,我 自己去那儿了. ? 2、conj 同时强调 “一边…一边”, 可引导时间状语从句 (as/ when / while 的详细区别,见 when的讲解) ? 例:He song as he went alone.他边走边唱. ? 3、as soon as….一…就…,引导时间状语从句 例: He got on the train as soon as he got to the station.他一到车站 就登上了火车. ? 4、as…as…和…一样 例:He is as tall as his father. 他和 他的爸爸一样高 ? 5、as if就象,常用于虚拟语气.例: She looks as if she were drunk.她看上去好象喝醉了.
是否-whether He wondered if the girl would appear. （宾语从句） 可能发生 （主将从现）
如果 I will tell you if you
visit me. 不可能发生 （虚拟语气） I would study hard if I were you.
? even if =though=although=even though即 使,连接让步状语从句 ? 例: He improves himself in English little even if he studies hard.即使他学习很努力, 英语仍少见提高 ? as if 虚拟语气连接词.好像,活似 ? 例: The old man runs very fast as if he were a young man.这个老人跑得很快好像 是个年轻人一样(as if引导的特殊虚拟语气. 主句正常时态 as if+ 主+过去时/were)
? 题: You will do much better __ you are more careful with your spelling. ? A if B before C although D unless 题:–Come and join us, Jimmy! ? -- I am sorry, but I am really busy now. if I __ time, I would certainly go. ? A. will have B. have had C. had D. have ? 解析:如果我现在有时间,我一定去,(表明我 现在没有时间,和现在相反,现在时的虚拟语 气)
? 讲解:1)特殊疑问词----例:What is he? 他是干什么 的？ ? 2)连接宾语从句---例: I believed what he told me 我相信他告诉我的事(引导宾语从句)。 ? 3)后接不定式---例:I don’t know what to do. 我不 知道该做什么。 ? 4)引导感叹词, 句型: what +n +陈述句!--- how+形 容词+陈述句! ? 例:What a beautiful girl she is! 她真是个漂亮女孩！ --How beautiful she is!
4.when(adv)何时，什么时候； 当……的时候 (conj)当……时
? 讲解:1)特殊疑问词---例: When did you come here? 你什么时候来的？ ? 2)连接宾语从句---例: I don’t know when the plane takes off.我不知道飞机何时起飞 ? 3)连动词不定式---例:I don’t know when to leave for London. 我不知道何时动身去伦敦 ? 4)连接状语从句---注意三类从句,注意主从句发生 时间和相对应的时态(必考内容!例句背) ? 5)连接定语从句 ? 例:It happened on the day when we began our new term. 事情发生在新学期的第一天
? 讲解：whether是连词，有两个意思,分别引到不同的从句 ? 1)表示是否引导宾语从句=if ? 例:I don’t know whether he will come. 我不知道他是否会 来 ? 2) 表示是否---引导动词不定式(此时if不能这样用) ? 例: She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 她还没决定 去还是不去。 ? 3)表示:不管，无论---引导状语从句(易忘记) ? 例:Whether you like it or not, you’ll have to do it. 你必须 做这件事，不管你喜不喜欢 ? 区别if --- whether ? 一:表示是否连接宾语从句,if=whether ? 二:表示是否连接不定式if不可以,whether可以 ? 三:连接状语从句时,if表如果—whether表无论
? 讲解:1)特殊疑问词----例: Which came first, the chicken or the egg?哪个先产生，鸡还是蛋？ ? 2)连接宾语从句---例: I don’t know which came first 我不知 道哪个先来 ? 3)后接不定式---
例:I don’t know which to be chosen . 我不 知道该做选哪个。 ? 4)连接定语从句,指代物(定语从句中用which 代替what) ? 例:I like the book which you bought for me.我喜欢这本你 为我买的书 ? 5)作形容词，哪一个，哪一些。 ? 例:Which foreign language are you studying? 你在学哪种 外语。
? 1)当…的时候。Be ving …when …一般时---- 一般时 while be ving… ? 例:The phone rang while I was washing my hair. 电话响的时候 我正在洗头 ? 例:The phone was ringing when I washed my hair. 电话响的时 候我正在洗头 ? 2)虽然，尽管。 ? 例:While he was respected, he was not liked. 他虽然受到尊敬， 但没有受到喜爱。 3)表示对比，而，然而。While只能连接从句---but不能连接从 句 ? 例:He is a doctor while I am a teacher. 他是个医生而我是老师 4)while作名词是表示一段时间，常用词组: for a while ? 例:It takes a while to repair the bike.
? 讲解:who即可以作主语,又可以作宾语;而whom只能做宾 语 ? 1)特殊疑问词----例: Who came first?谁第一个来的?(不可 替换,who做主语) ? 2)连接宾语从句---例:I don’t know who/whom came first 我不知道谁先来(可替换,who做宾语) ? 3)后接不定式---例:I don’t know who to come first .我不知 道谁先来(不可替换,who做主语) ? 4)连接定语从句,指代人(可替代主语,宾语) ? 例:I like the baby who sits before me.我喜欢这个坐在我 前面的孩子(注意单数,常考题) ? 例:I like the baby who you like too.我喜欢你也喜欢的这个 孩子(替代宾语)
? 讲解：:1)特殊疑问词----例: Whose pen is this? 这是谁的笔。 ? 2)连接宾语从句---例: I wonder whose house it is. 我想知道这是谁的房子 ? 3)连接定语从句,指代人、物。 ? 例: This is the girl whose name is Mary. 这 就是那个叫玛丽的女孩。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
1.Shaolin Temple lies in the west of Zhengzhou welcomes the visitors both at home and abroad. A. where B. which C. who D. what 2.Last summer I went to Lu Xun’s hometown and visited the house he was born. A. that B. there C. which D. where 3.Can you tell me _________ ? A. where does Tom live B. where to Tom live C. Tom lives where D. where Tom lives 4.I think _______ you will like him. A. that B. if C. why D. how
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ?
5.May I sit nearer ___I can see more clearly? A.as if B. so that C. even if D. so 6.Do you know _________? A. whose pen is this B. whose pen this is C. whom does the pen belong to D. whom the pen belong to 7.Mary is always the first person puts up hands for the teachers’ questions. A. that B. he C. whom D. which 8.Look at that lady name is Pochi. A. who B. whose C. whom D. that
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
9.I wonder _________ . A. how much cost these shoes B. how much do these shoes cost C. how much these shoes cost D. how much are these shoes cost 10.This is the biggest ship I’ve ever seen. A. who B. whom C. that D. whose 11.That was the year I went to America. A. when B. where C. that D. which 12.This is the reason I came here. A. when B. that C. why D. which
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
13.Ask him _________ . A. whose cup this is B. whose cup is this C. this is whose cup D. whose is this cup 14The doctor asked me how long ________ . A. was I ill B. have I been ill C. I have been ill D. I had been ill 15.Tom will call me as soon as he ___ Shanghai. A. arrives B. will reach C. arrives in D. get to ? 16. Tom has got a watch. He ___ it for two years. It _______ by his father. A. has bought; was bought B. has got; is bought , C. was bought; has bought . D. has had; was bought
? 17When he got to the station, the train ___. A. left B. had left ? C. leaves D. has left ? 18.He is a teacher I like very much. ? A. who’s B. whose C. / D. which ? 19.Those will go to the park stay here. ? A. who B. that C. whom D. whose