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中考英语书面表达(16)

发布时间:2013-12-20 09:40:38  

1.新课程标准中关于写的要求
新的课程标准中关于五级水平(即初中毕业要求达到的水平)的 要求是:

A.能根据写作要求,收集、准备素材;

B.能独立起草短文、短信等,并在教师的指导下进行修改; C.能使用常见的连接词表示顺序和逻辑关系; D.能简单描述人物或事件; E.能根据所给的图示或表格写出简单的段落或操作说明。

2. 中考引入书面表达的意义
书面表达是一项能充分考查学生语言 综合能力的题型。 ? 配合课程标准,使教师和学生对写 的能力的培养引起足够的重视,可 以说起到了一种导向作用。 ? 是教材改革的发展趋势。

3. 处理好三个方面的关系
?A. 学生与大纲(课程标准)、教材的关系

?B. 听、说、读与写的关系
?C. 词、句与篇的关系

3. A. 学生与大纲(课程标准)、 教材的关系
?大纲(课程标准)对写作的任务、形式、 范围等方面作了具体的规定。 ?体裁、形式不离课本。 万变不离其宗,这个“宗”就是课本。 把 握教材是提高我们英语书面表达水平 的根本。

3.B. 听、说、读与写的关系
?这里的“听”是指“听写”。

原始习作。 ?其次,“说” 增强语感,了解英汉差异, 熟悉日常用语 与习惯用语。
?第三,“读”是写的基础。 读课文 , 课外阅读

3.C.词、句与篇的关系
C
P1 P2 P3 P4 ...

1. Word 2. Sentence 3. Paragraph 4. Composition

S1 S2 S3 S4...

w1w2w3w4...

3.C.词、句与篇的关系
?用词:选用恰当的词来表达。 e.g. borrow & lend, stop to do sth. & stop doing sth.

?选词:根据图上信息,选用关键词来表达。

?掌握多种变通方式,可以用一句多译 的练习来达成。
如“我花二十元买了块新手表”可以译为:

(1).I spent twenty yuan on my new watch.
(2).The new watch cost me twenty yuan.

(3).I paid twenty yuan for the new watch.

4. 书面表达的两种主要形式和具体要求
A. 记叙文(尤其是故事性的)
?注意五个“W”,即:

when, where, who, what, why
?Time order: In the library, The pan, The accident

?Place order:

A visit to the factory

范文 1
Today we visited a farm. Early in the morning we met at the school gate and went there together. The farm workers gave us a warm welcome. Then the head of the farm showed us around. How glad we were to see the crops and vegetables growing well. At noon we had a picnic lunch in the sunshine. After a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing, telling jokes or stories. Two of us even played a game of chess. The time passed quickly. Before we knew it, we had to say good-bye to the workers.

范文 2
Class 1 Junior 3 Zhejiang Hongda School December 2nd Dear Mr Smith, I was so pleased to hear from you and writing to tell you something about my school. You are right. Quite a few changes have taken place(发生). On o

ne side of the road there is a new classroom building. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building---our library. In it there are all kinds of books, newspapers and magazines(杂志). The playground is now in front of the school. We have also planted a lot of trees in and around the school. I hope you come and see for yourself some day. Best wishes. Yours, Li Hua

4.书面表达的两种主要形式和具体要求
? B. 其它应用文, 包括:书信、日记、通知、便条 (请假条、电话留言、留言条)及贺卡等 。 ? C. 几种文体的结合, 这是很值得我们关注的 一个趋向。如上面举例中的范文,是在信中进 行说明,是一封信,但又是一篇以空间为顺序 的说明文。

把范文1改用日记形式写: December 2nd Sunday sunny

Today we visited a farm. Early in the morning we met at the school gate and went there together. The farm workers gave us a warm welcome. Then the head of the farm showed us around. How glad we were to see the crops and vegetables growing well. At noon we had a picnic lunch in the sunshine. After a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing, telling jokes or stories. Two of us even played a game of chess. The time passed quickly. Before we knew it, we had to say good-bye to the workers.

5. 应引起重视的几种呈现形式
?图片式 : 单幅画: 多幅画: 多幅图的可能是按顺序排列,也有可能 要我们先排列,再写作。

单幅画:

多幅画:

?文字式:提供的是几点文字信息,如:
假如你叫Dick,两个月前去英国的一所高中读 书,前天收到了Michael的一封信。请你写一封 回信,信中要涉及以下内容:

1.祝贺他在校运会上获得了男子400米冠军; 2.你已给他寄了一本英英词典,让他收到后告诉你; 3.你在英国和同学们相处得很好; 4.告诉他你新申请了个E-mail, Dickyu@yahoo.com
申请——register

?图表式:(standing room only)

范文 3
10,000 years ago, the world’s population was very small. For several thousand years it grew quite slowly. But during the last three or four hundred years it has grown very quickly. Today, it is still growing faster than ever before. This means we must grow more food, and have smaller families with fewer, but healthier children. If we don’t do these things, the results will be very bad. There will not be enough space even to stand in on the earth.

6、平时训练中的几个注意点
?海宁市2001年中考英语看图表达部分的评分标准 Ⅰ.定性标准

第五档(12-15):能写明全部或绝大部分要点;表达 清楚,行文连贯,语言基本无误。
第四档(9 - 11):能写明大部分要点;表达基本清楚, 行文基本连贯,语言有少量错误。 第三档( 6-8 ):能写明基本要点;语言有较多错误, 尚能达意。

第二档( 3-5 ):能写明部分

要点;语言错误多,影响 意思表达。
第一档( 0-2 ):白卷或文不对题,或错误百出,不知 所云。

Ⅱ. 定量标准
A. ①全部或绝大部分要点-----5个; ②大部分要点-------------4个;

③基本要点---------------3个;
④部分要点---------------2个;

B.

①语言基本无误----------------只允许1-2个小错,无大错;
②语言有少量错误-------------1个大错或3-4个小错; ③语言有一些错误-------------2个大错或5-6个小错;

④语言有较多错误-------------3个大错或7-8个小错;
⑤语言错误多-------------------4个大错或7-8个小错; ⑥语言错误很多----------------5个大错或10个以上小错;

注:
?大错误指:
句子结构,谓语构成,词序,语态,时态等方面;

?小错误指:
名词单复数,第三人称单数,拼写,标点符号, 大小写方面。

2001中考答案中的范文
It’s Sunday today. It’s a nice day. Jim’s family are spending their holiday on a small island. They get there early with some nice food and drink. They are enjoying themselves. Look, Jim’s playing with the sand and his parents are drinking and talking happily beside him. Behind them we can see two people lying on the sand and enjoying the sunshine. Some children are swimming in the sea. There are two boys playing with a model ship nearby and two girls playing with a model plane over there. The plane is flying high in the sky. Everyone is having a good time.

6、平时训练中的几个注意点
A. 平时注重解题技巧的养成

?准备工作
①.仔细审题,明确要求。 罗列信息,认真分析,审清题意,列出要点。 ②.紧扣要点,寻求思路。

草拟提纲,确定开头,选词、选句,拟好结尾 (可适当发表自己的观点)。

?写作之中
①.开门见山,紧扣主题 。

参观农场的日记: Sunday we visited West Hill Farm. Last
关于度假: We had a happy holiday in Jiaxin last weekend.

②.语言正确, 规范地道。 ?句型、结构,避免中国式英语。 I spent 10 yuan buy the book.
He by bike to school.

?标点符号

③.重短轻长, 就易避难。
?以写正确、通顺为最基本要求。 ④.过渡自然, 表达流畅。 ?正确使用连词,保持行文的流畅。

?不重复使用可置换的词。

⑤.适当评论, 发表己见。 How friendly they are! We can learn from them. They enjoyed themselves very much. What a happy family.

3.成文之后
①. 一般语法项目的检查
人称: Mr. Green works hard, she is the best worker in their office. 时态: One day, they are going to the island. 主谓一致: Everyone in our class work hard. 习惯用法: He helps me in my English.

②. 注意语序 (感叹句,疑问句,宾语从句)
Jim works very hard. So does Jack.(前后主语非一人)
A: Jim works very hard. B: So he does.(前后主语为一人) He didn’t know where the booksh

op was. The boys want to know how they should do it.

③. 符合习惯 My work is very busy.
I’m very busy with my work.

I very much like it.
I like it very much.

④. 书写规范, 卷面整洁。

收集信息,列出提纲

?开门见山 ?抓住主题,描写细节
?发表己见,画龙点睛 ?结尾有力

仔细检查,认真抄写

?坚持循序渐进的训练原则。

?注意老师的讲评。


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