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初三英语知识点总结及练习

发布时间:2013-12-20 10:42:28  

初三年级(上)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. at the moment

2. used to

3. for a while

4. walk away with sth.

5. leave for some place

6. sooner or later

7. pay for

8. come up with an idea

9. think of

10. have a try

11. all over the world

12. be famous for

13. large numbers of

14. all the year round

15. no matter what

16. give up

17. for example

18. by the way

19. on business

20. so far

21. come true

22. set off

23. slow down

24. go on doing

25. wait for

26. be proud of

27. be afraid of

28. speak highly of

29. a year and a half

30. half a year

31. pick up

32. as soon as

33. keep… clean

34. take care of

35. cut down

36. make a contribution to

37. base on

38. make sure

39. take away

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40. begin with

41. right now

42. as soon as possible

43. leave a message

44. all kinds of things

45. walk around

46. fall asleep

47. wake up

48. go on a trip

49. have a good time

50. take photos

51. come out

52. come on

53. have a family meeting

54. talk about

55. go for a holiday 56 go scuba diving

57. write down

58. by oneself

59. walk along

60. get a chance to do sth

61. have a wonderful time

62. book a room

63. have an accident

64. be interested in

65. use sth. to do sth.

66. make a TV show

67. be amazed at

68. take part in

69. feed on

70. get out of

II. 重要句型

1. Why don’t you do sth.?

2. make sb. Happy

3. borrow sth. from sb.

4. forget to do sth.

5. pay fro sth.

6. return sth. To sb.

7. learn sth. from sb.

8. be famous for sth.

9. No matter what…

10. be with sb. 2

11. go on doing sth.

12. speak highly of sb.

13. keep doing sth.

14. allow sb. To do sth.

15. encourage sb. to do sth. 16. It is said that…

III. 交际用语

1. --- Excuse me, have you got …?

--- Yes, I have. (Sorry, I haven’t.)

2. --- Why don’t you …?

--- Thanks, I will.

3. --- Thanks a lot. (Thank you very much.)

--- You are welcome.

4. --- Have you ever done…?

--- Yes, I have, once. (No, never.)

5. --- I’ve just done…

--- Really?

6. ---What’s …like ?

7. --- How long have you been…?

--- Since…

8. --- Have you ever been to…?

--- I’ve never been there. (None of ushas./ Only …has. )

9. --- Would you like to have a try?

--- I don’t think I can…

10. --- What have you done since…?

11. --- How long have you been at this …?

--- For…

12. --- How long has she/ he worked there…?

--- She’s / He’s worked there for… / allher / his life.

13. --- I’m sorry he isn’t here right now.

14. --- May I help you?

15. --- That’s very kind of you.

16. ---Could we go scuba diving?

17. --- Could you tell us how long we’regoing to be away?

18. --- Let’s try to find some informationabout it, OK?

19. --- Could you please tell me how tosearch the Internet?

20. --- Go straight along here.

21. ---Please go to Gate 12.

22. --- Please come this way.

23. --- Could you tell me what you thinkabout Hainan Island?

24. --- That sounds really cool!

IV. 重要语法

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1. 宾语从句

2. 现在完成时

3. 一般过去时与现在完成时的用法比较:

【名师讲解】

1. Maybe/ may be

(1) maybe是副词,意思是“大概,也许”,常用作状语。例如: Maybe you put it in your bag.也许你把它放在包里了。“Will he come tomorrow?”“Maybe not.” “他明天来吗?”“也许不”。

(2) may be相当于是情态动词may与be动词搭配一起作谓语,意思是“也许是?,可能是?”。 例如:It may be9:00 when they arrive.他们可能于九点到达。The man may be a lawyer. 那人也许是律师。

2. borrow/ lend/ keep/ use

(1) borrow表示的是从别人那里借来东西,即我们通常所说的“借进来”。例如:We often borrow books from our school library.我们经常从学校图书馆借书。I borrowed thisdictionary from my teacher. 我从老师那儿借来了这本字典。

borrow是一个瞬间完成的动作,因此不能与时间段连用。

例如:You canborrow my recorder for three days. ( 错误 )I have borrowed this book for only one week. ( 错误 )

(2) lend表示的是把自己的东西借给别人,即我们通常所说的“借出去”。例如:Thank you for lending me yourbike.谢谢你把自行车借给我。Heoften lends money to his brother.他经常借钱给他弟弟。

lend与borrow一样,也是一个瞬间完成的 动作,不能与一段时间连用。

(3) keep的意思也是“借”,但一般是指借来后的保存或使用阶段,是一段持续的时间,因此可以与时间段连用。例如:You can keep my recorder for three days.我的录音机你可以借用三天。

I have kept this book for only one week.这本书我才刚借了一星期。

(4) use也可以当“借用”讲,但它的本意是“用,使用”。例如:May I use your ruler? 我能借你的尺子用一下吗?He had to use this public telephone.他不得不使用这部公用电话。

3. leave/ leave for

(1) leave意思是“离开,留下”。例如:We left Shanghai two years ago.我们两年前离开了上海。

Heleft his cell phone in the taxi last week.他上周把手机落在出租车里了。

(2) leave for意思是“前往”,表示要去的目的地。例如:We will leave for Tibet next month.我们将于下月去西藏。The train is leaving for Moscow.这趟火车即将开往莫斯科。

4. since/ for

(1) since用于完成时态,既能用作介词,也能用作连词,后常接时间点,意思是“自从”。例如:

He has been a worker since he came intothis city.自从他来到这个城市,他就是工人了。 I have never seen him since we last met inShanghai .自从我们上次在上海见过之后我再也没见过他。

since作连词,还有“既然”的意思。例如: Since you are interested in it, just do it. 既然你对它感兴趣,那就做吧。 You can have fun now since you’ve finished your work.既然你已经做完了功课,就开心玩会儿吧。

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(2) for用于完成时,用作介词,后常接一段时间,意思是“经过?”。例如: I have learned English for five years.我已经学了五年英语了。They have waited for youfor 30 minutes.他们已经等了你三十分钟了。

for也可以用作连词,但意思是“因为”。例如: They missed the flight for theywere late.他们由于完到了而误了航班。Hefell ill for many reasons.他由于多种原因病倒了。

5. neither/ either/ both

(1) neither作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为“两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数.例如:Neither ofthe boys is from England.这两个男孩都不是来自英国。I know neither of them. 他们两个我都不认识。

neither用作形容词,也修饰单数名词,意思与作代词时相同;用作连词时,一般与nor搭配,表示 “既不?也不”。作主语时,谓语动词也遵循就近原则。例如:She neither ate nor drankyesterday. 她昨天既不吃也不喝。Neitherhe nor we play football on Sundays. 他和我们星期天都不踢球。

(2) either作代词时,是指两者中的任意一方,(两者之)每一个,故作主语时谓语动词用单数. 例如:Either ofthe books is new.这两本书任何一本都是新的.

She doesn’t like either of the films.这两部电影她都不喜欢.

either作形容词, 用来修饰单数名词,意思与作介词时相同.

例如:Either schoolis near my home. (这两所学校中的)任何一所学校都离我家很近. Either question is difficult.两个问题(中的任何一个)都难.

either作连词时,一般与or搭配,表示两者选其一,意思是“不是?就是”。作主语时,谓语动词遵循就近原则。

Either he or I am right.不是他就是我是对的。

Either my sister or my parents are comingto see me.不是我姐姐就是我父母要来看我。

(3) both作代词时,指的是所涉及到的“两者都”, 故作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 I like both of the stories.这两个故事我都喜欢。Both of my parents areteachers.我父母两人都是老师。

both作形容词时,用来修饰两者,意思与作代词时相同.Bothhis arms are hurt.他的两只胳膊都受伤了。

Both these students are good at English. 这两个学生都擅长英语。

both用作连词时,多与and搭配,表示“既?又, 不仅?而且”, 作主语时,谓语动词仍用复数形式。

Both piano and violin are my bobbies.钢琴和小提琴都是我的爱好。

They study both history and physics. 他们既学历史,又学物理。

6. find/look for/ find out

(1) find强调找的结果,意思是“找到”。此外还有“发现,发觉”的意思,后可接宾语从句。

例如:Jim couldn’t find his hat.吉姆找不着帽子了。Have you found your lostkeys? 你找到丢失的钥匙了吗?

He found the lights were on along thestreet.他发现沿街的灯都亮了

(2) look for的意思为“寻找”,指的是找的动作而非结果。另外,还有“盼望,期待”的意思。

例如:She islooking for her son.她正在找她的儿子。We’ve beenlooking for the car since early this morning.我们从今天一大早就开始找这辆车了。I look for the coming holiday.我期待着即将来临的假期。

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(3) find out含有经过观察、研究或探索而得知的意思,后常接较抽象的事物,意思是“找出,发现,查明(真相)”等。例如: I can find out who took my money away.我能查出谁拿了我的钱。

Could you find out when the plane arrives? 你能设法知道飞机何时到吗?

7. forget to do/ forget doing

(1) forget to do是指忘记去做某件事了,即该事还没有做。例如: Please don’t forget to call this afternoon.今天下午不要忘了给我打电话。I forgot to take somesmall change with me.我身上忘了带零钱了。

(2) forget doing是指忘记某件已经做过的事情,即该事已经做了,但被忘记了。 例如:He forgot telling me his address.他忘了告诉过我地址了。They forgot having been here before.他们忘了以前曾来过这儿。

8. stop doing/ stop to do

(1) stop doing是指停止做某事,即doing这个动作不再继续。例如:They stopped debating.他们停止了辩论。(不辩论了)He had to stop drivingas the traffic lights changed in to red. 由于交通灯变成了红色他不得不停车。

(2) stop to do是指停下来开始做另一件事,即停止原先的事,开始做do这个动作。

例如:She stoppedto have a rest.她停下来休息会儿。(开始休息)They stopped to talk.他们停下来开始交谈。

9. except/ besides

(1) except是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“撇开?不谈”,表示两部分的不同。Everyone is excited except me.除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而我却不激动)All the visitors are Japanese except him.除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是)

(2)besides是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“除之外?还、除之外?又”,表示两部分的相似性。例如:Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him.除他以外,还有25个学生去看了电影。(他和另外25人都去了)We like biology besides English.除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英语都喜欢)

besides还可用作副词,意思是“此外;而且”,常用于句首或句尾。

例如:He is agreat thinker, and besides, he is a politician.他是一名伟大的思想家,除此以外,他还是一位政治家。

They encouraged me, and they supported mewith money, besides. 他们不仅鼓励我,而且与我以金钱上的支持。

10. keep doing/ keep on doing

(1) keep doing指的是连续地、坚持不断地做某事,中间不间断。 例如:It kept blowing for a whole day.刮了一整天风了。The temperature keeps dropping.温度持续下降。

(2) keep on doing是指反复坚持做某事,但动作之间略有间隔。例如:They havekept on writing to each other for many years.他们已经互相通信多年了。After drinking some water, he kept on talking.喝了一些水后,他坚持讲话。

11. seem/ look

(1) seem一般着重于以客观迹象为依据,意思是“似乎、好象、看起来?”。例如:The baby seems to be happy.婴儿看上去似乎很高兴。He seemed to be sorry forthat.他似乎为那件事感到抱歉。

seem能与to do结构连用,而look不能。 例如:It seems to rain. 似乎要下雨了。 They seemed to have finished their work.他们似乎已经完成了工作。

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在it作形式主语的句型中只能用seem。 例如:It seems that he is quite busy now.他现在看起来很忙。

It seems to us that there is nothingserious.在我看来没什么大不了的。

(2) look用作“看起来;好像”时,常从物体的外观或样貌上来判断,是以视觉所接受的印象为依据的。

例如:The room looks clean.这间房看起来很干净。Thegirl looks like her mother.那女孩看起来向她的妈妈。

12. such/ so

(1)such常用作形容词,用来修饰名词。例如:Don’t be such a fool.别这么傻。 He is such a clever boy.他是如此聪明的一个男孩。

(2) so是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词。例如:He is so kind! 他真好心!

Why did you come so late? 你为何回来得如此晚?

当名词前有many,much, few, little等表示多、少时,应该用so。

例如:He has somany friends.他有如此多的朋友。 Only so little time is left! 才剩这么一点儿时间!

13. either/ too/ also

(1)either用作“也”时是副词,常用于否定句句尾。

例如:She is nota Japanese, I’m not,either.她不是日本人,我也不是。

My sister doesn’t like this song, either.我妹妹也不喜欢这首歌。

(2)too常用于肯定句或疑问句尾,表示“也”。

例如:He likesChina, too.他也喜欢中国。 Are you in Grade 3, too? 你也在三年级吗?

(3)also也常用于肯定句或疑问句,但一般位于句中。

例如:We are alsostudents.我们也是学生。 He also went there on foot.他也是走着去的。 Did you also want to have a look? 你也想看看吗?

14. if/ whether

在下列情况下只能用whether而非if:

(1)与or not连用时,只能用whether.

We want to know whether you are ill or not.我们想知道你是否生病了。

Please tell me whether or not you havefinished your work.请告诉我们你是否完成了工作。

(2)后接动词不定式时,只能用whether.

Adam didn’t know whether to go or stay.亚当不知道是走还是留。

He hasn’t decided whether to have dinner with me.他还没决定是否和我共进晚餐。

(3)所引导的宾语从句放在主句之前时,只能用whether.

Whether it will rain or snow, we don’t mind. 我们不在乎将要刮风还是下雨。

Whether I won or lost, she didn’t want to know.我是赢是输她不想知道。

(4)引导主语从句或表语从句时,一般用whether.

The most important was whether they hadgone.最重要的是他们是不是已经走了。

Whether he will go with me is a secret.他是否会和我一起去还是个秘密。

if能引导条件状语从句,表示“如果,假如”,而whether没有此用法。

We’ll have a football match if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.如果明天不下雨,我们 要进行足球赛。

I’ll tell him if I sees him.我看见他就告诉他。

If you’re in danger, please call 110.如果你遇到危险,请拨打110。

15. cost/ spend/ pay/ take

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(1) cost一般用某物来做主语,表示“(某物)值?、花费?”,既能指花费时间也能指金钱。

The new bike costs me 300 yuan.这辆新自行车花了我三百元。

It will cost you a whole to read throughthis book.通读这本书将会花费你整整一周时间。 cost 还可以用作名词,表示“成本、费用、价格、代价”等。

What’s the cost of this TV set? 这台电视机的成本是多少钱?

They succeeded at the cost of hard work.他们辛苦地工作换来的成功。

(2) spend一般用某人来作主语,表示“(某人)花费?,付出?”,也能指时间或金钱,指时间时常与 in搭配,指金钱时常与on或for搭配。

We spent two days in repairing thismachine.我们花了两天时间修理这台机器。

Mr. Lee spends $20 on books every month.李先生每月花二十美元在书上。

(3) pay用作动词时,一般也以某人作主语,但一般指花钱、付款等,很少用来指花费时间。常与for搭配使用。例如:Theypaid 70 yuan for the tickets.他们花了七十元买票。

He was too poor to pay for his schooling.他穷得交不起学费。

pay还可以用作名词,意思为“薪水、工资”等。

It’s hard for me to live with such low pay.我很难靠这么低的薪水生活下去。

(4)take也指“花费(时间、金钱)”,但通常用某事、某物做主语,或用形式主语it.

How long will the meeting take? 会议要开多久?It took me several hours toget there. 我花了几个小时才到那儿。

16. bad/ badly

这两个词的意思含有“坏、糟、严重”等意思,且它们有共同的比较级worse和最高级worst 。

(1) bad是一个形容词,意思是“坏的,糟糕的,差的,严重的”。

例如:I don’t think he is a bad person.我并不认为他是一个坏人。I had a bad headache.我的头疼得很厉害。

(2)badly是一个副词,意思是“不好地,差”,也可以表示程度,意为“严重地,非常,极度”。 例如:We needhelp badly.我们急需帮助。His armwas badly hurt.他的胳膊严重受伤了。

17. interested/ interesting

(1) interested是指“对?产生兴趣的,对?感兴趣的”,一般用人做主语,后常用介词in. 例如:He wasinterested in biology before.他以前对生物感兴趣。 I’m not interestedin art.我对艺术不感兴趣。

(2)interesting的意思是“有趣的”,指能够给人带来兴趣的某人或某事物。例如:

He is an interesting old man.他是个有趣的老头。The interesting storyattracted me. 这个有趣的故事吸引了我。

18. dead/ die/ death/ dying

(1) dead是形容词,意思为“死了的、无生命的”,表示状态,可以与一段时间连用。例如: The tree has been dead for ten years.这棵树死了有十年了。The rabbits are all dead. 这些兔子都是死的。

(2) die是动词,意思为“死、死亡”,是一个瞬间动词,不能与一段时间连用。例如: My grandpa died two years ago.我爷爷两年前去世了。The old man died ofcancer.老人死于癌症。

(3) death是名词,意思为“死亡、去世”等。

The memorial hall was built one year afterhis death.他死后一年,纪念馆建成了。

His death is a great loss to us.他的死是我们的巨大损失。

(4) dying 是die的现在分词,用作形容词,意思是“垂死的、即将死去的”。

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The doctors have saved the dying man.医生们救活了那个垂死的人。

The poor dog had no food, it was dying.可怜的狗没有食物,快要饿死了。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 宾语从句的时态和语序;

2. 一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别;

3. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

4. 本单元学习的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。

【中考范例】

1. (2004年北京市海淀区中考试题)

---Do you know ________________?---Only tenmonths old.

A. when does Tiger Woods start golfing B. when did Tiger Woods start golfing

C. when Tiger Woods starts golfing D. when Tiger Woods started golfing

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从句的时态和语序。这个宾语从句的时态应用一般过去时,应为这里说的是过去的事情。语序应用陈述句的语序,所以正确答案是: when Tiger Woods started golfing。

2. (2004年北京市海淀区中考试题)

I’m interested in animals, so I_____________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital.

A. pay B. get C. take D. spend

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是pay, get, take和spend这四个动词的用法区别。只有动词spend可以用在sb. spendstime doing sth. 这个句型里,所以正确答案影视spend。

3. (2004年天津市中考试题)

Could I ________ your telephone? I have something important to tell myparents.

A. keep B. borrow C. use D. lend

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是keep, borrow, use和lend四个动词的用法区别。keep的真正含义是“保留”,borrow的含义是“借入”,lend的含义是“借出”,只有use的含义是“使用”。在这个句子里实际上是“使用”的意思,所以应选use。

4. (2004年鄂州市中考试题)

---Hi, Ann. Where’s your brother? I need his help.

---He left home two weeks ago and________away ever since.

A. is B. was C. has been D. had been

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词时态的用法区别。一般现在时表示经常发生的动作或现在所处的状态;一般过去时表示过去的动作或过去所处的状态;过去完成时表示过去的动作或过去的时间以前发生的事情;现在完成时表示动作或状态从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在或刚刚结束。这里只能用现在完成时。

初三年级(中)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. give up

2. try out

3. most of

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4. not…any more

5. at the age of

6. at that time

7. send message by telegraph

8. graduate from

9. turn down

10. put up

11. at the top of

12. get together

13. from house to house

14. at the end of

15. on top of

16. as well

17. climb down

18. in a single night

19. even though

20. live on

21. once upon a time

22. according to

23. keep warm

24. on the other hand

25. on show

26. on display

27. in the future

28. look up

29. Tree Planting Day

30. just right

31. as often as possible

32. wash away

33. in this way

34. in a few years' time

35. point to

36. thanks to

37. more or less

38. so far

39. shut down

40. send up

41. put off

II. 重要句型

1.set one's mind to do sth.

2. put … together

3. stop…from…

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4. keep…from…

5. be filled with sth.

6. give birth to

7. be covered with

8. be made of

9. fill…with…

10. match…with

11. be used for

12. have nothing to do with

13. come up with

14. no matter how…

15. keep sb./sth.warm

III. 交际用语

1. ---I'm trying to …

2. --- I'll …

3. --- Which of these would you like mostto …?

4. --- What do you want to … ?

5. --- I want to…

6. --- I hope to …

7. --- I plan to…

8. --- I'm going to…

9. --- I'm so happy that …

10. --- I'm glad ….

11. --- me too.

12. --- What's this called in English?

13. --- What's it made of?

14. --- It's made of …

15. --- What's it used for?

16. --- It's used for …

17. --- English is widely used forbusiness/ …

18. --- It is one of the world's mostimportant languages as it is so widely used.

19. --- Where is / are … grown / produced /made ?

20. --- The (ground ) must be just right…

21. --- It's best to …

22. --- The hole should not be too deep.

23. --- The Great Green Wall is 7000kilometres long, and between 400 and 1700 kilometres wide.

24. --- The more, the better.

25. --- More or less!

26. --- The (ground ) must be just right…

27. --- The hole should not be too deep.

28. 掌握以下常见标志:

ENTRANCE EXIT PUSH PULL NO SMOKING NOPARKING

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FRAGILE THIS SIDE UP NO PHOTOS DANGERBUSINESS HOURS

PLAY STOP PAUSE ON OFF

IV. 重要语法

1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法;

2. 动词不定式的功能和用法。

【名师讲解】

1. be able to/ can

(1) 都能表示“能够,具备干某件事的能力”这个含义,此时可以互换。

Mr. Green is able to finish the work ontime.

= Mr. Green can finish the work on time.

格林先生能够按时完成这项工作。

(2) be able to可以用于各种时态,而can 为情态动词,多用于现在时,其过去式为could。 We are sure he will be able to be an artistwhen he grows up.我们相信他长大后能够成为一名画家。

Miss Lin has been able to pay the car byherself.林小姐已经能够自己负担那辆车了。

(4) Can除了表示“能够,有能力做某事”以外,还有如下用法,而be able to 则没有。表示请求,但语气没有could委婉

Can I have a look at this picture? 我能看看这张图片吗?

Can we leave school after 6:00 p.m. ?我们可以在下午6点之后再离开学校吗?

表示可能性。

That man can’t be our new teacher. 那人不可能是我们的新老师。

The exam can’t be too difficult.考试不会太难。

2. bring/ take/carry/fetch

(1) bring一般是指拿来,即从别处往说话人这里拿,翻译成“带来”。

He brought us some good news.他给我们带来了一些好消息。

Please don’t forget to bring your homework tomorrow.明天请别忘了把家庭作业带来。

(2) take一般是指从说话人这里往别处拿,翻译成“带走”。

Please take the umbrella with you. It’s going to rain.要下雨了,请把伞带上。

She took the dictionary away.她把字典拿走了。

(3) carry不强调方向,表示“携带、背着、运送、搬扛”等意思。

They carried the boxes into the factory. 他们把箱子搬进了工厂。

A taxi carried them to the station. 出租车送他们到了车站

(4) fetch表示的是“去取来、去拿来、去叫来”等意思,包含去和来两趟。

The waiter fetched them some apples.侍者为他们取来了一些苹果。

Mother fetched the doctor for her ill son.妈妈为生病的儿子请来了医生。

3. whole/ all

(1) whole强调一个完整如一,互不分割的整体。

The whole country is suffering the war. 整个国家正遭遇战争。

I just want to know the whole story.我仅仅只想知道完整的故事。

whole在句中的位置是放在所有格,冠词和指示代词的之后。

They will spend their whole holiday inCanada.他们将到加拿大渡过整个假期。(所有格后) She has finished writing the wholebook. 她已经写完了整本书。(冠词后)

whole用来修饰可数名词(名词用单数)。

He ate the whole cake. 他把整个蛋糕都吃了。(强调整整一个蛋糕)

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(2) all强调由一个个部分组成的“全部”。

Miss Green knew all the students in theclass.格林小姐认识这个班上的所有人。(一个一个全认识)

all在句中的位置是放在所有格,定冠词和指示代词的之前。

Jim finished all his homework in twentyminutes.吉姆在20分钟之内完成了所有的作业。(所有格前)

Of all the boys here, he sings best.在这里所有的男孩之中,他唱的最好。(定冠词前)

The boy can answer all these questions.那个男孩能够回答所有的这些问题。(指示代词前) all既能修饰可数名词(名词须用复数),又能修饰不可数名词。

All these five books are mine.这五本书都是我的。(修饰可数名词)

She was worried about her son all the time.她总在为她的儿子担心。(修饰不可数名词)

4. fill/ full

(1) fill常作动词,与with连用,意思是“注满、装满”,也能表示“填空;补缺”的意思。例如:

He filled the box with chalk.他把粉笔装满了盒子。The bucket is filled withwater.水桶里装满了水。

(2) full是形容词,翻译成“满的,装满的”,常与of连用。此外还能表示“完全的”和“吃饱的,过饱的”。

All the rooms are full of people.所有的房间都满人了。

The bus was full. He had to wait for thenext one.这辆车人满了,他只有等下一辆。

5. be made of/ be made from/ be made in/ bemade into

(1) be made of表示"由?制成", 一般指能够看出原材料,或发生的是物理变化。例如: This table cloth is made of paper.这张桌布是由纸做的。

This salad is made of apples andstrawberries.这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。

(2) be made from也表示"由?制成",但一般指看不出原材料,或发生的是化学变化。例如: Bread is made from corn.面包是小麦做的。

The lifeboat is made from some specialmaterial.这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。

(3) be made in指的是产地,意思为"于?制造"。

The caps are made in Russia.这些帽子产于俄罗斯。

My mother likes to buy things which aremade in China.我妈妈喜欢买中国产的东西。

(4) be made into的意思为"被制成为?"。

This piece of wood will be made into asmall bench. 这块木头将要被制成一个小凳。 The paper has been made into clothes forthe doll. 纸被做成了洋娃娃的衣服。

6. none/ no one/ neither

(1) none既能指人,又能指物,意思是"没有一个,无一",常用作代词,与of连用。 None of us has heard of him before.我们没有一个人以前听说过他。

I like none of the coats. 那些外套我一件都不喜欢。

none用作主语时,谓语动词用单复数皆可。例如:

None of the answers is true.没有一个答案是正确的。None of the rooms aremine.没有一间房子是我的。

(2) no one只能用来指人,且不能与of连用。例如:

No one is absent.没有人缺席。I knew no one there.那里我一个人也不认识。

no one用作主语时,谓语动词只能用单数。

例如:No oneagrees with you. 没有人同意你的说法。

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(3) neither作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为"两者都不",作主语时谓语动词用单数。 例如:Neither ofthe boys is from England. 这两个男孩都不是来自英国。

I know neither of them.他们两个我都不认识。

7. found/ find

(1) find的意思是"找到、发现",其过去式和过去分词都是found.

Ican't find my glasses.我找不着我的眼镜了。He found it boring to sit here alone.他发现独自坐在这里很没劲。

(2) found是另外一个词,与find并没有关系,意思是"成立、建设",常用作及物动词。 ThePeople's Republic of China was founded in 1949.中华人民共和国成立于1949年。 Theschool was founded by the local residents.这所学校是由当地居民修建的。

8. hear / hear of/ hear from

(1)hear的意思是"听见;听说,得知",后面能接名词、代词或宾语从句。

例如: We heardthe news just a moment ago.我刚听说这个消息。Can you hear me? 能听见我说话吗?

(2) hear of的意思是"听说",一般指非直接的听见,而是听别人说的。后不能接宾语从句。例如:

I have never heard of her.我从未听说过她。They heard of the film longtime ago.他们很久以前就听说过这部电影。

(3) hear from的意思是"收到来信",与"听"无关。例如:I often hear from him. 我经常收到他的来信。

He hasn't heard from his mother for a longtime.他很久没有收到妈妈的信了

9. send/ send for

(1) send意思是"送往,派遣",还有"发信,寄信"的意思。例如:The company sent him to studyabroad.公司派他到国外学习去了。Mr.Brown sent her children away.布郎夫人送走了孩子们。

(2) send for意思是"召唤;派人去取;派人去拿",而非本人亲自去。例如:They have sent for arepairman.他们已经派人去请了一名修理工。 She sent for some flowers.她派了人去买花。

10. get to/ arrive/ reach

(1) arrive后不能直接接地点,是一个不及物动词。若表示到达一个相对大的地点,用arrive in ; 若表示相对小的地点,用arrive at .

Thedelegation will arrive in China at 5:00 p.m.代表团将于下午5:00到达北京。

Itwas dark when they arrived at the railway station.当他们到达火车站的时候,天已经黑了。 When did she arrive here last time? 她上次是什么时候到这儿的?(副词前省略介词)

(2) reach能直接接所到达的地点,是一个及物动词。例如:They reached London on Friday.他们星期五到达了伦敦。The news only reached me yesterday.我于昨天才接到这个消息。 reach还有"伸手去取,伸手触及,联络"等意思。

Can you reach that apple on the tree? 你能够到树上的哪个苹果吗?

He can always be reached on the phone.可随时打电话跟他联系。

(3) get在表示"到达"时是不及物动词,应与to搭配使用。

We often get to school on foot.我们经常步行到学校。

They got to the top of the hill at noon.他们于中午到达了山顶。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法;

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2. 动词不定式的功能和用法;

3. 本单元的词汇、短语和句型;

4. 本单元学过的交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。

【中考范例】

1. (2004年北京市中考试题)

Aunt Li often asks her son ________ too much meat. It’s bad for hishealth.

A.don’t eat B. not to eat C. not eat D. to not eat

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词不定式的构成和用法。这个句子的基本句型是ask sb.not to do sth. 这里,not to eat 是不定式的否定式做宾语补足语。

2. (2004年嘉兴市中考试题)

China is becoming stronger and stronger, so Chinese ________ in moreAmerican schools now.

A. was taught B. is taught C. teaches D. taught

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词的语态和时态。Chinese 是一种语言,只能被人教,因此要用被动语态。又因为说的现在的情况,动词要用一般现在时。所以选B。

3. (2004年河北省中考试题)

This painting ________ to a museum in New York in 1977.A. sells B. sold C. was sold D. is sold

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词的语态和时态。This painting只能被卖,所以用被动语态,又因为是1977年卖的,所以用一般过去时。

4. (2004年扬州市中考试题)

---Ifyou ________ a new idea, please call me as soon as possible. ---Sure, I will.

A.keep up with B. catch up with C. feed up with D. come up with

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是短语动词用法。本单元学习的短语动词come up witha new idea意思是想出新主意,正符合题意。

初三年级(下)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. beg one's pardon

2. multiply …by…

3. slow down

4. wear out

5. try on

6. make a decision,

7. a place of interest

8. make a mistake

9. drop off

10. think about

11. make up one's mind,

12. at all,

13. at least

14. by the time

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15. carry on

16. never mind

17. from now on

18. come down

19. hands up

20. before long,

21. no one,

22. not…any longer

II. 重要句型

1. be busy doing sth.

2. prefer to do sth.

3. regard... as...

4. be pleased with sth./sb.

5. be angry with sb.

III. 交际用语

1. ---How much does… cost …?

2. ---It can cost as little as … yuan andas much as … yuan.

3. ---It costs ….

4. ---It's worth ….

5. ---I don't agree with ….

6. ---I wasn't sure whether….

7. ---I wonder if ….

8. ---What size …?

9. ---Have you got any other colour / size/ kind?

10. ---Have you got anything cheaper?

11. ---How much are they?

12. ---How much does it cost?

13. ---How much is it?

14. ---That's a bit expensive.

15. ---Even though they're a littleexpensive, I'll take them.

16. ---I'll think about ….

17. ---I don't think I'll take ….

18. ---I like ….

19. ---I don't really like ….

20. ---Can I help you, girl?

21. ---Would you like me to look in theback?

22. ---We can find ….

23. ---Do you like being …?

24. ---Can I ask you some questions?

25. ---Sure.

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26. ---It was great.

27. ---Wow!

28. ---Yeah!

29. ---Oh dear!

30. ---Hands up!

31. ---I’ll shoot anyone who moves.

32. ---There’s no need to thank me.

33. ---Can you remember anything else abouthim?

34. ---Come down, Polly!

35. ---There is a little traffic accident.

36. ---There's a big traffic jam.

37. ---Well, I'm sure he'll be here beforelong.

38. ---I'm beginning to get angry with him!

39.---Yes, we can't wait any longer. Let'sgo without him.

40. ---That's terrible!

41. ---That's a really bad excuse!

IV. 重要语法

1. 过去将来时

2. 过去完成时

3. 动词不定式

4. 定语从句

【名师讲解】

1. think/ think/about/ think of

(1) think 单独使用时表示"思考", 接that 宾语从句时意为"认为","觉得"。

Iam thinking how to work out the problem. I think she is a good student.

当宾语从句含有否定概念时,通常形式上否定think ,但意义上却是否定宾语从句。 I don't think he can come. I don't think it will be windy.

(2)think about 可接一个名词,动词-ing 形式或由疑问词引导的不定式或宾语从句,意思是"考虑??"。

I have thought about it for a longtime. Please think about how to tellher the bad news.

(3)think of 表示"认为", 一般用于疑问句中,与what 连用。

What do you think of the TV play? = How doyou like the TV play?

2. big/ large/ great

上述形容词都表示"大",但侧重点及程度不同。

(1)big指具体事物的大小,强调比正常形体的标准大,既可用在普通场合, 也可用在正式场合。它可用来指人的身材高大或"长大了",还可表示"伟大","重要"之意。如: Can you lift up this big stone? On the last day I made a big decision.

(2) large特别强调远远超过标准的大,指体积、面积、容积、数量之大。如:

A whale is a large animal. A large crowd collected at the gate of thetheatre.

(3) great除了表示数量体积之大外,又指抽象的程度,意味着伟大性,重要性,优越性;常用于抽象

或无形的东西;用于有形的东西时,常带有"伟大","大得令人吃惊"等意思,含有一定的感情色彩。如:

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China is a great country with a longhistory. He was one of the greatestscientists.

3. cost/ take/ spend/ pay

(1) cost表示"花钱",花费,付出(只能用于钱、精力、生命等;主语必须是物。)The bookcost me five yuan.

(2) take的主语是动词不定式, 通常用it做形式主语。It took me five yuan to buythe book..

(3) spend,在主动语句中主语是人I spent five yuan on (for) the book.或I spent five yuan (in) buying the book.

(4) pay的主语是人。I paid five yuan for the book.

4. expensive/ high/ cheap/ low

这四个词在谈论到价格的高低时,要注意使用。expensive与high涉及到价格"高",而cheap 与low涉及到价格"低"。

(1) expensive昂贵的,花钱多的。这个单词若谈到"价格高,货贵"时其主语不能是价格,必须是货物、物品本身。如:This watch isexpensive. 这只表很贵。Theseglass-products are not expensive. 这些玻璃制品不是很值钱。

注意:cheap表示"价廉","便宜的",其主语也不能是价格,必须是物品本身。如: The cheap table was bought from him. 这张便宜的桌子是他卖给我们的。

This cloth doll is very cheap. 这只布娃娃很便宜。

(2)high在表示价格时,含义是"高",low在表示价格时,含义是"低",这两个词不能用于物品本身,只

能用在价格上。如:Theprice of this watch is very high. 这只表的价格太高了。

The price of this book is not low for me. 这本书的价格对我来说是不低。

下面我们试看几个句子的正误对照:

The price of this computer is expensive.(宜改为:This computer is expensive. 或The price of this computer is high.)

The price of this pen is not cheap for himto buy.(宜改为:This penis not cheap for him to buy. 或 The price of this pen is not low for him. )

5. alone/ lonely

lonely 与alone的意思比较接近,但在使用时有所区别:

(1)lonely用作形容词,意思是"孤单的;寂寞的"。可指心灵上的寂寞,也可指偏僻的地点。在句中既可作表语,也可作定语。(2)alone可作形容词和副词,意思是"单独;独自",不指心理上寂寞的感觉。

She was taken to a lonely island, livedalone, but she never felt lonely.她被带到一个荒岛上,自己居住,但她从不感到寂寞。

6. before long/ long before

(1)before long 作“不久以后”讲,切不要按字面译为“长时间以前”或“好久以前”。如: We hope to finish our experiment beforelong. 我们希望不久(以后)就把实验做完。

(2)long before 作"很久以前"讲。原意为"??以前很久",故也可译为"老早"。long before 跟before long

不同,前者在其后面可以接名词或一个从句;当上下文明确时,名词或从句还可以省略。Before long 则没有上述搭配用法。They began the test yesterday, but we had made experiment longbefore. 我们昨天开始做实验,但我们在那以前很久就已经做准备了。

7. as/ when/ while

(1)as 是连词,意思是"当??的时候,一面??一面",(强调同时,一般连续时间不长),如:

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As we were talking about Titanic, ourteacher came in. 正当我们谈论"泰坦尼克号"这部电影时,教师进来了。

The students sing as they go along. 学生们边走边唱。

(2)When和as一样都是连词,注意它们的不同。如when"当??的时候"(一般表示动作紧接着发生);

"那时"(等立连词,前有逗号分开)Istayed till sunset, when it began to rain. 我一直呆到太阳下山,那时天开始下雨了。

(3)while是"当??时候;和??同时"(强调同时发生,一般连续时间较长)例如:While I waswatching TV, he was reading. 当我在看电视的时候,他正在看书。While there is life, there is hope. 有生命就有希望。

8. beat/win/ hit

(1)beat 是动词,意思是"连续地打; 打败; 敲打"。beat后可接人或队名。意思是"击败对手。"如:

Ican beat you at swimming.

(2)win意思是"赢得某个项目",后面常接"match, game"。如:He won a game. 他胜一局。We won a match. 我们比赛得胜。

(3)hit意思是"击中"(有时可表示"打一下")。如:The mother hit her child out ofanger. 妈妈生气,打了她孩子一下。

9. keep doing/keep on doing

(1)keep doing侧重表示"持续不停地做某事"或"持续某种状态"。如:The girl kept crying all thetime. 那个女孩一直在哭。Thebaby kept sleeping about four hours. 这个婴儿连续睡了大约四个小时。

(2)keep on doing 表示"总不断做某事",不表示静止状态。不能与sitting, sleeping,lying, standing这类

词连用。如:It kepton raining for seven days. Don't keep on asking such silly questions.

10. get/ turn/ become

这三个词都可作系动词用,表示状态的变化,后跟表语,但三个词的用法稍有不同。get强调情感、气候和环境的变化;turn强调色彩的变化;而become则强调职务、职称等的变化。如:

The days are getting shorter and shorter inwinter.冬天的白天越来越短。Shecouldn't answer the question and her face turned red.她回答不出问题,脸红了。When did you become ateacher? - Ten years ago.你什么时候当的老师?十年前。

11. steal / rob

从意思上讲steal表示偷窃的意思。而rob表示抢劫的意思;从搭配上来讲,steal sth from sb/sth;而rob则用rob sb/sth of sth; 例如:He stole money from the rich togive it to the poor.They robbed the bank of one million dollars.

12. see/look/watch/notice

在英语中,see,look,watch,notice都有“看”的意思,要注意他们的区别。

see意为“看到”,表示视觉器官有意识或无意识地看到物体,强调“看到”的结果。 look意为“看”,表示有意识地观看,强调“看”的动作。

watch意为“观看,注视”,指以较大的注意力观看。

notice意为“看到,注意到”,指有意识的注意,含有从不注意到注意的变化的意义。例如: What can you see in the picture?在图画中你能看到什么?

Look! How happily they are playing!看!他们玩得多高兴啊!

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He’s watched TV for over two hours.他看了两个多小时的电视。

He noticed a purse lying on the road.他注意到地上有个钱包。

13. Shoot/ shoot at

shoot是及物动词,意思是“射中,射死”,宾语多为人或动物等。而shoot at是一个动词词组,意为“向??射击”,至于射中或射死与否不得而知。如:

The man shot five birds in the forest.那个人在森林里射死(中)了五只鸟。The hunter shot atthe bear.猎人朝熊射击了。Theyshot at the she-wolf, but didn't shoot her.他们向那只母狼射击,但是没有射中/死。

14. escape/ run away

(1)escape作“逃跑”、“逃脱”或“逃避”讲时,往往会有成功之意。如:The old man escaped death.那个老人死里逃生。The thief escaped from prison.那个小偷越狱了。

(2)run away作“逃跑”、“跑走”讲时,往往强调动作。如:Don't let him run away. 别让他跑了。

口语中escape和run away可以互用。

15. so that..../ so... that....

(1) so that....为了,以便 。引导一个目的状语从句,从句中往往有情态动词。也可引导一个结果状语从句。如:

I left at 5:00 so that I could catch theearly bus. Speak loudly, so that theycan hear what you say.

He didn't study English so that he lost achance to work in a foreign company.

(2) so... that....既可引导一个结果状语从句,也可引导一个目的状语从句。

如:Theclassroom was so noisy that I could hardly study. I got up so early in themorning that I could catch the train.

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 过去将来时;

2. 过去完成时;

3. 动词不定式;

4. 定语从句;

5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

6. 本单元学过的交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。

【中考范例】

1. (2004年济宁市中考试题)

Hewanted to know ______________.

A.whether he speaks at the meeting B.when the meeting would start

B. what he’s going to do at themeeting D. where would the meeting beheld

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序和时态。因为主句的时态是一般过去时,所以从句应用过去将来时,这就排除了A和B。宾语从句的时态应该是陈述句的语序,所以只有B是对的。

2. (2004年烟台市中考试题)

---Why didn’t you go to the movie yesterday? ---Because I ___________ itbefore.

A. had watched B. have seen C. have watched D. had seen

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【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词的搭配以及现在完成时和过去完成时的用法区别。看电影习惯商用see a movie, 又因为说的昨天以前发生的事情,应该用过去完成时。只有D正确。

3. (2004年重庆市中考试题)

---Did you win the football game?---Bad luck. Our team __________ in thefinal one.

A. won B. beat C. was won D. was beaten

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词搭配和动词的语态。动词win通常和比赛一类的词连用,不与人或队连用,因此可以排除A和C。beat是个及物动词,既然我们的运气不好,就是输了,应该用被动语态。

4. (2004年广州市中考试题)

---Who is the man ________ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It’s Mr Baker, our maths teacher.

A. he B. that C. whom D. which

【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是引导定语从句关系代词的选择。由于先行词是人,可以排除A和D。而该词在定语从句中作主语,只有B合适。

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