一、什么是语态？ 语态是英语动词的一种表现形式，用来说明主语和 谓语动词之间的关系。 二、语态的种类： （1）主动语态 （2）被动语态 三、什么是主动语态？什么是被动语态？ 四、被动语态的构成：(八种时态下的被动语态） be + 及物动词的过去分词 can/may/must…+ be +过去分词
1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 Visitors are asked not to touch the exhibits.(展品） 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 All the preparations for the task have been completed 3)am/is /are being done 现在进行时 A new cinema is being built here． 4)was/were done 一般过去时 I was given ten minutes to decide. 5)had been done 过去完成时 By the end of last year, another new gym had been completed in Beijing.
6)was/were being done 过去进行时 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7)shall/will be done 一般将来时
Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8） should/would be done 过去将来时 The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 1）带情态动词的被动结构 其形式为：情态动词＋be＋过去分词。 The baby can be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.
2）一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于 句型 “It＋be＋过去分词＋that从句”或“主语＋be＋过去 分词＋to do sth.”。有： It is said that… 据说, It is reported that…据报道， It is believed that…大家相信 ，It is hoped that…大家希望， It is well known that…众所周知， It is thought that…大家认为， It is suggested that…据建议。 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam ＝The boy is said to have passed the national exam
5、主动语态变被动语态应注意的问题 1.把主动语态变为被动语态时，应保留主动语态原来 的时态。如：She often cleans the house. The house is often cleaned by her. 2.有些动词可以有双宾语，在用于被动结构时， 通常变为主语的是间接宾语（sb.） His mother gave him a present for his birthday He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.
3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时， 将宾语变为被动结构中的主语，其余不动. Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette(香烟） =The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.
4）在使役动词have, make, get以及 感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等变为被动结构时，要加to
Someone saw a stranger walk into the building =A stranger was seen to walk into the building.
5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组， 如“动词＋介词”，“动词＋副词”等， 也可以用于被动结构，但要把它们看作一个整体， 不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 The meeting is to be put
off till Friday
一、系动词 taste, smell, feel, sound, prove 等可用主动形式表达被动意义。如: 1这些花闻起来很香。 These flowers smell sweet. 2那听起来很有道理。 That sounds very reasonable. 3那食物尝起来很可口。 The food tastes delicious.
二、某些与 can’t won’t 等连用的不及物动 词，如move, lock, shut, open 等可用主动 形式表达被动意义。如：
1盒子不能移动。 The box can’t move. 2门不会关。 The door won’t shut.
三、某些可用来表示主语内在品质或性能 的不及物动词，如 sell, write, wash, clean, last(耐久), wear(耐穿), 等可用主动形式表 达被动意义. 如:
This kind of food sells well. 这种食物畅销。
This cloth washes well and lasts long. 这布料经洗、耐穿。 The floor doesn’t clean easily. 这地板不容易弄干净。
五、形容词 worth 后面要用动名词的主 动形式表示被动意义。如：
1小说值得一读。 The novel is worth reading. 2事情值得做。 The thing is worth doing.
四、在动词 require, need, want 等动词之 后，可用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。 1树需要浇水。 The trees need watering. 2孩子需要照顾。 Children want looking after. 3电视机需要修理。
The TV needs mending.
六、动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义： 1. 不定式作定语与被修饰的名词或代词构成 动宾关系时，如： 我有许多事情要做。 I have a lot of things to do. 他有几项任务要完成。 He has several tasks to complete.
2. 在“系动词+形容词+不定式”结构中， 常见句型有： 1) n. +be + too + adj. + to do… The plane is too high to see. 2) n. +be + adj. + enough + to do… The book is cheap enough for me to buy. 3) n. + be + adj. + to do… The question is not easy to answer.
课堂练习 （一）改写句子 1. We plant trees in spring every year. Trees are planted _________________ by us in spring every year. 2. She posted the letter yesterday. The letter was posted ____________________ by her yesterday. 3. Mr Turner gave me a birthday present. I was given _______________a birthday present by Mr Turner. 4. He is drawing a picture. A picture is being drawn _______________________ by him. 5. You may hand in your homework tomorrow. Your homework may be handed in ______________________________ by you tomorrow. 6. She is going to write a letter. __________________________ by her. A letter is going to be written
7. I have given you the new book. The new book has been given __________________________ to you. 8. Her bag cannot be found by her. _________________ her bag. She cannot find 9. Do you often hear her sing Russian songs? _________________________Russian songs by you? Is she often heard to sing 10. She doesn’t let her son swim in the river. Her son isn’t let to swim _______________________ in the river by her. 11. The bridge was being built by them at this time last year.
They were building __________________ the bridge at this time last year. 12. Does she often sing the song? Is the song often sung _____________________ by her?
A 1. If city noises ____ from increasing，people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner． A． are not kept；will have to B． are not kept；have C． do not keep；will have to D． do not keep；have to C 2. The fifth generation computers, ____and perfected now. A. developed B. have developed C. are being developed D. will have been developed A 3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off． --- Yes，it all depends on the weather． A． I've been told B． I've told C． I'm told D． I told
D 4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___. A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed C 5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut 6. The new bridge ___ by the end of last month. B A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed 7. When part of a pencil is in a glass of water, C it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken
B 8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. were taken place; were set up D 9. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost 10. --- Look! Everything here is under construction. A --- What’s the pretty small house that __ for? A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building 11.--- Do you like the cloth? C --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt
B 12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese． A． write B． to write C． to be written D． written 13. I have no more letters ____ ，thank you． C A． to type B． typing C． to be typed D． typed 14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, A for it __ easily. A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out 15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___. D A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out
D 16. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith. A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to 17. --- What do you think of the book? C ---Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read C 18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch D 19. This page needed ___ again. A. being checked B. checked C. to check D. to be checked B 20. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do it. A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching
Keys to P37 Part 5: 1.are made
Part 6: 1. has been arranged (arrange 安排） 2.is being collected 3.was being pa
Part 7: 1.is celebrated 3.are carried 5.is related 7.are raced
2.is splashed(泼，溅） 4.are told 6.are washed 8.are launched
Part 8: 1.My health is being affected(影响） by stress. 2.People are being moved out of the houses. 3.The mini-helicopter has already been invented by him. 4.The forest fire has been put out(扑灭） by them. 5.The car was being repaired when I got there. 6.The house was being decorated when the accident happened.
Let’s go to P93 together.