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宾语从句讲解

发布时间:2013-12-20 13:43:47  

宾语从句讲解

宾语从句是英语复合句中的其中非常重要的从句之一。它是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语,将这个句子叫做宾语从句。宾语从句做介词或及物动词的宾语。现在从下列三个方面总结归纳如下:

一,引导词

A,由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。 例:I told him that he was right.

l在think,believe, suppose等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。

例:I don’t think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)

l在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。

例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的) B,由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”的宾语从句。Whether,if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。

例:I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.

l在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导

例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。

l宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.

例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.

l和不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.

例:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.

C,由wh-引导的宾语从句。连接代词who,whom,whose, what, which,和连接副词when, where, why, how 等连接的宾语从句,它们在句中即有连接从句的作用,又在句中充当句子的成分。

例:Do you know which film they are talking about? (which做定语)

I don’t know where he lives. (where 做地点状语)

二,宾语从句的语序,

宾语从句从句的语序必须是陈述语序,既连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

例:I believe that they will come soon.

He asked me whether I was a teacher.

They wanted to know what they can do for us.

二,宾语从句的时态。

宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,

既:主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。

主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。

例1)She says that she is a student.

She said that she was a student.

2)She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.

She said that she would fly to Japan in a week.

3)She says that she has finished her homework already.

She said that she had finished her homework already.

如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用一般现在时态。 例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

He told me that Japan is an island country.

Could you tell me…是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。

例:Could you tell me when we will visit the Histury Museum?

注意事项:

由陈述句变成宾语从句时,要注意人称的变化。

例:She said: “I have been to England before.”

She said that she had been to England before.

She asked me: “Do you like maths?”

She asked me if I liked maths.

宾语从句与简单句的交换。

由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句,如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用“疑问词+不定式”做宾语的简单句结构。

例:I don’t know what I should do next.

I con’t know what to do next.

He didn’t know where he would live.

He didn’t know where to live.

DO SOME EXERCISES:

1.Can you see________?

A. what he’s reading B. what is he reading

C. what does he read D. he reads what

2.Does Jack come from Japan? Do you know?(合并成一个句子) Do you know_____Jack _____from Japan?

3._What did your son say in the letter?

_He told me that he___ the Disney would the next day

A.will visit B. has visited

C. is going to visit D. would visit

4.He didn’t know__________

A.what’s the matter B.what the matter is

C. what was the matter D. what the matter was

5.Somebody called you just now,but I didn’t know____

A.who were they B. who they were

C. who was it D. who it was

6.I want to know_____

A.what is his name B. what’s his name

C. that his name is D. what his name is

7.---Could you tell me ___she is looking for?

---Her cousin,susan.

A.that B.whose C .who D.which

8.---What are you searching the Internet for?

---I’m trying to find out____.

A.What is the difference between SARS and BIRDFLU

B.How many persons have died in Iraq

C.How to protect our environment

D.Why is our Chinese team be able to beat Korea

9.Do you know___________?(谁正在唱歌)

10.Do you know___________?(她正在和谁谈话) The keys: 1 A.2 if ,comes.3D. 4 C. 5 D. 6 D. 7 C. 8 B 9 who is singing

10 who she is talking with

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