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初中英语定语从句专题

发布时间:2013-12-20 13:43:54  

初中英语定语从句专题

一、定语从句的概念

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一

般放在先行词的后面。

二、定语从句的关系词

引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种, 常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格

whom,所有格whose),as等,常见的关系副词有where, when, why,how等。

注:关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作

定语从句的重要成分。

三、定语从句的分类

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语

从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,而非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗

号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

注:中考主要是征对关系词的考查。

四、关系代词的用法

1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省 略。例如:

Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)

The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)

2. which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家 超市。(作主语)

The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语) 3.

3. who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可

省略。例如:

The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是

英国人。(作主语)

Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语) 注意:

(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:

This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。

Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

(2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:

This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。

(3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。

4. 关系代词中几对词的区别:

(1)that 与which 的用法区别

?关系词只能用that不用which的情况:

a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。

b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:

I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

e.以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:

Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:

There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

?关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

a.先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?

b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:

This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。

c.引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.例如:

(2)关系代词who与whom的区别 Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

Who主要用于关系词在从句中做主语,而且先行词是人时;而whom主要用于关系词在从句中作宾语而且先行词是人时,例如:

I don’t know the woman who is talking there. (作主语)

I don’t know the woman whom the police are looking for. (作宾语)

(3)关系代词which和as的区别

which引导的定语从句不能置于句首,而as引导的定语从句则可以;另外,as引导的定语从句有“正如,正有”的意思。例如:

As we all know, China is a great country with a long history.

5、定语从句和同位语从句的区别

这两者最大的区别就在于连接词在从句中是否作某种成分,例如:

The news that he will be the monitor of our class is unknown. (同位语从句)

The news that he told us this this morning surprised us a lot. (定语从句)

五、关系副词的用法

(1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:

This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。

(2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:

This is place where he works.这是他工作的地点。

(3)why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:

Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

注意:?关系代词和关系副词的区分主要是看它们在从句中所做的成分,如作主语或宾语,则用关系代词;如作状语,则用关系副词。所以确定从句缺少的是什么成分是做好这一类题的重点。如:

These are the days_____we spent together.

These are the days_____we lived together.

很显然,第一个句子中从句缺少的是宾语,所以要用关系代词,而第二个句子中缺少的是状语,所以用关系副词。

注意:?大部分的关系副词都能用介词+关系代词来替换。例如: This is the place where he arrived yesterday=This is the place at which he arrived yesterday.

这一点也是中考的重点,难点在于介词的选择,同学们一定要仔细观察到底该用哪个介词。

1.单项填空。

1. Nearly all the streets are in straight lines, ________ from east to west.

A. running; that B. run; who C. running; who D. run; that

2. This is the case ________ he’s had all his money stolen.

A. when B. where C. that D. on which

3. Mr. Smith will pay a visit to Beijing this autumn, ________ we will enjoy the Olympic Games in 2008. A. where B. when C. which D. how

4. The artist will not paint people or animals but he will paint anything ________ .

A. that the little girl asks him B. the little girl asks him to

C. for the little girl to ask him D. what the little girl asks him

5. —How did you get in touch with the travel agent, Robin?

—Oh, that’s easy. I surfed the Internet and then called one ________ the telephone number is provided.

A. which B. in which C. of which D. whose

6. October 15 th is my birthday, ________ I will never forget.

A. when B. that C. what D. which

7. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk correctly and safely.

A. when B. where C. which D. whose

8. There are several research centers in China ________ a certain disease called Bird Flu is being studied.

A. which B. where C. when D. what

9. I hope that the little ________ I have been able to do does good to them all.

A. which B. what C. that D. when

10. The time is not far away ________ modern communications will become

widespread in China’s vast countryside.

A. as B. when C. until D. before

11. ________ is known to everybody, Taiwan is a part of China. We must unify it.

A. It B. As C. Which D. What

12. I shall never forget the day ________ Shen Zhou V was launched, ________ has a great effect on my life.

A. when, which B. that, which C. which, that D. when, that

13. The bread my wife makes is much better than ________ you can buy at a store.

A. that which B. one that C. that of which D. this of which

14. There is no such place ________ you dream of in all this world.

A. that B. what C. which D. as

15. The people, ________ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross.

A. all whose homes B. all of whose homes

C. all their homes D. all of their homes

16. The humans are destroying nature day by day, ________ of course, will cause severe punishment from it sooner or later.

A. who B. when C. on which D. which

17. Is this research center ________ you visited the modern equipment last year?

A. where B. that C. the one that D. the one where

18. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old ________ they swam in it.

A. when B. that C. who D. where

19. The man showed us so heavy a stone ________ no man can lift.

A. that B. as C. which D. and

20. He stayed there for quite a long time, during ________ time he learned much spoken English. A. that B. this C. which D. same

2. 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。

1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.

2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.

3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.

4. The house _____we live in is very old.

5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?

3. 中考链接

【2011湖南株洲】28. People often like clothes ______ can make them look young.

A. when B. who C. that

that引导,故选C。

【2012贵州贵阳】37. “What do you think of the school uniforms?” “Very good. I like clothes ______ make me feel comfortable.”

A. that B. what C. who

【2012贵州贵阳】37. “What do you think of the school uniforms?” “Very good. I like clothes ______ make me feel comfortable.”

A. that B. what C. who

【2012广东】42. There will be a flower show in the park ______ we visited last week.

A. who B. when C. what D. Which

【2012广西玉林】37. —Now many people smoke and get ill.

—So we should do something ______ can help stop smoking.

A. what B. who C. / D. that

【2012 湖北黄石】30. I still remember the time ____ we spent together at Xisai Mountain last year.

A. when B. what C. who D. which

【2012湖北十堰】38. One of the most delicious drinks _________ I like is orange juice.

A. which B. that C. whose D. whom

【2012湖北随州】35. —There are so many girls over there. Which one is your sister? —The one ______hat is yellow.

A. who B. whose C. that D. which

【2012湖北咸宁】29. We all like the story about the teacher _______ happened in our school last week. A

A. which B. who C. whom D. what

【2012江苏南京】7. The English-Chinese dictionary ______ my father bought for me many years ago is still of great value.

A. whose B. when C. who D. that

【2012江苏扬州】12. Zhang Lili is considered as the most beautiful teacher ______ gave her love to her students in danger.

A. who B. that C. whom D. which

【2012 呼和浩特】9. The little boy was wrapping the present _____ world be sent to his teacher.

A. who B. / C. what D. that

【2012广东省梅州市】35. Mr. Smith __________ is smoking is looking for________ she lost yesterday.

A. whom; which B. who; what C. that; who D. which; where

【2011河南】33. Success will belong to those ________never say "impossible".

A. whom B. what C. who D. which

【2012 山东滨州】33. —What are you looking for?

—I'm looking for the ring ______my husband bought me last year.

A. that B. who C. whom D. it

【2012山东泰安】38. I hate people ______ talk much but do little.

A. who B. which C. whose D. whom

28.Piano is a word________ was originally borrowed from Italian.

A.where B.who C.which D.whose

【2012四川成都】36. It's interesting that there are many people ______ speak French in Canada.

A. which B. where C. who

【2012四川达州】23. —Do you enjoy My heart will go on?

—No, I prefer songs loud.

A. that is B. which is C. that are D. what are

【2012绵阳市】20. I can never forget the stories________ my grandma told me.

A. what B. who C. them D. that

【2012四川宜宾】26. This is the primary school ______ I studied three years ago.

A. where B. when C. that D. which

【2012天津】44. Please pass me the cartoon book _________ has a Mickey Mouse on the cover.

A. whom B. whose C. who D. which

【2012浙江湖州】21.—What kind of movies do you like?

—I like the move ______ are about Chinese history.

A. who B. whom C. whose D which

【2012浙江嘉兴】21. Most students like the teachers ______ understand them well

A. who B. when C. what D. which

【2012浙江衢州】27. — What are you looking for?

— I'm looking for the pen ____ my father gave me last week.

A- who B. which C, whose D. whom

【2012贵州黔东南州】29_ --- Do you know the girl _____ is helping the old woman. -Oh, that's my sister,

A. whom B. whose C. who D. where

【2012山东?东营市】26. Steve Jobs is one of the persons ______ founded Apple Computer Company. His death marked the end of an era (时代).

A. who B. whom C. which D. /

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