haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

语法-现在完成时

发布时间:2013-12-20 15:45:24  

语法专讲:现在完成时

一、 现在完成时的构成:主语 + 助动词have/has + 过去分词 (过去分词:规则动

词的过去分词构成与动词过去式相同;不规则动词需要特殊记忆。

否定式: 主语 + haven’t/hasn’t + 过去分词。

疑问式: Have /Has + 主语 + 过去分词?

简略答语: Yes, 主语 + have/has.(肯定)No, 主语 + haven’t/hasn’t.(否定)

二、用法:现在完成时既涉及过去,又联系现在。

现在完成时的含义之一:表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响

或结果,常与never/ever,just,already/yet,before,since then, so far,in/over/during the past/last ten years, once,twice,three times等连用。

⑴ already, just和yet 表示到现在为止动作或状态已经、刚刚或还没有发生。(already用于肯定句中,yet用于一般疑问句和否定句中)

He has already got her help. / He has just seen the film. / He hasn’t come back yet.。 ⑵ ever和never 表示到现在为止动作或状态曾经或从来没有发生过。

I have(ever)seen the film. / Have you (ever )seen the film? / He has never seen the film.

⑶ 若某一动作到现在为止已经发生了若干次,一次(once),两次(twice),三次(three times)等, 则要使用现在完成时。

He has seen the film three times.

⑷ so far往往表示到目前为止动作或状态已经发生。

He has got to Beijing so far.

[Exercises] 选择填空

( ) 1.——Have you ——Yes, I have.

(A) never (B) ever (C) just (D) yet

( ) 2.——Have you finished your homework? —— Not (A) ever (B) already (C) yet (D) just

( (A) already (B) ever (C) yet (D) never

( ) 4.————(A) never, ever (B) ever, never (C) ever, already (D)already, ever

( ) 5.—? —(A) yet, already (B) already, yet (C) ever, never (D) still, just

( ) 6. (A) have already (B) has just (C) have ever (D) has yet

三、现在完成时含义之二:表示动作在过去已经开始,一直延续到现在,还有可能继续延续下去。常与for, since, how long,, these days等连用。

Since 和for 的用法:

⑴ Since+过去的时间点/表过去的时间短语和一般过去时的句子(since部分划线用how long提问) He’s learned about 5,000 English words

⑵ for+一段时间 (for部分划线也用how long提问)。

I haven’t seen her [Exercises] 用since和for填空

1) ______ two years 2) _______ two years ago 3) _______ last month

4) ______ 1999 5) _______ yesterday 6) _______ 4 o’clock

7) ______ 4 hours 8) _______ an hour ago

9) I’ve known him __________ we were children.

10) I haven’t seen her __________ she left here

11) Our teacher has studied Japanese _________ three years.

选择填空

(

(A) last week (B) for a week (C) a week before (D) the last week

( 2 years.

(A) about (B) for (C) in (D) since

( (A) since (B) for (C) ago (D) before

( ) 4. His father joined the party________.

(A) for three years (B)since three years ago

(C)three years ago (D)in two years' time

( ) 5. He moved here in 1999, and he has been here .

(A) at that time (B) for five years ago

(C) since four years (D) for four years

( about five days ago.

(A) \ (B) in (C) since (D for

句式:主句(现在完成时)+since+ 从句(一般过去时)

( English in our school ever since she here.

(A) has taught, came (B) taught ,came

(C) has taught, has come (D) teaches, has come

( ) 2. Our English teacher to China.

(A) has taught, came (B)taught, come

(C) has taught, has come (D)teaches, has come

( in Quanzhou since she born in 1980.

(A) has lived, has been (B) has lived, was

(C) lived, has been (D) lived, was

四、现在完成时态中可以和表示一段时间状语(for,since,how long, all one’s life)

连用的动词必须是表示延续的情况或动作的动词,即延续性动词。如:be,have,know,live,work,study,learn,teach,keep,speak,talk,draw,wait,wear,walk,sleep,drive,write,do,clean等。

I has he lived here?

英语中还有一些动词的意义决定它们所表示的动作不能延续,只是一瞬间就结束的动作, 这类动词叫做“非延续性动词/短暂动词”,常见的有:come,go,arrive,reach,close,open,leave,begin,start,lose,buy, join,die,get up,become,borrow,等。这些动词可用于现在完成时,说明某个动作的结果还存在,但不能和表示一段时间的状语(how long,for,since)连用。

He has come back.(√) He has come back for two hours.(×)

当非延续性动词(短暂动词)与表示一段时间的状语(how long,since,for, all one’s life)相矛盾时,用相应的延续性动词替代非延续性动词。

非延续性动词 延续性动词

borrow have/has kept

buy have /has had

finish / end/ stop have/has been over

come / go/ arrive / reach /get to have/has been in /at / here /there begin / start have/has been on

open have/has been open close have/has been closed die have/has been dead

leave have/has been away(from) get up have/has been up

get married have/has been married fall asleep have/has been asleep fall ill have/has been ill

get to know have/has known

become have/has been,

return/ come back/ get back have/has been back

join have/has been in / been a member of receive / get a letter have /has had a letter , catch / get a cold have/has had a cold, 他参军已有三年. He has joined the army for three years.(错)改为:

He joined the army three years ago.

He the army for three years / since three years ago.

He for three years /since three years ago. It is three years since he joined the army.

Three years has passed since he joined the army.

[Exercises]

( ) 1. —— ——Two weeks.

(A) borrow (B) keep (C) lend (D) return

( in 1990 and her husband for more than five years.

(A) died , dead (B) has died, dead

(C)died, has been dead (D)has died, has died

( ) 3. I have this nice watch for two years.

(A) had (B) bought (C) borrowed (D) lend

( his home for ten years.

(A) has left (B) left from

(C) has been away from (D) was away from

(

(A) is (B) has been (C) has become (D) have become

( for two years.

(A) joined the army (B)been an army

(C)become a soldier (D)been in the army

(1)He came to our village two years ago.

=He (2)He left home three days ago= He home for 3 days.

(3)I bought the watch 2 weeks ago=I __ __the watch since 2 weeks ago.

(4)I borrowed the book 5days ago.=I __ __the book for 5 days.

(5)The film has begun= The film __ ___ for half an hour.

(6)I got to know him 10 years ago=I ___ __him for 10 years.

(7)There is a factory=There ___ __ a factory for 20 years.

(8)Our school opened in 1960=Our school __ __ ___since 1960.

五、have been to 和have gone to的区别

have been to 强调“去过”,现已不在那里(人已回),如:

He has been to the USA three times.

他到美国去过三次。(过去“到美国”,现在已“不在美国”)

have gone to主要强调的是“去了”,现在人不在说话的现场(人未回),如: --Where's your mother? --你妈妈在哪?

--She has gone to the hospital. --她去医院了。

六、现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较

⑴ 现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去,和现在没有关系。试比较:

The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。(说明现在的情况:飞机在这儿)

The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。(强调动作发生的时间在过去)

I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。(表示十五年前到这教书一直到现在,还可能会继续教下去。)

I taught here three years ago. 三年前我在这儿教书。(表示―我―现在已经不在这儿教书了。)

⑵ When常与与一般过去时连用,How long常与与现在完成时连用

----When did you come to Beijing? ----Two days ago/ Last week.

---- How long have you been in Beijing? ----For two days/ since two days ago.

[Exercises] 选择填空

( ) 1. —Have you finished your homework? —Yes, I it last night

(A) finish (B) finished (C) have finished (D) will finish

( ) 2.—to Nanjing? —there last year.

(A) Have…gone, have gone (B) Have…been, went

(C) Did…go, went (D) Did…go, has been

( ) 3.—When —here for two years.

(A) did… meet, haven't seen (B) did…meet, haven't seen

(C) did…meet, don't see (D) would…meet, hadn't seen

( ) 4.——here?

(A) have…come, have…keen (B) did…come , have…been

(C) did…come, did…go (D) did…come , have …gone

七、规则动词的过去分词和它的过去式相同,即在原形后加-ed(-d)。不规则

动词的过去分词约有半数也和它的过去式相同。分类如下,利于记忆:

1) 原形中的元音字母有变化:

sit–sat-sat spit- spat- spat shine –shone- shone win-won-won

get-got-got find-found-found hold-held-held meet- met-met feed-fed-fed stand-stood-stood understand-understood-understood hang-hung-hung

2) 原形中的辅音字母有变化:

make-made-made have/ has-had-had build-built-built spill-spilt-spilt send-sent-sent lend- lent- lent spend-spent-spent

3) 在原形后加t或d:

spoil-spoilt-spoilt learn-learnt-learnt mean-meant-meant hear-heard-heard pay-paid-paid say-said-said lay-laid-laid lose-lost-lost

4) 原形中的元音字母和辅音字母都有变化:

smell-smelt-smelt spell-spelt–spelt keep-kept-kept sleep-slept-slept sweep-swept-swept feel-felt-felt leave-left-left sell-sold-sold tell-told-told catch-caught-caught teach-taught-taught buy-bought-bought bring-brought-brought think-thought-thought wear-wore-worn

5) 与原形相同:

hit-hit-hit hurt-hurt-hurt let-let-let put-put-put read-read-read set-set-set shut-shut shut cost-cost-cost cut-cut-cut

还有些不规则动词的过去分词与过去式不相同,为便于记忆,也分类如下:

1) 原形中的元音字母有变化:

ring-rang-rung sing-sang-sung drink-drank-drunk swim-swam-swum begin-began-begun sink-sank-sunk

2) 在原形上加-en:

eat-ate-eaten fall-fell-fallen ride-rode-ridden write-wrote- written be-was/were-been rise-rose-risen forget-forgot-forgotten

3)在原形上加-n:

see-saw-seen give-gave-given drive-drove-driven take-took-taken mistake-mistook-mistaken draw-drew-drawn blow-blew-blown grow-grew-grown know-knew-known show-showed-shown throw-threw-thrown

4)在过去式上加-n:

steal-stole-stolen break-broken–broken choose-chose-chosen speak-spoke-spoken wake-woke-woken

6) 与原行相同: come-came-come run-ran-run become-became-become

7) 原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同的:

do-did-done go-went-gone fly-flew-flown lie-lay-lain

个别动词有两个过去式和过去分词,一个为规则变化,另一个为不规则变化: learn - learned- learned shine -shined-shined smell – smelled-smelled

-learnt-learnt -shone-shone -smelt-smelt

wake -waked-waked spell -spelled-spelled

-woke-woken -spelt –spelt

[Exercises]

1. — Oh, Mrs. King, your necklace looks nice. Is it new?

— No, I ____ it for two years.

A. had B. have had C. bought D. have bought

2. His grandfather _____ for over two years.

A. has died B. has been dead C. has dead D. died

3.Uncle Li can speak English very well because he _____ England for 5 years.

A. has gone to B. has been to C. has come to D. has been in

4. — Where is Mr. Zhang? — He _____ London.

A. has been to B. has been C. has gone D. has gone to

5. — ___ to the United States? —No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago.

A. Have you been B. Have you gone C. Did you go D. Will you go

6. I haven’t seen you _____ last Friday.

A. for B. since C. from D. on

7. — John, you ___ the computer game for two hours. Stop, please!

— OK, Mum.

A. played B. have played C. were playing D. play

8. I won’t go to the concert because I _____ my ticket.

A. lost B. don’t lose C. have lost D. will lost

9.-Let’s go to the cinema.-No, I see)the film.

(not finish)our homework yet. Will you wait a minute?

be)there ten times.

12. -Where’s John? -(go)to the teachers’ office.

study)begin)to study English when she was ten.

14. Jim isn’t here. He go)go)there an hour ago.

15. I buy)the bike two weeks ago. I have)this bike since the beginning of this month. I (have)it for two weeks.

(take place)in Xuzhou in the last ten years.

17. How many times (phone)me these (phone)me this morning?

(lose)it.

19. He has already finished his homework.(改为否定句)

.

20My parents _______________(live) there for years.

21. ---________ you _________ (read) this book? ---Yes, I _________.

---When _____ you _______ (read) it? ---I _________ (read) it two months ago.

22. Joe ____________ (be) here for three hours since he __________(come) here.

23. I ____________(not see) so beautiful park before.

24. ---How long_________ your father___________(work) at this school?

---For more than ten years.

25. There ___________(be) fresh air and green hills on the island in the past.

26. I________________ (finish)my homework already.

27. Tom________________ (marry) for 40 years.

28. His grandfather ______________(die) since ten years ago.

29. Daniel ________________(join) the swimming club when he __________(be)

30. He ___________(be) a member of the club for 20 years.

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com