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初一unit 1---12知识细讲

发布时间:2013-12-21 09:46:15  

英语重点知识

七 下

五 班

王晓斌

Unit l Where is your Pen pal from?

一.Topic(题目):Where is your pen pal from?

二.Key Phrases(重点词组):

1.a pen pal 一位笔友= a pen friend

2.be from=come from 来自于

3.in the United States/the United Kingdom在美国/在英国

4.live in+地点 ,住在某地

5.what language,哪一门语言

6.Japanese for Kids! 儿童日语(Chinese Is Fun!趣味汉语; French for Today今日法语)

7.our world in English,我们的英语世界

8.her favorite subject,她最喜欢的科目

9.want a pen pal in China,想有一位来自中国的笔友

10.a very interesting country一个很有趣的国家

11.a little French 一点法语(a little修饰不可数名词)

12.like going to +地点 =like to go to +地点 喜欢去某地

13.go to movies with sb. 和某人一起去看电影

14.write to sb. 给某人写信

15.tell me about yourself 告诉我关于你自己的事情

16.in the world,在世界上

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17.talk about sth谈论某事

18.from?to?从?到?

19.on Sunday在星期天

20.be interested in?对?感兴趣

三.Pattern drills(交际用语):

1.Where is your pen pal from?

He is from Australia.

Where does he live?

He lives in Sydney.

What language does he speak?

He speaks English.

2.Does she have any brothers or sisters?

3.I think China is a very interesting country.

4.I can speak English and a little French.

5.I like going to the movies with my friends and playing sports. 6 The Long Weekend is an action movie.

7.Please write and tell me about yourself.

四.Language Points(重点和难点释义):

1.1)be from来自 如:I am from Japan.我来自日本。

Where are you from? 你来自什么地方?

where is John from? 约翰来自什么地方?

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2)be from=come from来自 如:She is from France.

她来自法国。=She comes from France.

3)be from的主语如果是物,可指“此物产于何地”。

如:Where is your computer from?

It's from Beijing.

2.pen pal笔友:pen friend

I have two pen pals.我有两名笔友。

3.Canada加拿大。国家是专有名词,第一个字母大写,前不加定冠词。

加拿大人是Canadian。如:

Lucy is from Canada.(不说:the Canada)

4.France法国,French法国人;法语

5.Japan日本Japanese日本人;日语

6.Australia澳大利亚,Australian澳大利亚人

He comes from Australia.He is an Australian.

7.the United States 美国

8.the United Kingdom英国

9.China 中国,Chinese中国人;汉语

10.Country 国家。two countries两个国家

11.city 城市 He's from a big city.他来自一个大城市.

three cities 三个城市

12.syrchley悉尼(澳大利亚港口城市)注意澳大利亚首都是堪培拉 4

(Canberra)

13.New York 纽约(美国著名城市)注意美国首都是华盛顿(Washington)

14.Paris巴黎。法国首都。

15.Toronto多伦多(加拿大著名城市)注意加拿大首都是渥太华(ottawa)

16.Tokyo东京。日本首都。

17.live居住。实义动词。居住在某地常用"live in+地点(国家/城市)”。

如:Where does he live? He lives in Paris.他住在什么地方? 他住在巴黎。

Dale lives in Australia.戴尔住在澳大利亚。

18.1)language语言。可数名词。如:

He is young, but he can speak seven languages.

他很小,但他会说七门语言。

2)what language 什么语言,特殊疑问词,用来对语言提问。如:I speak English.

What language do You speak?

19.speak English.说英语。“Speak+某语言”意为“讲?语”。如:

Can you speak Chinese? 你会讲汉语吗? Tom can B Japanese.

A speaks B speak C says D tell

20.Japanese for Kids!儿童日语入门 Chinese Is Fun!趣味汉语 Our

World in English.英语世界

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French Today.今日法语

21.world世界 in the world在世界上

There are many countries in the world.世界上有许多国家。

22.some/any some一些。常用于肯定句。在表请求、建议等语气时可

用于疑问句。Any一些,任何一个。常用于疑问句和否定句。如:He has some brothers.他有一些兄弟。

Does he have any brothers?他有一些兄弟吗?

He doesn't have any brothers.他没有任何兄弟。

23.her favorite subject她最喜欢的学科。

24.I live in Toronto,Canada.我住在加拿大的多伦多。

英语中小单位在前,大单位在后。如:

I live in Quxian,Sichuan.我住在四川省渠县。

I am in Class 1,Grade 1.我在一年级一班。

25.I want a pen pal in China.我想在中国找一位笔友。

26.an interesting country一个有趣的国家

an interesting book 一本有趣的书

27.14 years old 十四岁

He can speak a little Japanese.他会说点日语。

28.a little 一点 修饰不可数名词;修饰可数名词用a few

29.I like going to movies.我喜欢去看电影。

Like doing sth.喜欢干某事。如:

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He likes listening to music.他喜欢听音乐。

He likes running and playing basketball.

31.go to a movie去看电影

32.play sports 做运动

33.in school 在学校

34.It’s too difficult.那太难了。

too“太?”。暗含过分的意思。后接形容词或副词。

如:The table is too big.这桌子太大了。

35.Can you write to me soon?你能很快给我回信吗?

write to sb.=write a letter to sb.写信给某人

36.pen pal wanted 寻求笔友

37.on weekends=at the weekends 在周末

38.Please write and tell me about yourself.请写信告诉我有关你自己的情况。

tell sb about sth告诉某人有关情况。如:

Please tell me about your family.

请告我有关你家里的情况。

39.dislike厌恶;不喜欢。反义词是like。

like and dislike好恶;爱憎。

五、语法知识

1.speak,tell,talk,say的区别:

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speak为讲/说(某种语言)

tell为告诉(某人某事)

talk为谈话,其后用to/with接谈话对象

say为说(某内容)

2.some与any的用法:都表示“一些”,可修饰可数名词和不可数名词;区别为:some用于肯定句中;而any用于疑问句或否定句中。

3.表达某人是哪里人

(1)主语+be+from+地点?是?人

(2)主语+come/comes from+地点?是?人

4.询问某人是哪里人

(1)Where+be+主语+from? ?是哪里人?

(2)Where do/does+主语+come from? ?是哪里人?

5.表达某人的住所:主语+live(s)+地点某人住在某地

6.little,a little, few, a few的区别

little修饰不可数名词,“几乎没有”,具有否定含义。

a little修饰不可数名词,“有一些,少量”,具有肯动含义。 few修饰可数名词,“几乎没有”,具有否定含义。

a few修饰可数名词,“有一些”,具有肯动含义。

Unit 2 Where’s the post office?

一、话题(Topic)

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二、重点词组(Key Phrases)

l.near here

2.on Center Street在中心大街

3.across from在?对面

4.next to临近,靠近,在?旁边

5.in front of在?前面(外部)in the front of

6.between?and?在?和?两者之间

7.behind the library在图书馆后面

8.in the neighborhood

9. post office邮局

10.pay phone公用电话

11.go straight直着走

12.turn left向左转弯

13.take a walk through the park穿过公园散步

14.a good place to have fun一个有趣的地方

l5.an o1d hotel一家旧旅馆

16.a busy street一条繁忙的大街

17.the way to my house去我家的路

l8.on your left在你的左边

三、交际用语

1.Is there a bank near here? Yes,there is.It’s on Center Street. 9

2.Where's the library? It’s between the restaurant and the supermarket.

3.Is there a hotel in the neighborhood?

4.Just go straight and turn left.It’s down Bridge Street on the right.It’s next to a supermarket.

5.Thank you very much.OR Thanks a lot.

You’re welcome.OR That’s an right.

6.Next to the hotel is a small house with an interesting garden.

7.This is the beginning of the garden tour.

8.Bridge Street is a good place to have fun.

9.Write a tour guide for your neighborhood .

1O.Turn left on First Avenue and enjoy the city's quiet streets and small parks.

11.If you're hungry, you can buy some food in the supermarket. l2.I know you are arriving next Sunday.

13.Let me tell you the way to my house.

14.You pass a bank on your right and then go down Long Street.

15.I hope you have a good trip.

四.重点、难点释义(Language Points)

1.post office 邮局

2.1ibrary,图书馆。其复数为1ibraries.

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如:two libraries两个图书馆

3.bank银行;河岸

the bank of China中国银行

A river has two banks.一条河有两个岸。

4.pay phone投币式公用电话

5.Is there a?near here?附近有一个??吗?常用来问路。 如:Is there a bank near here?

6.It's on Center Street它在中央大街。

在街上美国英语常用n(英国英语用in),如:

There is a restaurant on Bridge Street.

7.across from在?对面= on the other side of 如:

The house is across from the street.

=The house is on the other side of the street.

8.next to紧挨;邻近。

如:He sits next to me.他紧挨着我坐。

9.between?and?,?与?之间。用于两者之间,注意用宾格。如:He is between Tom and me.他在我和汤姆之间。

1O.in front of在?前面(物体外部)如:

There is a tree in front of our classroom.我们教室前有一棵树。(树在教室外). in the front of在??前面 (物体内部)。如:

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There is a desk in the front of our classroom.我们教室前有一张桌子。(教室内部)

11、behind:在?后面。方位介词。如:

behind the chair在椅子后面

12.Fifth Avenue第五大街。专有名词,前不用定冠词the。

13.询问地点用 Where's+地点?回答用It's?如:

Where's the supermarket? It's on Center Street.

超市在什么地方? 在中央大街。

16.Excuse me对不起;打扰了;请原谅。

Excuse me/sorry. 前者为客套语,常用于“向人问路”、“要离开(会场,活动等) ”“插话”、“请求许可”、“向对方询问情况,可能引起对方不快等场合。”

Sorry侧重于事后对所犯的过错或不能满足对方要求而向对方表示歉意的场合。

17.in the neighborhood在附近

There is a park in the neighborhood.附近有一个公园。

18.Just用在祈使句中,意为:“就请?吧;尽管?好了”。 如:Just let me help you.就让我帮助你吧。

19.go straight一直走。straight“一直”,副词,放动词后,常用于指示方向。如:

如straight down the road.沿着这条路走下去。

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20.turn left/right,!向左/右转

turn left/fight at the ? crossing.在第?个路口向左/右转。如:Turn right at the first crossing.在第一个路口向右转。 turn left/right on/at+街道(地点)。在某地向左/右转。 如:turn left at New Park.在新公园向左转。

Turn right on Green Street.在格林大街向右转。

21.Down

1)副词,向下,下去。位于动词后。如:sit down坐下

2)介词。沿着。如:Go down this street.沿着这条衔走。

22.on the left 在左/右边

on one’s left/right 在某人的左/右边

on the left/right 在?的左/右边

如:There is a supermarket on the left.在左边有一家超市。 Lucy sits on Lily's right.露西坐在莉莉右边。

You can see a school on the right of the bank.你能看到银行右边有一所学校。

23.Thank you very much.非常感谢。=Thanks a 1ot

24. You're welcome. 别客气,不用谢。

25.几组反义词:

new—old small--big dirty—clean

busy--free空闲的(指街道时可用quiet)

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26.busy忙的;常用短语有:be busy with sth忙于某事

be busy doing sth忙于做某事。如:

The boy is busy with his homework.这男孩忙于他的作业。 Bill is busy playing the guitar.比尔正忙于弹吉他。

27.an old hotel一家旧旅馆。注意old前an用。如:

an old photo一张旧照片。

28.Welcome to+地点。欢迎到某地。如:

Welcome to our school.欢迎到我们学校。

Welcome to China.欢迎到中国来。

如果地点是副词,则省掉to。如:Welcome home.欢迎到家。

29.enjoy享受?的乐趣;欣赏。如:They enjoy Chinese food very much.他们非常喜欢中国食物。

1)enjoy doing sth.喜欢做某事=like doing sth

Diana enjoys watching TV.戴安娜喜欢看电视。

2)enjoy oneself过得快乐,玩得愉快=have fun=have a good time如:You can enjoy yourself there.你在那会过得愉快

30.quiet宁静的Be quiet请安静。Please keep quiet.请保持安静。

31.take a walk=have a walk散步

Let's take a walk after dinner.让我们晚饭后散会步吧。

32.across/through/over

across指从一定范围的一边到另一边。动作是在物体的表面进行。常用 14

于横穿街道、河流,穿过桥梁等。如:They walk across the bridge.他们步行走过了这座桥。

through侧重从物体的内部空间穿过,动作是在物体内部进行。常用于门、窗户、森林等。如:

He walks through the park.他步行穿过公园。

over多指从物体上空通过。如:

The birds fly over the city.鸟儿从城市上空飞过。

33.Across from the park is an old hotel.公园对面是一家旧旅馆。这是一个倒装句。正确语序是:An old hotel is across from the park.这儿把介词短语提前,表强调。注意动词与主语一致而不是与介词短语一致。如:

Under the table are two balls.桌子下有两个球。

34.?a small house with an interesting garden.一个有着有趣花园的小房屋

1)With在这表示“具有、带有”。如:

China is a country with a long history.中国是一个历史悠久的国家。

His sister is a nice girl with two big eyes.

他的妹妹是一位有着一双大眼睛的漂亮姑娘。

2)with还可表“和某人一起”如:

She wants to go with us.她想和我们一起去。

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35.the beginning of?.?的开始。如:

That's the beginning of his new life.那是他新生活的开始。 at the beginning of.在?的开始。如:

At the beginning of the class.The teacher tell us a story.开始上课时,老师给我们讲了一个故事。

36.garden tour花园之旅

37.a good place to do sth.一个做某事的好地方。如:

Our classroom is a good place to study.我们教室是一个学习的好地方。

38.have fun玩得开心。=have a good time=enjoy+反身代词。如:We have fun on Sundays.星期天我们玩得很开心。

=We have a good time on Sundays.

=We enjoy ourselves on Sundays.

have fun(in)doing sth 做某事很愉快

We have fun learning English this term.这学期我们学英语很愉快。

39.If you are hungry, you can buy some food in the supermarket.如果你饿了,你可以在超市买食物。

If,如果。引导的句子称“条什状语从句”。如:

If you are hungry, please go to your mother.如果你饿了,就去找妈妈。

40.“be going to+动词原形”表示“计划做某事、将要做某事”。如: 16

We are going to play basketball this afternoon.今天下午我们要打篮球。

41.from?to?从?到?如:from one to ten从一到十

We go to school from Monday to Saturday.我们从星期一到星期六上学。

42.arrive“到达”不及物动词。

1)到达小地方,用arrive at,如车站、码头等。到大地方用 arrive in,如城市、国家等。如:

They arrive in Shanghai today.他们今天到达上海。

If you arrive at the hotel,please call me.如果到了旅锕,就给我打电话。

2)arrive at/in=get to如:

I get to school at seven every day.

=I arrive at school at seven every day.

3)be arriving“就要到达、将要到达”。如:

He is arriving next week.他下周就要来了。

43.next Sunday下周星期天。Next,下一个的,如:

next week下周next year明年 next term下学期

next month下个月next Monday下周一

44.let sb do sth让某人干某事

45 the way to?,去?的路。如:

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Do you know the way to the bank? 你知道去银行的路吗?

I don't know the way to your house.我不知道去你家的路。

46.take a taxi=have a taxi乘出租车

47.pass经过;通过(考试、检测等)如:

You will pass a big supermarket.你会经过一个大的超市。 Can you pass the exam? 你能通过考试吗?

48.go down=go along 沿着?走。Go down Long Street.沿着长街走。

49.When you see a big supermarket,当你见到一个大的超市时。When当?的时候”。引导一个时间状语从句。如:

When you finish (完成)your homework,go home.当你完成了作业,就回家吧。

50.I hope+句子。我希望?;我祝愿? 如:

I hope you have a good weekend.祝你周末愉快。

51.have a good trip 旅途愉快

52.around here附近

五.语法知识

1.There be 句型:

(1)用法:“某地 存在 某物/人”即强调某人或某物与某地的位置关系。

(2)结构:“There be + 主 语+ 介词短语

存在(有) 某人/物 某地

说明l:there be 有there is ,there are两种形式。由最近一个主语来 18

决定be的单复数。当最近一个主语为单数或不可数名词时,用there is;为复数时,用there are。如:

There is a book on the desk.桌子上有一本书。

There are some trees near the river.河的附近有一些树。

There is a desk and two chairs in the room.房间里有一张桌子和两把椅子。(最近一个主语是a desk)

There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 房间里有两把椅子和一张桌子。(最近一个主语是two chairs)

说明2:“介词短语”表示“地点”,即上册所讲的“方位介词”。也可把介词短语置于句首。学过的有:on,in,under, between(?and),next to, behind,in front of;如:

There is a clock on the wall.

Under the tree there are some girls.

(3)there be句型的一般疑问句及其回答。一般疑问句把be动词提前。如: Is there an egg on the desk? Yes,there is./No,there isn't. Are there any birds in the tree? Yes,there are.

(4)There be句型的否定句。直接在动词be后加not.如:

There aren't any books on the desk.

(5)对There be句型中的方位介词短语提问时,常用where。

如:There is a park on Green Street.

—Where is a park?(去掉there)

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(6)对there be句型中的主语提问时,常省略there。如: There is a desk in the teacher's room.

What's in the teacher's room? There are two pens in the pencil case.

What’s in the pencil case?(注意常用单数)

(7)there be句型与have的区别:前者强调的是一种位置关系;have强调是一种所属关系。如:

There is a pen on my desk.我桌子上有一支笔。

(笔在我桌子上,但不一定是我的。)

I have a pen.我有一支笔。

(不管笔在哪,都是属于我的。)

2.表示方位的介词短语的用法。

介词属于虚词,不能单独使用。“介词+名词或代词”构成介词短语,常表示地点和位置的介词短语有:

(1)in在?里;在?地方

in the pencil case在铅笔盒里

in the neighborhood在近区

in the supermarket在超市里

(2)on在?上

on the floor在地板上;on the desk在课桌上

on Center Street在中心大街;on the bench在凳子上

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(3)under在?下

under the table在桌子底下;under the tree在树下

under the bed在床下

(4)behind在?后面

behind the house在房子后面;behind the door在门后

behind the post office在邮局后面

(5)next to 在?旁边

next to the bank在银行旁边

next to the video arcade在电子游戏中

next to the school在学校旁边

(6)across from在?对面

across from the hotel在宾馆对面

across from the supermarket在超市对面

(7)between?and?在(两者)?之间

Between the library and the post office.在图书馆和邮局之间。

(8) in front of在?前面(物体外部

(物体内部)。如:

There is a tree in front of our classroom.我们教室前有一棵树。(树在教室外).

There is a desk in the front of our classroom.我们教室前有一张桌子。(教室内部)

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3.get to, arrive, reach的用法:都表示“到达”,arrive为不及物

动词,后需接at或in才能跟地点名词。get to和reach后可直接跟地点名词。

注意:get, arrive后接副词时,不带to或in或at。如:get home。

Unit 3 Why do you like koala bears?

一、话题(Topic)

二、重点词组(Key Phrases)

kind of有点,稍微

eat grass吃草

play with her friends与她的朋友一起玩

be quiet保持安静

in the day在白天

at night在晚上

eat leaves吃树叶

other animals别的动物

三、交际用语

1.Why do you like pandas? Because they’re very clever.

2.Why does he like koalas? Because they’re kind of interesting.

3.Where are lions from? They are from south Africa.

4.What other animals do you 1ike?I like dogs,too.

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Why? Because they’re friendly and clever.

5.Molly likes to play with her friends and eat grass.

6.She's very shy.

7.He is from Australia. He sleeps during the day, but at night he gets up and eats leaves.

8.He usually sleeps and relaxes 20 hours every day.

四、重点难点释义(Language Points)

1、kind of宵点,稍微

Koala bears are kind of shy.考拉有点害羞.

kind还有“种类”的意思。

如:各种各样的 all kinds of

We have all kinds of beautiful flowers in our school.

2、China,n.中国 Africa,n.非洲

China和Africa都是专有名词,首字母都应该大写,而且和介词in连用。 There are many kinds of tigers in China.

There are many kinds of scary animals in Africa.

3、friendly,adj.友好的,和蔼可亲的

它是名词friend的形容词形式,常常和be动词连用,be friendly。 The people in Chengdu are very friendly

4、with prep.跟,同,和?在一起

I usually play chess with my father.

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注意区别与and的用法,and通用于连接主语或宾语,连接主语时,如果有I,I通常放在and之后,如:

My father and I usually play chess together

Play with“和?一起玩耍,玩”

I often play with my pet dog.

Don't play with water.

5、day和night是一对反义同,day表示白天或一天,night表示夜或夜晚。通常说in the day,during the day, at night。

Koala bears often sleep during the day and eat leaves at night.

6、leaf,n,叶子,复数形式为:leaves,类似的变化还有:wife~wives,wolf—wolves,knife—knives等。

7、hour,n,小时;点钟

hour前边通常加上冠词an表示“一个小时”,即:an hour。 There are 24 hours in a day and 60 minutes in an hour.

8、be from来自 be from=come from

Pandas are from China.=Pandas come form China.

9、meat,n.(食用的)肉,为不可数名词,表示“许多”时,使用much来修饰,即:much meat

He eats much meat every day.

lO、grass,n.草,为不可数名词,表示“许多”时,使用much来修饰,即:much grass。

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There is much grass on the playground.

五.语法知识

“how many”等开头,对某一具体问题进行提问。

特殊疑问句的基本构成有两种情况:

1.疑问句+一般疑问句结构。这是最常见的情况。例如:

What's your grandfather's telephone number?

你爷爷的电话号码是多少?

Who is that boy with big eyes?那个大眼睛的男孩是谁? Which season do you like best?你最喜欢哪个季节?

When is he going to play the piano?他什么时候弹钢琴? Where does he live?他住在哪儿?

How are you?你好吗?

How old are you?你多大了?

How many brothers and sisters do you have?

你有几个兄弟姐妹?

2.疑问句+陈述句结构。这时疑问词作主语或修饰主语。例如: Who is on duty today?今天谁值日?

Which man is your teacher?哪位男士是你的老师?

我们学过的What/How about+名词/代词+其他?也是特殊疑问句,它是一种省略结构。

例如:

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I like English.What/How about you?我喜欢英语。你呢? What about playing basketball?打篮球怎么样?

3.Why+助动词+主语+动词——由why引导的特殊疑问句,回答用because开头,或者用动词不定式。如:

Why do you like koalas?你为什么喜欢树袋熊?

4.too,either,also的用法——都有“也”的意思。区别是: too一般用在肯定句中,放在句末,或作为插入语放在句中。 either用在否定句中,必须放在句末。

Also一般来说经常放在句中,其位置在行为动词之前,动词be之后,如有助动词或情态动词,一般放在助动词或情态动词之后。

5.other与the other的用法:

other意为“其他,另外”,用作形容词时可修饰单数或复数名词。

the other意为两者中的另一位,常用one连用。它还可以修饰复数名词,表示除前面提到的以外的“全部其余的”。

Unit 4 I want to be an actor.

一、话题——

二、重点词组

1.bank clerk银行职员

2.other young people别的年轻人

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3.a busy work一种繁忙的工作

4.shop assistant商店售货员

5.school play

6.a newspaper reporter新闻记者

7.work hard努力

8.work for a magazine为一种杂志而工作

9.go to hospital去医院;in the hospital在医院里;in hospital住院(表示生病)

10.on show展览中(show sb around领某人参观;show oneself出席)

11.show sb off炫耀

12.count from?to?从?数到?;count on依赖,依靠

13.in danger处于危险中

14.be afraid of对?害怕

三、交际用语

1.What does she do?=What is her job?=What is she?

2.What do you want to be?---I want to be an actor.

3.I work with people and money.

People give me their money or get their money from me.

4.I wear a white uniform and I help doctors.

Sometimes I work in the day and sometimes at night.

5.My work is interesting but kind of dangerous.Thieves don't like 27

me.

6 I like talking with people.I meet interesting people every day and ask them questions.

7.f work late.I am very busy when people go out for dinners.

8.Where does your sister work? She works in a hospital.

9.We have a job for you as a waiter.

10.We are an international schoo1 for children of 5-l2.

11.We want a P.E.teacher to teach guitar, piano and violin.

12.My uncle works in that restaurant.

四、重点难点释义

1.I want to be an actor.我想成为一名演员。

“Want to be十职业”表示“想成为一名?”如:I want to be a doctor.我想成为一名医生。He wants to be a teacher.他想成为一名教师。 学过的有关want的用法还有:

1)want sth想要某物

2)want to do sth想做某事

3)want sb to do sth=ask sb to do sth=let sb to do sth

actor男演员;actress女演员。一般演员要用an而不用a。如:He's an actor.他是一位演员。

2.report +er=reporter记者。

“动词+er=发出动作的人”。这是一种构词法。如:teach教书 teacher 28

教师

run—runner write—writer作家 work—worker工人

有少数两个是加or。如:actor visitor参观者

3.Policeman男警察。其复数为policemen man复数为men;woman复数为women;

Policewoman复数为policewomen如:There are two policemen on the street.街有两位警察。

4 waiter男侍者。Waitress女侍者

5.Now showing正在放映

6.in hospital住院 in the/a hospital在医院。如:

He is ill in hospital.他生病住院了。

His father works in a hospital.他父亲在一家医院工作。

7.What does he do?他是做什么的?

1)what对“职业”提问。如:He is a teacher.---What does he do? I am a doctor.---What do you do?

2)转换同义句。

What does he do?=What is he?=What’s his job?

What do you do?=What are you?=What’s your job?

8 money 钱。 不可数名词。Much money许多钱。

hard money硬币 paper money纸币 make money赚钱

I want to make more money.我想赚更多的钱。

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Time is money.时间就是金钱。

Money is not everything.金钱并非万能。

Money makes the mare go.有钱能使鬼推磨。

9.People give me their money.人们把钱交给我。

1)give sth to sb表示“把某物给某人”。其中sth表某物,称直接宾语;sb表某人,称间接宾语。两者合称“双宾语”。

常见结构为:

“动词+直接宾语+to/for+间接宾语”(动词buy,make,cook,get,draw;sing等常与for搭配:其余与to搭配)

如:Please give some water to me.请给我一点水。

He sings an English song for us.他给我们唱了一首英语歌。

2)上面结构也可以改写为:

“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”(即当间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后时,中间不加介词。)上面例句可改为:Please give me some water. He sings us an English song.

3)当直接宾语和间接宾语都是代词时,只能用“give sth to sb”结构,如:只能说That's my book. Please give it to me.不能说Please give me it.

10.get sth from?从?得到某物,如:He gets some money from his father every month.每个月他都能从父亲那得到一些钱。

11.wear和put on两者都表示“穿”,wear强调穿的状态,意为“穿着”。 30

Put on强调穿的动作,意为“穿上”。如:

He often wears a white coat.他经常穿一件白外衣。

Dale puts on a hat and goes out.戴尔戴上帽子出去了。

12.sometimes,有时。可放句首、句末、句中。如:

Sometimes I get up late.有时我起床很晚。

He sometimes watches TV at home.他有时在家看电视。

Linda is late for school sometimes.琳达有时上学迟到。

13.in the day 在白天。=during the day

14.dangerous危险的。其名词为danger。in danger处于危险中。

15.thief小偷?其复数为thieves

16.talk to/with sb.与某人交谈。Talk about sb./sth谈论某人或某事。如:

The teacher is talking with a man.老师正和一个人交谈。

They are talking about a new movie.他们正在谈论一部新电影。 17 late

1)作形容词。“迟的、晚的”。常用:be late(for)

2)(因?)迟到 I am late.我迟到了。She is late for class.她上课迟到了。

3)做副词,修饰动词,放动词后。如:Peter gets up late.比尔起床迟了。

He often works late.他经常工作到很晚。

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l8 I am very busv.我很忙。be busy doing 忙于做某事。如: He is busy reading his book.他正忙于读他的书。

be busy with sth 忙于某事。如:

Tom is busy with his homework.汤姆忙于他的作业。

这两个短语有时可互换。如:

Ann is busy learning English.=Ann is busy with her English.安忙于学英语。

19.go out 出去。go out to dinner_出去吃饭。

20.an exciting job 一项激动人心的工作

21.be interested in对?感兴趣。常用人作主语。如:

We interested in science.我们对科学产生了兴趣。

interesting有趣的。常用物作主语。指某物本身有趣。如:

This book is interesting.I am interested it.这本书很有趣,我对它产生了兴趣。

22.newspaper.报纸,可数名词。two newspapers两份报纸

23.work hard努力工作/学习。如:We work hard all day我们整天都努力学习。

24.work与job work 工作、职业。既可作动词,又可用名词。作名词时是不可数名词。job工作、职业,是一个可数名词。

25.We have a job for you as a waiter.我们可以为你提供一份作侍者的工作。

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a)for为某人。

b)as作为,又如:He works in the factory as a manager.他在工厂当经理。

26.story故事。复数为:stories.讲故事要用tell.如:

He often tells us stories in class.他经常在课堂上给我们讲故事。

27.Do you want to work for a magazine?你想为杂志社工作吗? “work for+机构”为某机构工作。如:

He、works for a computer company.他为一家电脑公司工作。

28.young年轻的.反义词为old。

younger更年轻的,younger brother.弟弟

29.need需要。常用:

1)need sth.需要某物。如:I need some help.我需要一些帮助。

2)need to do sth需要做某事。He needs to see you他需要见你。

3)need doing sth某物需要被??。如:

The house needs cleaning.这房子需要清扫了。

The TV needs repaired.电视需要修理了。

30.Evening Newspaper晚报 Morning Newspaper晨报

31.in the newspaper.在报纸上。in the picture.在图上

32.want ad 招聘广告

33.news消息。不可数名词。A piece of news?一则?消息。

34.Child 孩子。其复数是children.

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35.an international school一所国际性学校。

36.coach教练。复数为coaches

37.teach sb sth.教某人?,其第三人称单数为teaches.如: He teaches us English.

Can you teach me a song?你能教我一首歌吗?

38.“one of+复数名词” ?中的一个。如:

One of them has a bike.他们中一位有自行车。

I like one of these books.我喜欢其中一本书。

39.Sir先生。单独使用,不与姓连用。对应词为madam.如:Yes,sir.是的,先生。Yes,madam.是的,夫人。

五.语法知识

一般现在时

(1)一般现在时主要由动词原形表示,但第三人称单数后要加-s,另外be有特殊的人格形式,见下表:

一般现在时

34 (2)一般现在时的否定形式(见下表)

一般现在时的否定形式

(3)一般现在时的疑问形式及简略回答(见下表)

一般现在时的疑问形式

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(4)一般现在时的基本用法如下:

——经常性或习惯性的。I get up at six every day.

——客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。The moon moves round the earth. ——表示格言或警句中。Pride goes before a fall.骄者必败。 ——现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。I don’t want so much.

Unit 5 I’m watching TV

一、话题

二、重点词组

1.wait for 等候

2.talk to ??谈话

3.talk about 谈论

4.go to the movies 去看电影

5.write a 1etter 写一封信

6.reading a book 看书

7.do one’s homework做作业

三、交际用语

1.---What are you doing?

---I’m watching TV.

2.---What’s he doing?

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---He is doing homework.

3.---What’s she doing?

---She’s reading.

4.---Do you want to go to the movies?

---Sure, this TV show is boring.

---When do you want to go?

---Let’s go at six o’clock.

5.Who’s he waiting for?

6.What’s he reading?

7 Who are they talking to?

8.What are they talking about?

9.Thanks for your letter and the photos.

10.Here are some of my photo.

l1.In the first photo,I’m playing basketball at school l2.In the second photo,I’m swimming at the pool.

13 In the next photo,you can see my family at home.We are eating dinner.

14.In the last photo,I’m with my sister-Gina.She’s doing homework-I’m watching TV.

15.---Are you swimming?

---NO.I’m not.

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四、重点难点释义

1.do (one’s)homework 做作业。其中one’s指物主代词,且和主语保持一致。如:We do our homework in the evening.我们在晚上做作业。

He often does his homework at home.他经常在家做作业。 注意其疑问句和否定句。如: Does he often do his homework at home?

He doesn’t often do his homework at home.

2.watch TV 看电视

1)watch意为“观看、注视”。指长时间看某一活动的场面,如:看电视、比赛、表演、赏月等。

He likes watching TV.他喜欢看电视。

2)look强调发出看的动作,不注重结果。,是一个不及物动词,带宾语时加at。如:Look.There is a boy under the tree.看,树下面有个小男孩。

Please look at the blackboard.请看黑板。

3)see强调看的结果。指看见还是没看见。也指看电影(、see a comedy)、看病(see a doctor)如:I can see some birds in the tree.我能看见树下有一些鸟。

4)read意为“看、读”。其宾语常是有文字的“书、报、杂志”等,如: 38

He is reading a book.他正在看书。

体会下面的话: 看,大卫正在看黑板。他能看见一位女孩在看书,她没有看电视。 Look.David is looking at the blackboard.He can see a girl.She is reading books.She isn’t watching TV.

4.clean

l)形容词。“干净的”如:The desk is clean.桌子很干净。

2)动词。“扫除、清除”。如:He is cleaning his room.他正在打扫房间。

5.eat dinner 吃晚饭

6.talk on the phone.在电话上交谈。注意用介词on。

7.want to do sth.想要做某事。

8.go to the movies 去看电影。

9.That sounds good.那听起来不错。

l0 TV show 电视节目。

11.write a letter 写信。

Write a letter to sb.=write to sb.给某人写信。

I often write a letter to my friend.=I often write to my friend. 我经常给朋友写信。

l2 Sure.当然。用来同意对方的请求或建议。如:May I have a look? Sure.

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我可以看一看吗?当然。

13 Let’s+动词原形。表“建议”。意为“让我们做??”如: Let’s see the tigers first.让我们先看老虎吧。

l4 read a book 看书。也可说。'read books”

15 wait等,等候。不及物动词。带宾语时加for,即:wait for sb/sth,等候某人或某物。如:He is waiting for a bus.他正在等一辆公交车。 Are you waiting for.me? 你在等我吗?

l6 talk to sb,对某人说话。一方主动,一方被动地听。Talk with sb.和谋交谈,双方平等的。

Talk about sth.谈论某事。如:He is talking with his mother about his study.

他正和他妈妈谈论他的学习情况。

17.a11全部;全都。指三者及三者以上。通常放助动词后,实义动词前。如:

We are all students.我们全都是学生。

They all work hard.他们全都努力学习。

18.at the mall在购物商场。注意用“at”。

又如:at the library在图书馆 at the pool 在游泳池

19.at school 在学校。

20.thanks for 因?而感谢。如:Thanks for your pen. Thank sb for+名词/代词/V-ing 因?而感谢某人。如:

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Thank you for your help.=Thank you for helping me.谢谢你的帮助。

Thank him for his pen.谢谢他的笔。

21.photo照片。复数加-s。以o结尾的名词只有tomato和potato的复数加-es,其余的加-s。

22.Here is/are?这儿有??。is后接单数:are后接复数。 如:Here is your book.这是你的书。

Here are your books.这是你们的书。

23.some of?“??中的一些”。后接可数复数或不可数。 如:Some of meat is bad.有些肉坏了。

Some of us are teachers.我们中有一些是老师。

I like some of these books.我喜欢其中的一些书。

同样。One/two of? ??中的一/两个。

Many of ??中许多。 All of ??中全部。

24.in the first photo 在照片上.用介词“in”。

25.Family 家;家庭。强调“整体”,是单数;强调“成员”时,是复数,如: His family has a shower.他们家有一个淋浴。 His family are watching TV.他全家在看电视。

26 at home在家

27.a photo of my family 一张我的全家照

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五.语法知识

1.现在进行时态:

(1).谓语动词:be+V-ing

1)be动词要受主语影响变为am,is,are.

2)V-ing 又叫现在分词。

(2)现在分词的构成规则如下:

1)一般动词后直接加-ing.如:reading,watching,seeing

2)以不发音的e结尾的词去掉e再加-ing.

如:make-making write—writing

3)以重读、闭音、单辅音字母结尾的词,双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing.如:

get-getting swim-swimming put-putting run-running

(3)用法:

1)表示现在(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。(不能指状态。)

2)表示现阶段正在进行,而此刻不一定在进行的动作。(以these days为代表)

3)表即将发生的动作。这类词有:come,go,leave、arrive等,常与表将来的时间壮语连用。

(4)常见标志:

1)句中有:now,hear,look等 如:He is doing his homework now. Look,what is the girl drawing?

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2)含现在进行时的问答。如:Are you mending you pen? No,I’m mending my bike.你正在修笔吗?不,我正在修我的自行车。

3)用现在进行时回答表特殊的地点:如:Where's Tom? He is washing clothes.(即在洗衣服的地方可以找到他。)

4)前句是“It’s+时间”句子。如:It's six o'clock now.Jim is having supper.

(5)现在进行时的一般疑问句及回答:一股疑问句把be动词提前;回答用Yes,主语+be或No,主语+be+not。如:Are you making the bed? Yes,I am.

Is the girl drawing a picture? No.she isn't.

(6).现在进行时的否定句:在be动词后加not。

如:They are cleaning the classroom.

They aren’t cleaning the classroom.

2.对现在进行时的谓语动词提问,常用“what?doing”。

如:He is reading a book.

What is he doing?

Unit 6 It’s raining

一、话题——The Weather

二、重点词组

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1.thank you for doing

2.on vacation在度假

3.take photos照相

4.have a good time=enjoy oneself玩得开心

5.on one’s head

6.some?others?一些?另外的?

7.wear a kind of scarf

8.1ook cool看起来很酷

9.five thousand years五千年

10.thousands of成千上万

11.sound terrible

12.ride camels

13.look at

l4.Play basketball

15.at once=right now立刻,马上

三、交际用语

1. How's the weather?

2.It's raining.

3.How’s it going?

4.It's great.

5.Ts aunt Sarah there?

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Yes.she is

6.What’s she doing?

She’s cooking.

四、重点难点释义

1.it可用来指代天气。在句中可不译为中文。要根据上下文理解。如: It is windy.(天气)在刮风。It's cold today.今天很冷。

2.rain 名词。“雨,雨水”。

动词。“下雨”。如:It's raining cats and dogs.正下倾盆大雨。

形容词为:rainy 下雨的。“下雨了”可说It's raining.也可说:It's rainy.

3.wind—windy cloud---cloudy sun---sunny 这三组表天气的词都是“名词+y=形容词”。

4.snow 名词,“雪”;动词,“下雪”。其形容词为snowy,“下雪了”可说:It’s snowing.或者It’s snowy.

5.表“风、云、雨、雪”等天气的名词都是不可数名词。但有时可在前面加上“a”,表示“一团、阵”等,这时就是可数。如:a wind一阵风;a cloud一团云;a rain一场雨。We can see many clouds in the sky.我们能看到空中有许多云彩。

6.How's the weather?天气怎么样?

1)后可接时间、地点。如:

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How’s the weather today?今天天气怎么样?

How’s the weather in Sichuan?四川天气怎么样

2)回答用“It’s +天气”,如:How the weather today?---It’s cloudy.

3)同义句为:What's the weather like?如:

How’s the weather in Beijing?=What's the weather like in Beijing?

4)对“天气”提问用“"How's the weather?”如: Today is sunny.---How's the weather today?

7.Weather天气。不可数名词。如:Its a bad weather.(错,去掉a)

8.Moscow 莫斯科。饿罗斯首都。

9.Happy,New Year!新年快乐!

10.Uncle Joe乔叔叔。类似的有:Aunt Sarah萨利大婶;Mr.Smith史密斯先生;Miss.Wang王小姐

11.Study 学习。第三人称单数为:studies.如:

He studies in a Middle Schoo1.他在一所中学学习。

12.cook 1)动词。烹调,煮。

2)名词。厨师。如:His father is a cook.他父亲是一名厨师。

3)cooker炊具。

13.How's it going?最近怎么样?最近好不好?后可接with sb/sth.用来表达对朋友、家人的关怀。如:How's it going with Peter?彼特最 46

近怎么样?

How’s it going with your study?你最近学习怎么样?

14.Not bad 还不错。

l5.Just so-so.马马虎虎。

16.pretty good相当好。Pretty还可指女子美丽的。

17.This is Bob.我是鲍勃。打电话说“我是某人”用“This is?”;你是某某人用That is?。

如:Hello.This is Dale.Is that Mr.Green?喂,我是戴尔,你是格林先生吗?

l8 hot热的。反义词是:cold。

Hot dog热狗;hot food辣的食物

19.cold寒冷的。have a cold患感冒

20.cool凉爽的。反义词为:warm.Cool还可指人或物“酷”。

21.Thank you for?因??而感谢。For是介词,后只能接名词、代词、动词的ing形式。如:Thank you for helping me.谢谢你帮助我.

22.CCTV's Around The World show.中国中央电视台环球节目。

23.on vacation.在度假。Summer vacation暑假 winter vacation寒假

24.take photos照相。Take a photo of sb/sth 给某人/某物照相。如: Please take a photo of my baby.请给我的孩子照一张相吧。

25.other.others

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other别的,其他的。相当于一个形容词,作定语,后通常有一个名词。如:What other animals can you see?你还能看见什么动物? Other students are cleaning the room.其他学生正打扫房间。 Others别的(人或物),其他的(人或物)。相当于一个名词。后不再接名词。如:

He always thinks of others.他总是为别人着想。

Some?others?一些??另一些??。如:

Some students like singing.Others like dancing.一些学生喜欢唱歌,另一些喜欢跳舞。

the other与the others区别与前面相同。加定冠词后表特指某一范围的人或物。如:

There are 32 students in our class.Two boys are Americans,the others are Chinese.我们班有32名学生。有两名男孩是美国人,其余的都是中国人。

26.1ie 平躺。Lying是它的现在分词。Lie on the beach.躺在海滩上。

27.beach海滩:沙滩。复数加-es。Two beaches两个海滩

28.a group of一群?,作主语时谓语动词用单数形式。

如:A group of students is reading.一群学生正在读书。

29.this group of people playing beach volleyball 这群正打沙滩排球的人

Playing beach volleyball是现在分词短语作定语,放被修饰词后。注 48

意与句子区别。如:Some people are playing basketball.一些人正在打篮球。(句子)

some people playing basketball一些打篮球的人(短浯) Lucy China is my friend.来自中国的露西是我的朋友。(答案:B)

A.is from B.from C does from D.comes from

The boy (write) is Dave.(答案:writing)正在写字的孩子是大卫。

30.They look coo1.他们看起来很酷。

Look“看起来”,是一个连系动词。后只能接形容词作表语。如: They look very happy.他们看起来很高兴。

Linda looks young.琳达看起来很小。

学过的连系动词还有:be动词、sound(听起来) That sounds good.那听起来不错。

31.I am surprised that they can play in this heat.我很惊讶他们能在这么热的天玩。

Be surprised后可接:1)句子;2)at sth 3)to do sth 都表示对?感到惊奇。如:

I am surprised he is a policeman.我很惊奇他是一位警察。 He is surprised at you.他对你的行为感到惊讶。

We are surprised to meet him on the street.我们很惊讶在街上遇到了他。

To one's surprise令某人惊奇的是。如:

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To ones surprise,he is coming.令我惊奇的是,他居然来了。 32 in this heat.在这种热度下。注意用介词“in”。

33.the people are really very relaxed.人们真的很放松。Be relaxed.放松:轻松。常用人作主语。如

After the weekends, we are all relaxed.经过一个周末.我们全都很轻松。

34.scarf围巾。复数为:scarfs或scarves.

35 everyone每人,人人。作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 如:Everyone is here.大家都在这儿。

Everyone has his own name.每人都有自己的名字。

36.have a good time 玩得高兴:过得愉快。=have fun=enjoy+反身代词。如:

We are having a good time in the park.我们在公园里玩得很高兴。 =We are having fun in the park.=We are enjoying ourselves in the park.

have a good+其他名词。表??愉快、高兴。如:have a good trip旅途愉快。

have a good summer vacation暑假愉快。

五、语法知识

初步掌握现在进行时的用法:

1)现在进行时表示现在(说话瞬问)正在进行或发生的动作。

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如:She is singing她正在唱歌。

2)现在进行时也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行或发生的动作。

We are working on a farm theses days.这几天我们在农场干活。 I am writing a book this month.这个月我在写作。

3)现在进行时是由be(am/is/are)+动词现在分词构成形式的。

4)现在分词的几种构成形式:

第一:一般动词后直接+-ing.如:do—doing see—seeing fly—flying

第二:以不发音的e结尾,去e加-ing.如:take—taking write—writing ride—riding

第三:以一个元音加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节单词,先双写那个辅音字母,再加-ing.

第四:以ie结尾的单词,先变ie为y再加-ing.如1ie—1ying die—dying tie-tying

第五:注意主语不同时,后面动词be应随主语改变:

如:He is writing.We are running. I am doing my homework.

6).与现在进行时连用的时间状语最多的是now“现在”,有时会有其他词作为提示此,如:1ook,listen等。如:Look! Who is running?瞧!谁在跑步?

7)Listen! Jim is singing in the next classroom.听!吉姆正在隔壁 51

教室唱歌。

询问“某人正在干什么?”用这个句型:What +be +主语+doing?

如:What is he/she j Mr. Wang doing? What are you/they doing?

Unit 7 What dose he look like?

词汇理解

1.tall与short的区别

●tall为形容词,意思是“高的”:short为形容词。意思是“矮的.短的”。当short意为“矮的”时,其反义词为tall;当short意为“短 的”时.其反义词为long。

Their daughter is very tall for her age.

他们的女儿在同龄人中个子较高。

How tall is he?他多高?

The child is very short.He can’t get the apple on the tree. 这个孩子太矮了。他拿不到树上的苹果。

2.thin/ in/adj.瘦的

●它的反义词为fat(胖的);它也可以做“薄的”讲,此时,其反义词为thick(厚的)。

My sister looks very thin and weak.

我的妹妹看上去很瘦,而且虚弱。

There are some thin books on the desk.

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桌子上有一些很薄的书。

3.1ike

喜欢,喜爱

Which color do you like?The red one or the blue one?你喜炊哪种颜色?红色还是蓝色?

I like the blue one.我喜欢蓝色。

Do you like your cat?你喜欢你的猫吗?

Yes.I do.And I love it very much.

是的.很喜欢。而且我非常爱它。

知识拓展

like“喜欢”与;love“爱,热爱”的区别。前者感情较浅,后者感情深。

I like my cousin, but I don't love him.

我喜欢我的侄子,但我并不爱他。

I like playing ping-pong,but I don't love it.

我喜欢打乒乓球,但我并不热爱这项运动。

② like prep.像,像??一样.常与look一起构成look like“看起来像??.像是个什么样子”。

what does she look like?她长的什么样子?

She's thin and tall.她瘦而高。

He looks like i11.What's the matter with him?

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他看起来像病了。发生了什么事?

You look like happy.

你看来挺高兴的。

4.beard指长在脸上,两鬓的胡子.而mustache是指长在嘴唇上的胡子。 He has beard and mustache.他是个大胡子。

Lu Xun has mustache.He looks like a serious man.鲁迅留着胡子,看起来是个严肃的人。

5.never adv. 从不;决不

●在英语里构成否定句的通常借助not.而有些特殊的词语本身就具有否定的意义。never就是一个否定意味很重的词。

She never stops talking.她从没停过说话。(从没停过是不可能的.这里never用来强调她话说的多)

Try your best,never give up!,尽你的最大努力,永不放弃。(never也是加强语气的作用)

She's shy and silent,never asks me a question.

她非常沉默,而且害羞,从来不问我问题。(一次也没有)

6.person人

指人的词我们学过man,human-being,people

①person是可数名词,指单个的人。

a person一个人 two persons两个人

②man也是可数名词。复数为men,意为“人,男人”,通常用后者,与 54

woman对应使用。

③human-being是指人类,是个总称.可与man替换使用。

A man is different from animals.人类不同于动物。(这儿A man可换成Human—being).

④people人;人民;民族

是个集体名词,指人民大众时,常用the people,指人时单复数同行。 a people一个人two people两个人

而指“民族”时是可数名词。

We are the people of China.=We are Chinese people.我们是中国人。

China has 56 peoples.中国有56个民族。

7.height./hait/n.高度

●它是high的名词形式。当用形容同表达个子的高度时.常用tall。 My father has a medium height.我的爸爸个子中等。

Ruth has a medium height.Ruth个子中等。

Peter is a tall boy.Peter是个高个子男孩。

Mary is 1.65 meters tall.Mary有1.65米高。

The bridge is 5 meters high.这座桥有5米高。

8.heavy adj.重的

●当用来描述人的时候,意思是“胖的”.一般多用于口语中,是一种比fat婉转的表达。

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What does Cathy look like? Cathy长得怎么样?

She's a little bit heavy.她有点胖。

知识拓展

①heavy用来修时期他物品时,意思是“重的”。

How heavy the box js!这个盒子很重!

This table is very heavy. I can't carry it.这个桌子很重,我搬不动它。

②heavy用来修饰“雨,雪”,意思是“很大的”。

The heavy snow will bring a good harvest next year.这场大雪将会带来明年的大丰收。

9.build,n.体格;体形

We are of the same build.

我们体形相同。

Gloria drinks some milk every day to build her body.Gloria为了增强体质,每天都喝牛奶。

知识拓展

v.建造:修建

They are building a New School.他们正在建设一所新校。

This library is very small. They want to build a big one.这个图书馆太小了,他们想建设一个大的。

10.1ittle.a little与a little bit的区别

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①little用来修饰不可数名词.意思是“小的”或“很少”、“几乎没有”。

The little girl is very lovely.这个小女孩很可爱。

There is little milk in the glass.杯子里几乎没有牛奶。

②a little用来修饰不可数名词,意思是“有一些”,也可以用来修饰形容词的比较级。

There is a little water in the glass.杯子里有一些水。

This box is a little bigger than that one.这个盒子比那个大一点。 ③ a little bit意思是“有点”、“有些”.常用来修饰形容词。 The bridge looks a little bit short.这座桥看上去有点短。

The new shirt looks a little bit small.这件新裙子看起来有点小。

11.glasses n.(p1)眼镜

●当做“眼镜”讲时,总是用复数形式.一副眼镜是a pair of glasses.两副眼镜是two pairs of glasses。

My English always wears a pair of glasses.

我的英语老师总是戴着一副眼镜。

This pair of glasses looks very beautiful.

这副眼镜看起来很漂亮:

12.beautiful与good-looking的区别

①beautiful,可以指一个人的“外在美”,也可指“心灵美”。除了指人(女性),还可以指物。

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She is a beautiful girl.她是个漂亮的女孩。

The flowers are very beautiful.那些鲜花很美丽。

②good-looking指(外表上)看上去“令人愉快的,好看的,漂亮的”,可指男孩.也可指 女孩。

He is a good-looking boy.他是一个漂亮的小男孩。

还有一个用来修饰男性的单词:handsome漂亮,英俊。

Lu Yi is a very handsome film star.陆毅是一个非常英俊的电影明星。

句子细说

1.What does he look like?他长的什么样子?

●look like看起来像,看起来是??样子,like这里是个介词。 The son looks like his father.儿子长得像他父亲。

What does Li Jun look like?李军长什么样子?

He's short with black hair.他个子矮小.一头黑发。

注意:

with的用法。

(1)带有

I'd like a pizza with mushrooms,tomatoes and cheese. 我想要个带有蘑菇,西红柿和奶酪的比萨。

I don’t have money with me.我身上没带钱。

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(2)with还有“和”的意思:

I play with my sister on Sundays.周日我和我妹妹玩。

(3)help sb.with sth.帮别人干什么

Please help me with English.请帮我学英语。

Let me help you with your study.让我在学习上帮帮你吧! 知识拓展

like v.喜欢

like doing sth.与 like to do sth.表示喜欢做某事。

He likes reading and playing chess.他喜欢读书和下棋。 We all like to swim in the sea.我们都喜欢在海里游泳。

[注意]

like to do和like doing在这里两者可以通用。在like之后,如果表示特定的和具体的动作,多用不定式做宾语,如果表示一般的行为,多用动名词做宾语。

I like to take a walk after rain.我喜欢雨后散步。

I don’t like smoking.我讨厌吸烟。

2.She always wears a red dress and white shoes。她总是穿红色裙子和白鞋子。

●wear v. 穿着??的衣服,留着??样的头发,戴着眼镜。wear的宾语是“衣服、,鞋子、眼镜”等.强调一种状态,put on强调动作。wear用进行时态时表示短时间内的状态。

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She wears sports shoes every day.她每天穿运动鞋.

Mr.Brown wears glasses. Brown先生戴着眼镜。

Miss Li is wearing a new dress today.李老师今天穿着一件新裙子。

3.Wang 1in is very popular。王林很受欢迎。

此句用popular来修饰人.受欢迎.受喜爱。

Mr. Wang is a popular teacher in our schoo1.

王老师在我们学校是一位受欢迎的老师。

He is popular football player.他是位受大众喜爱的足球运动员。 知识拓展

Popular 流行

This song is very popular.这首歌很流行。

4.She never stops talking!她总是说个不停!

●stop v.停;停止

①stop doing sth.停止正在做的事

The students stopped talking when the teacher came in.当老师进来时,学生们停止了谈话。

②stop to do sth.停下来(某事)去做(另外的事)。

I stopped to talk with him.我停下来去跟他谈话。

5.?the rock singer with funny glasses and long curly hair?戴一幅滑稽眼镜,留着长长的卷发的摇滚歌星

①with在这里既表示“戴眼镜”,又表示“留着??的头发”。 60

②with与后面的名词一起构成一个介词短语,做singer的定语。

6.I don't think he's so great.我认为他这样不好。

●对think进行否定,在翻译时把否定词放存后面的句子中。

I don't think you're right.我认为你不对。(不说我不认为你对)

7.What does he look like?与 What's he like?的区别

●What does he look like?中的look在这里是“看上去,看起来”的意思。直译为“他看上去像什么样子?”,问外貌,即“他长的什么样?”; What's he like?中没有look这个词,意思是“他是什么样的人?”问的是他内在的东西,他的性格、个性、为人等等。所以,这两个问句,虽然看起来很相像,但却是两个完全不同的问题。

8.Do you remember Johny Dean, the rock singer with funny glasses and long curly hair?你还记得戴着眼镜、烫着长卷发的摇滚歌手约翰·迪安吗?

(1)remember意思为“记得,记住”,注意区别remember to do sth.(记得要去做某事)和remember doing sth.记得(已经)做过某事。如:Please remember to buy some fruit for me.请记着给我买些水果。 I remember closing the door.我记得已经把门关上了。

拓展延伸

forget to do sth.忘记要做某事

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forget doing sth.忘记做过某事

交际用语

1.What does he look like?他长的什么样?

He's tall.他很高。

2.What does she look like?她长的什么样?

She's short and she has straight hair.她身材矮小,头发是直发。

3.Do you know David?你知道David吗?

No.What does he look like?不知道。他长什么样?

4.What do you look like?你长什么样?

I’m short.I'm thin.我身材矮小,而且瘦。

语法讲解

一般现在时的用法

1.经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用,如every?,Sometimes,at?.On Sunday等

I leave home for school at 9 every morning.每天早上我9点离开家。

2.表示客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.地球绕太阳转动。

Shanghai lies in the east of China.上海位于中国东部。

3.表示格言或警句。

Pride goes before a fall.骄者必败。

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此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

Magallance proved that the earth is round.

麦哲伦证实了地球是圆的。

4.现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.我不要那么多。

Ann writes good English but does not speak well.

Ann英语写得不错,说得可不行。

[比较]

Now I put the sugar in the cup.把糖放入杯子。

I am doing my homework now.我正在做功课。

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作、演示或指导等说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。第二句中now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用现在进行时。

Unit 8 I’d like some noodles

词汇理解

1.noodle/nu:dl/n.面条

●常用复数noodles,是不可数名词。

I’d like some potato noodles.我想要一些土豆面。

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I often have noodles for breakfast.早饭我常吃面条。

2.special/spe l/n.大减价,另外它还表示“特别节目,特别之物”的意思。

There is a special on apples today.今天苹果大减价。

In our food shop,hot dogs are on special today.今天我们商店的热狗大减价。

知识拓展

special adj.特别的;特殊的

There is noting special on today's newspaper.今天的报纸上没什么特别的新闻。

This is a special film for me.对我来说这是一部特别的电影。

3.drink n.饮料;一些饮料

a hot drink热饮

a cooling drink冷饮

Give me a drink of water.给我一些饮料喝。

知识拓展

vt.饮;喝

Would you like something to drink?你想喝点东西吗?

I want to drink some milk.我想喝点牛奶。

4.would like与feel like的区别

●两者都有“想要??”的意思,但是would like后面如果是动词,则 64

后面应跟to do sth.而feel like后如果是动词,则直跟doing sth. We would like to go to the movies this Sunday.

这个星期天我们想去看电影。

I feel like going swimming this Sunday.这星期天我想去游泳。

5.as well as也;还;而且

Listening is good for English learning as well as reading. 听和读一样对英语学习者有帮助。

He would like to go to swim as well as you.

他和你一样想去游泳。

6.big与large的区别

●两者都有“大”的意思,但侧重于体积、面积和范同,large则侧重于尺寸、程度和容量。

There is a big car under the tree.树下有辆大汽车。

There is a big garden behind the house,房子后面有个大花园。 He has a large appetite.他有个好胃口。

句子细说

1.What kind of noodles would you like?你想要哪种面条?

●What kind of(+名词)+would you like?你想要什么种类的??what kind of?哪一种?,kind做名词。可以表示事物的种类。a kind of?一种?;kinds of各种各样的

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知识拓展

①kind of还可以表示“有一点,有几分”,相当于副词。

This kind of book is very interesting.这种书很有趣。 What kind of fruit would you like?你喜欢哪种水果?

There are many kinds of animals in the zoo.动物园里有很多种动物。

②Would like意思是“想要,愿意”,相当于want,但比want语气委婉,一般有以下三种形式:

① would like sth.想要某物

② would like to do sth.想要干某事

③ would like sb. to do sth.想要某人干某事

2.What size bowl of noodles would you like?

你要多大碗的面条?

●What size(+名词)+would you 1ike?你想要多大(尺寸、号码)

的???what size询问大小,意思是“多大的”、“多大尺寸的”、“什么号码的”等。size是名词,

可以表示物品的大小、尺寸、号码等。

What size shoes would you like?你要多大号的鞋子?

I want size 9 shoes.我要9号的鞋子。

What size pizza would she like?她要多大的比萨饼?

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She’d like a small pizza.她要小的。

3.Can I help you?我能帮你吗?

I’d like some noodles.我想买些面条。

●Can I help you?是商店、酒店、餐馆等服务场所经常使用的礼貌用语。用于询问顾客需要些什么,相当于“What can I do for you?”。 Can I help you? 我能为你做些什么吗?

I’d like some meat.我想要点肉。

What can I do for you.sir?先生,你要点什么?

I want a cup of tea.我想要杯茶。

4.We have some great specials.我们特价出售。

●Special此处是名词.意思是“大减价”、“特价”。

There’s a special on milk this week.本周牛奶大减价。 The cabbages are on special today.卷心菜今天特价。

交际用语

1.Hello! I’d like some noodles.你好!我想要面条。

2.What kind of noodles would you like?

你喜欢什么样的面条?

Beef and tomato noodles,please.牛肉番茄面。

3.What size bowl of noodles would you like?

你想要多大碗的面条?

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I’d like a small one.小碗的。

4.Can I help you? 你想要点什么?

I’d like some noodles.我想买碗面条。

5.What kind of noodles do you have?你想要什么面条? We have beef,chicken,mutton,cabbage,potato?

我们有牛肉面,鸡肉面,羊肉面,卷心菜,土豆??

语法讲解

不可数名词的用法

(1)不可数名词表示的事物不能用数来计算,不和具体的数字连用,没有复数形式。不可数名词分为两类:一类指物质,也可指不具体形状的个体实物。如:water水 milk牛奶 meat肉 bread面包等;另一类是指表示动作、状态、品质或其他抽象概念的名词。如:duty职务 age年龄 work工作等。

(2)不可数名词没有复数,不可和a或an连用,在将其变为复数时,要加表示数量单位的词,并把表示容量的词变为复数就可以了。 a cup of tea一杯茶; two cups of tea两杯茶

a glass of water一杯水; three glasses of water 三杯水

(3)有些名词既可做可数名词又可做不可数名词,但其意思不同。

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Unit 9 How was your weekend?

1.test/test/n.考试;测验

We had an English test this morning.

今天上午我们进行了英语考试。

She didn't do well in the math test.

她在数学测验中表现不好。

知识拓展

v.试验;考验:检验

The long climb tested our powers of endurance.

那次长距离爬山考验了我们的持久力。

My English teacher tested the whole words of the book. 我的英语教师把本册书中的所有单词都测验了一遍。

2.Spend/spend/v.度过;花费

She spent 5 yuan on the book.她花了5元钱买这本书。

Where did you spend your weekend?你在哪里度的周末?

知识拓展

spend money on sth.花钱买某物(在??上花钱);spend in doing sth. 69

花时间做某事。

I spend two hours(in)doing my homework every day.我每天花两个小时做作业。

He spends too much money on clothes.他在衣着上花费太大。

3.visit参观(某地);拜访(某人)

I want to visit my uncle this afternoon.

今天下午我想去拜访我叔叔。

I visited the factory over the weekend.

在周末我去参观了这家工厂。

4.go shopping去购物

go + ving 通常用来表示去进行某项活动

go fishing钓鱼 go swimming去游泳

go boating去划船 go skating去滑冰

5.have a party举行一次聚会

●have在此处是实义动词,意思是“从事。进行”。其第三人称单数是has,它与不同的词搭配意义就不同。

have breakfast吃早餐 have some water喝点水

have a look看一看 have a match举行比赛

知识拓展

①当have/has作“从事,进行”讲时,其一般疑问句要使用助动词do/does,否定句要使用don't/doesn't.

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They have a class meeting every week.他们每周开一个例会。 Do you have any classes on Sunday?星期天你们有课吗?

We don't have any classes on Sunday.星期天我们不上课。

②have的过去式是had,其一般过去时的疑问句要使用助动词did,否定旬要使用didn't,助动词did后面的动词要用原形。

They had a party last night.他们昨天晚上举办了晚会。 Did you have an English test last week?

上周你们测验英语了吗?

No,we didn't.没有。

6.do some reading读书;看些书

●此处do是实义动词,do some + ving做??,干??,进行??。随着更换do后而的词,来表达不同的意思:

do some writing写点东西 do some washing洗点衣服

do some cleaning打扫卫生 do some shopping买点东西

We didn't do some reading last weekend.上周末我们没读书。 My mother does some shopping every weekend.

我妈妈每周末购物。

7.watch vt.观看;看

watch TV/a film 看电视/看电影;watch sb do sth.观看某人做某事。 She likes watching TV every evening.

她喜欢每天晚上看电视。

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The old man likes watching children play.

这位老人喜欢看孩子们玩耍。

句子细说

1.What did you do last weekend, Lucy?

Lucy,你上周末做什么了?

Well,on Saturday morning, I played tennis.

在星期六上午我打了网球。

①这是一个以what引导的特殊疑问句。因为询问的是发生在过去的事情.所以用一般过去时态。

句中的did是助动词do的过去时,没有实际意义。do是实义动词,是“做”、“干”的意思。

②last weekend意思是“上周末”,是一个表示过去的时间状语。因为问句问的是上周发生的事,事情已经过去了,所以用过去时态。答语中played是动词play的过去式。

③介词on用来表示时间时表示特指。on a cold morning在一个寒冷的早晨;on Sunday在期天。

④play玩,打,演奏。当要表示演奏某种乐器时,要与定冠词the连用。 play the piano弹钢琴 play the violin弹小提琴

当它与表示球类运动的名词连用时,不用定冠词。

play football踢足球 play baseball打棒球

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play with sb.与?一起玩耍 play with sth.玩?(东西)

2.What did she do last weekend? 上周末她做什么了?

She did her homework.她做作业了。

What did they do last weekend? 上周末他们做什么了?

They played volleyball.他们打排球了。

3.What about your friend,Carol?你的朋友Carol怎么样呢(干了些什么呢)?

●What about????怎么样?这个句型是用来询问消息、提供建议或征

??相当于

How about?

What about this film? 这部影片如何?

It's interesting.很有趣。

What about playing football?去踢足球如何?

Good idea!好主意!

4.How was your weekend?你的周末过得怎样?

It was great!好极了!,/太棒了!

●“How+一般疑问句”用来询问某物或某事怎么样。was是be的过去式,因为询问的是发生在过去的事。

How was your English study last year?去年你的英语学习怎么样? 73

How was the film last weekend?上周末的电影怎么样?

5.Last week, we asked ten students at No.3 Middle School what they did last weekend.上周我们询问了十名第三中学的学生,问他们在上周末干了些什么。

①ask sb. sth.询问某人某事

My father often asks me my studies.我爸爸经常询问我的学习情况。 ②.what they did last weekend 在这个句子中,这是一个宾语从加,做asked的宾语。在句子中,宾语从句的语序要用陈述句语序。 I don’t know where she is from.我不知道她来自哪里。 I know that he is a student.我知道他是一名学生。

6.On Saturday afternoon,five kids went shopping,

and three went to the library.星期六下午,五个孩子去购物了,三个孩子去了图书馆。

●went是动词go的过去式,go+ving 表示去做某事。

go fishing去钓鱼 go swimming去游泳

go hiking去远足 go skating去滑冰

go surfing去冲浪 go boating去划船

We went swimming last weekend.上周末我们去游泳了。

Did you go boating last week? 上周你去划船了吗?

7.It was a little difficult.它有点难。

●a little有点,常修饰不可数名词或形容词。

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I know a little about him.关于他的情况,我知道一点。 I feel a little cold.我感觉有点冷。

There is only a little water in the bottle.瓶子里只有一点水了。 知识拓展

a few后面要与复数可数名词连用,表示有几个。

I bought a few bananas yesterday.昨天我买了几个香蕉。

A few of them know English.他们中有几个懂英语。

8.My aunt cooked dinner for me.我姑妈为我做了晚饭。 ●cook?for sb.为某人做饭

I like to eat fish,My father often cooks fish for me. 我喜欢吃鱼.我爸爸常给我做鱼吃。

My mother cooked a chicken for me on my birthday.

我生日那天,我妈妈为我做了一只鸡。

9.Then it was time to go home.到了该回家的时间了。

●It is time to?该是??的时候了。

It is time to have lunch.到了该吃午饭的时间了。

Look it is four o'clock.It is time to go home.

看,四点了,到了该回家的时间了。

10.He doesn't want to do anything.他什么事情也不想做。 ●anything多用于疑问句或否定句中.not?anything相当于

nothing(not any相当于no)。anything用于肯定句中,表示不论什么, 75

任何东西。

You can say anything you like.我喜欢说什么就说什么。

Peter was ill.He didn't eat anything.Peter病了,他什么也没吃。 交际用语

1.What did you do last weekend?上周末你做了些什么事? On Saturday evening I went to the movies.

星期六的晚上我去看电影了。

2.What about your friend.Carol?你的朋友Carol怎么样?

3.How was your weekend?你周末过得怎么样?

It was great.好极了。

4.I had a busy weekend.我过了一个忙碌的周末。

5.It was a little difficult.有点难。

语法讲解

1.一般过去时态:

(1)定义:一般过去时表示过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态。

(2)结构:

My mother was a doctor last year.But now she is a teacher. 去年我妈妈是一名医生,但现在她成为了一名教师。

We went to the zoo last Sunday.上个星期天我们去了动物园。 76

We didn't go to the post office yesterday.

昨天我们没去邮局。

I didn't see her this morning.今天早上我没看见她。

Did you visit your uncle last weekend?

上周末你去拜访你的叔叔了吗?

Did you go to the library last weekend?

上周末你去图书馆了吗?

What did you do last weekend?上周末你做什么了?

Where did he go last year?去年他去哪里了?

2.动词过去式的变化规则:

(1)动词be的变化:am,is的过去式为was;are的过去式为were。

(2)助动词do的变化:do→did(在过去时里助动词do没有人称和数的变化)。

(3)实义动词的变化有两种.一种是规则变化,一种是不规则变化。 ①实义动词的规则变化,一般情况下在动词后加-ed。

play→played visit→visited walk→walked

clean→cleaned

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②以不发音的e结尾的词,在词尾加-d。

note→noted like→liked dance→danced name→named

③以一个元音加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节结尾的单词,要先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed。

stop→stopped drop→dropped plan→planned

④以辅音字母加y结尾的单词,先改y为i.再加-ed。

study→studied carry→carried

⑤不规则变化需要按一定的规律逐个记忆。

3.在本单元中出现的不规则动词有以下几个:

do→did go→went read[read]→read[red] see→saw

get→got sit→sat have/has→had am/is→was

are→were give→gave sleep→slept eat→ate

write→wrote

4.表示时间的介词用法

(1)介词in跟表示年、月、季节,上午、下午、晚上的词连用。 如:in 1974 in spring in the morning /afternoon/evening

(2)介词on用于某一特定日期前,如某天、某天的上午/下午、星期几或节日前。如:on Sunday on Teachers` Day on Monday morning/on the morning of Monday

(3)介词at表示时间的某一点,用于具体时间前。如:

at 8:00 at that moment at this time of year at night 78

Unit 10 Where did you go on vacation?

词汇理解

1.rainy adj,下雨的;多雨的

What’s the weather like today? 今天天气怎么样?

It’s rainy.下雨。

It was rainy last weekend.上周末下雨了。

这个词是由名词rain转化而来的,英语中有很多表示天气的名词.在词尾加y构成形容词。

snow(雪)—snowy(下雪的) sun(太阳)—sunny(阳光明媚的) cloud(云)—cloudy(多云的) wind(风)—windy(刮风的)

2.expensive,ik`spensiv/adj.昂贵的,便宜的,用来形容具体的物品。 The shirt is too expensive.这件衬衫太贵了。

Is this book expensive?这本书贵吗?

[注意]

expensive一般不和表示价格的price连用,当说某物的价格很贵时,说:The price of something is very high.

The price of the food is very high.这种食品的价格很贵。 The price of this book is very high.这本书的价格很贵。

3.discuss/disk s/v.讨论;议论

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●这是一个及物动词,后面可以直接跟名词或有名词性质的“what to do”结构和动词的-ing形式做宾语。

We are discussing the questions.我们正在谈论这些问题。 We discussed where they should go on vacation.

我们讨论了去哪里度假。

4.crowded/kraudid/adj.拥挤的

The supermarket is always crowded on Sundays.

这家超市在星期天总是很拥挤。

The streets are very crowded.那些街道很拥挤。

知识拓展

①crowded是动词crowd“拥挤”的过去式。英语中有些词是由动词演变而来的。又如:interested(有趣味的),interesting(有趣味的)是由动词interest(有趣)演变而来。

The Children crowed round their teacher to ask questions.孩子们围着老师问问题。

②crowd n. 人群;观众;听众

There were large crowds of people in the streets on New Year's Eve.除夕的晚上街道上挤满了人。

5.decided v. 决定;下决心(=make up one`s mind)

●decide to do sth.下决心做某事。

My father decided to buy a new computer for me.

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我爸爸已经决定给我买一台新电脑。

Where do you decide to go on vacation?你决定去哪里度假?

6.Home与house,family的区别

①home指“家”这个概念,包括“住处”和“家人”。

②house则指“房子”“住宅”,侧重于建筑结构。

③family则指“家庭成员”。

I watched TV at home last weekend.我上周末在家里看电视。 This house is very big.这房子很大。

My family are watching TV.

我的家人在看电视。

[注意]

当family为整体概念时,谓语动词用单数;强调家庭成员时,谓语动词用复数。

句子细说

1.Where did you go on Vacation?你去哪儿度假了?

I went to the mountains.我去了山区。

①这是一个特殊疑问句。由“特殊疑问词+助动词+主语+动词+其他?”构成。由于询问的是已经发生的动作(过去的事情),所以句中的助动词用动词do的过去式did,助动词后面的动词要用原形。

Where did you go yesterday?你昨天去了哪儿?

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I visited my friends.我去拜访了朋友。

Did you have a good time?你们玩得高兴吗?

Yes.I did.是的。

②on vacation 度假,是固定短语。

③go to the mountains 去山区,与它结构类似的词组还有: go to the beach 去海边

go to summer camp 去夏令营

go to New York 去纽约市

go on vacation 去度假

go to a trip 去旅行

20 to the movies 去看电影

2.Did you go to Central Park?你去中心公园了吗?

Yes.I did.是的,去了。

发生在过去的事,所以助动词用过去式did。

答形式有两种:一种是肯定问答:Yes,主语+did.另一种是否定回答:No,主语+didn't.在这里助动词did没有人称和数的变化。 Did you play football yesterday? 昨天你踢足球了吗?

No.I didn’t.没有。

Did they go to the movies last weekend?

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上周末他们去看电影了吗?

Yes,they did.是的,他们去了。

3.How was our vacation,Lin? 林,你的假期怎么样?

It was pretty good.很不错。

●询问过去的状态,用动词的过去式。主语是单数用was,复数用were,Pretty good意思是“非常好”,pretty在此处是副词,意思是“相当”、“非常”。

How was the weather?(那时的)天气如何?

How were the people there?那儿的人怎么样?

They were friendly.他们很友好。

4.He stayed at home.他呆在家里。

●stay可以是及物动词,也可以是不及物动词。

当它做不及物动词时,不能直接接宾语,其后应接相应的介词短语,若跟表示地点的介词短语,则表示”留在某地”,若跟表状态的介词短语,则表示“保持某种状态”。

stay in the office 继续任职(掌权)

stay awake 小睡(酣着)

stay in the army 留在部队中

stay at home呆在家中

We're staying in the same building.我们住在同一栋楼房。

5.It was sunny and hot all day.全天阳光灿烂,天气很热。 83

●all day全天,整天。当a11它修饰不可数名词时,指所有的数量,当它修饰可数名词时,指整个的范围或全部数量。它常位于冠词、指示代词、物主代词、基数词的前面。与此类似的短语还有all night整夜,a11 week整周,all year全年,all day and night日日夜夜。

My grandmother didn't go to sleep all night.

我奶奶通宵未眠。

We watched TV all the afternoon.整天下午我们都在看电视。

6.We had great fun playing in the water.在海里我们玩得高兴。 ●have fun doing sth.做某事很有乐趣,与have a good time意思相同,也相当于enjoy oneself。

We have fun learning English.我们学英语很有乐趣。

We are going to have fun learning and speaking English this term.这学期的英语学习和口语训练一定会给我们带来乐趣。

7.I found a small boy crying in the corner.我发现一个小男孩在角落里哭。

●find sb./sth.doing sth.意为“发现某人正在做某事”或“发现某事正在发生”。

I found the old man dying.我发现那老人快要死了。

I found my toothache coming on again.我觉得我的牙又痛起来了。

8.He was lost and I helped him find his father.他迷路了,我帮助他找到了父亲。

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①be lost表示“丢失,失踪”等含义,这里是“迷路”意思。 The books seem to be lost.那些书好像不见了。

She is lost in thought.她在沉思。

②lost oneself,迷路

My little son lost himself in the department store yesterday.我的小儿子昨天在百货公司里迷路了。

③lose错过;没赶上

He lost the first bus.他没赶上头班车。

④help sb.(to)do sth.帮助某人做某事,其中to可以省略。 She often helps her mother(to)do some shopping.

她常常帮助她的母亲购物。

Would you help me(to)learn English?

请你帮我学习英语好吗?

9.That made me feel very happy.那让我很高兴。

●make sb.(or sth.)十不带to的不定式(即动词原形),表示使得?? They make him speak first.他们让他先发言。

The boss make them work day and night.老板迫使他们日夜工作。 They can make the kite fly.他们可以让风筝飞起来。

make还可以接形容词,表示使??,让??

What make you so happy? 什么使你这么高兴?

A washing machine makes house work easier.洗衣机使家务事变得容 85

易些。

10.写日记的格式。

●在左上角写上日期,先星期(week)再日期(date),在右上角写上天气(weather)。然后另起一行,就可以写下你想要写的事情或感想了。注意写日记时,要使用正确的时态,如果你记叙的是已经发生的事情,一般都应用过去时态。如果写的是感想等,就可以用一般现在时。 交际用语

1.Where did you go on vacation?你假期去哪里了?

I went to the mountains.我去了山区了。

2.How was your vacation.kin? 林,你的假期怎么样?

It was pretty good. 很不错。

3.Great weather.多好的天气。

4.It was kind of boring.这有点令人烦。

5.It was really fun.非常有趣。

语法讲解

一般过去式的用法

1.在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。时间状语有:yesterday,last week;an hour ago;the other day;in 1982等 Where did you go just now?刚才你上哪儿去了?

2.表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

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When I was a child,I often played football in the street. 我是孩子的时候.常在马路上踢足球。

Whenever the Browns went during their visit,they were given a warm welcome.那时.Brown一家无论什么时候去。都受到热烈欢迎。

3.动词的过去式有规则变化和不规则变化两种。规则变化的规律是:

(注:可以把该种情况总结为“一短一重要双写”。第一个“一”是指末尾音节只有一个元音字母;“短”是指该元音字母发短元音;第二“一”是指单词末尾只有一个辅音字母;“重”是指该音节必须重读。 归纳

一般过去时的肯定式、疑问式和否定式:

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(1)be动词:

肯定式:He was busy yesterday.他昨天很忙。

疑问式:Was he busy yesterday? 他昨天忙吗?

Yes,he was./No,he wasn’t.是的。/不,他不忙。

否定式:He was not busy yesterday.他昨天不忙。

(2)实义动词(以study为例)

肯定式:She studied hard。她学习努力。

疑问式:Did she study hard? 她学习努力吗?

Yes,she did./No,she didn’t.是的,她很努力。/不,她不努力。 否定式:She didn’t study hard.她学习不努力。

3.本单元出现的动词的过去式形式:

规则动词:

stay—stayed visit—visited rain—rained

help—helped walk—walked decide—decided

不规则动词:

go—went are—were have—had break—broke

am,is—was do—did fly—flew find—found

make—made eat—ate feel—felt

Unit 11 What do you think of game shows? 88

词汇理解

1.soap/ /n.肥皂

A bar(cake)of soap 一条(块)肥皂

When we take a bath we rub soap on our body.

洗澡时,我们在身上擦肥皂。

We should rub soap and wash our hands before dinner. 饭前我们应该用肥皂洗手。

知识拓展

v.擦肥皂

Please soap the baby. 请给孩子擦点肥皂。

soap opera 肥皂剧

肥皂剧最旱是指本世纪30年代美国无线电厂播中播放的一种长篇广播连续尉。由于当时的赞助商主要是日用清洁剂厂商,期间播的厂告主要也是肥皂广告,“肥皂剧”的称呼便由此产生。现在人们也用采指一些剧情比较拖沓、冗长的电视连续剧。

2.stand v.忍受(与bear.put up with同义)

I have stood 2 hours.I can’t stand it.

我已经站了两个小时了,我受不了。

Nancy couldn’t stand the cold weather.

Nancy无法忍受这寒冷的天气。

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知识拓展

stand up! 起立!

Who is standing under the bib tree?

正站在树下的那个女孩是谁?

She’s Lucy.She is watching the birds in the tee.她是Lucy,她正在观察鸟。

3.mind/ /v.介意,其后接名词或动词ing形式或从句做宾语,常用于疑问句、否定句或条件句中。

Would/Do you mind??如果??.你不介意吧?

Would you mind if I smoke here?如果我在这里抽烟你介意吗? Do you mind opening the window?你介意把窗户打开吗?

注意:

知识拓展

n.想法;看法;意见

make up one's mind 下定决心:拿定主意

change one's mind 改变主意

He made up his mind to become an actor.他下决心要当一名演员。

4.enjoy/ /v.喜爱;享受

①enjoy后面接名词、代词或动名词。

I enjoy the soap operas.我喜爱肥皂剧。

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I enjoy watching the soap operas.我喜爱看肥皂剧。

She enjoys light music.(She enjoy listening to light music.)她喜欢听轻音乐。

②enjoy oneself,玩得愉快,相当于have a good time。

Did you enjoy yourself at the party?

你在晚会上玩得开心吗?

5.agree/ /n. 同意;赞成

①agree with 同意某人的意见,后面常跟表示人的名词或表示意见的词语。

How about going swimming this Sunday?

这个星期天去游泳好吗?

Good idea !I agree with you.棒极了!我同意你的想法。

My mother doesn’t agree with my idea.

我妈妈不同意我的想法。

②agree on 在某方面意见一致,双方就某方面达成协议,后面跟协商的事情。

We all agree on the plan.我们都同意这个计划。

③agree to 同意??,赞同??.后面常跟表示“t提议、办法、计划、安排”的词语。

Please agree to the plan.请同意这个计划。

The students didn’t agree to the plan.学生们不同意这个计划。 91

6.too与either的区别

●too也,表示肯定意义。与肯定的表达方法连用;either也不,表示否定意义,与否定的表达方法连用。

My brother likes to play soccer.我哥哥喜欢踢足球。

I do,too.我也是(喜欢)。

My brother doesn’t like to play soccer.

我哥哥不喜欢踢足球。

I don’t,either.我也不喜欢。

知识拓展

also也可以表示“也”,但一般情况下,too和either、放在句子之后,also放在动词之前。

We also love talk shows.我们也喜欢访谈节目。

7.think about,think of与think over的区别

①当表示考虑或对某事的看法时,think about和think of可以互换。 What do you think of/about Nancy’s dancing?

你认为Nancy的舞跳得怎么样?

They are thinking of/about Woman’s Day.

三八妇女节,他们算去海南。

What do.you think of/about the game show?

你认为游戏节目怎么样?

②think about 想,回想,强调想的过程,而think of则只表示“想起.记 92

起”。

I’m think about my old friend in a small village. 我想起了小村庄里的我的老朋友。

I can't think of his name.我记不起他的名字了。 句子细说

1.What do you think of soap operas?

你认为肥皂剧怎么样?

I can't stand them.我无法忍受它们。

What do you think of this film?你认为这部影片怎么样? What does your father think of your new job?

你爸爸认为你的新工作如何?

What do you think of Tom? 你认为Tom这个人怎么样? It’s great! 太棒了!

He doesn’t mind. 他不介意。

He is friendly. 他很友好。

I like it. 我喜欢它。

I don’t mind it. 我不在乎。

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I don't like it. 我不喜欢。

I can’t stand it. 我不能忍受。

I like it very much. 非常喜欢。

It‘s beautiful. 很美丽。

They’re fantastic. 他们很迷人。

The baby cannot stand yet.这个婴儿还不能站立。

We can't stand that fellow.我们不能容忍那个家伙。

I can't stand waiting any longer.再等下去我可受不了了。

2.I don't mind them.我不介意。

I don’t mind at a11. 我一点也不介意。

Would you mind lending me your pen?

我借用一下你的钢笔好么?

3.Welcome to 9 o'clock Weekend Talk.

欢迎你收看9点钟的《周末聊天》。

●welcome欢迎

Welcome to our city! 欢迎到我们的城市来!

Welcome back the national table—tennis team!

欢迎国家乒乓球队归来!

知识拓展

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welcome还可以用来作形容词。

Thank you!谢谢!

You’re welcome. 不用谢(哪儿的话)。

4.Thanks for joining us.谢谢你来参加我们的活动

●Thanks sb.for sth.doing sth.谢谢某人做了某事;for后面接名词或动名词。

Thank you for your kindness. 谢谢你的好意。

Thank you for helping me.谢谢你帮助了我。

5.This week I asked students about fashion.

这周我询问了学生们关于时尚的观点。

●fashion n.时尚;潮流

The students shouldn’t keep up with fashion.

学生们不应该赶时髦。

This kind of colors is the latest fashion.

这种颜色最流行。

A fashion show.时装表演。

This kind of dress is out of fashion now.

这种裙子不流行了。

Is short hair in fashion this year?今年流行短发吗?

5.I showed each student six things.

我给每个学生看了六样东两。

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●show

①v. 出示,给?看,常用句型show sb sth.;show sth.to sb. ②n.展览;演出

Will you show me your family pictures?

把你的家庭照片给我看看好吗?

Don't show the diary to any Of your friends.

别把这本日记给你的任何朋友看。

We were asked to show our tickets on the bus.

在公共汽车上我们要出示车票。

We went to see the flower show yesterday.

昨天我们去看花展了。

Theatres put on special shows for children during the Christmas season.圣诞节期间剧院为儿童举行专场演出。

7.Can you please put my letter in next month's magazine?你能把我的信加进下个月的杂志吗?

●put in有许多种意思,在这里意为“加入”。

Did you put milk in my tea?你在我的茶中加牛奶了吗?

He put his hands in his pockets.他把手放在了口袋中。

8.I can't stand the idea that old people can't be beautiful.我不能忍受那种认为老年人不能打扮漂亮的看法。

●idea主意;想法;意见

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What a good idea it is!多么好的主意啊!

I have a good idea.我有一个好想法。

9.I wear colorful clothes because I want to be young and beautiful.我穿着颜色艳丽的衣服,因为我想变得年轻和漂亮。

●colorful,adj.色彩鲜艳的,这个词是由名词color+ful变化而来的。 What color do you like?你喜欢什么颜色?

Look,there is a bird with colorful wings in the tree. 看,树上有一只翅膀鲜艳的小鸟。

交际用语

1.What do you think of soap opera?

你认为肥皂剧怎么样?

I can’t stand it.我无法忍受它。

2.What does she think of Dumpling King?

她认为《饺子王》怎么样?

She like it very much.她非常喜欢。

3.How about Chinese Cooking?《中国饮食》节目怎么样?

Oh.I can't stand it.Cooking is for moms.

哦,我不能忍受这个节目,这是为妈妈们而播放的节目。

I do,too.我也有同感。

语法讲解

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1.如何写英文信

英语信在书写过程中,称呼部分通常以Dear开头,其后接收信人的名字。然后另起一行顶格写信的正文。在下文写完后,在信的右下角写sincerely或your等后署写信人的名字。

2.动名词和动词不定式作主语时,谓语必须用第三人称单数形式。如:Swimming is good for us.游泳对我们有益。 Unit 12 Don`t eat in class

词汇理解

1.fight/ /v. 打架;争吵

①fight for表示是为事业、自由、真理、权利而斗争(战斗),其后一般接抽象名词。

They are fighting for freedom.他们正在为自由而战。

②fight against意为“为反对?而战”。其后接事物名词;当fight against的后面接人和国家名词时,意思是“与?战斗”。

They fight against the enemy.他们和敌人战斗。

③fight with意为“同?并肩战斗”,后面接人和国家名词,也可表示fight against的意思。

They fought wjth the Italians in the last war but against them in this.在上次战斗中他们和意大利并肩战斗,但这次 却和意大利打起来了。

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Did he fight with/against his brother yesterday?昨天他和他哥哥打架了吗?

2.rule/ /n.规则

●obey the rules遵守规章

be against the rules相当于break the rules违反规章制度 school rules校纪=the rules of the school

class rules班规=the rules of the class

We must keep the rules of the schoo1.我们必须遵守校纪。 My rule is to get up at 6:30 and have breakfast

at 7:00 in the morning.我的习惯是早上六点半起床,七点钟吃早饭。 知识拓展

rule还可以用做动词,意为“统治,支配”。

The King ruled the country 800 years ago.800年前,国王统治着这个国家。

3.区别hear.1isten和sound

①hear 听说,侧重于“听”的内容。

I’m sorry to hear that your mother is ill.

听说你妈妈生病了,我很难过。

I never heard such an interesting story.

我从来没听过这么有趣的一个故事。

②listen 听,侧重于“听”这一动作。

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Listen to the teacher carefully.认真听老师说。

The children like to listen to music.孩子们喜欢听音乐。 ③sound 听起来,它是系动词,后面接形容同等。

That sounds great.那听起来真不错。

The story sounds like fun.这个故事听起来挺有趣。

4.区别be in bed与go to bed

①be in bed 在床上,卧床,表示一种状态。指人已经在床上。in和bed之间不能用冠词.bed也不用复数。

His old grandfather is in bed for l 0 years.他的爷爷已经卧床10年了。

John has to be in bed early every night.John每晚必须很早睡觉。 ②go to bed 上床睡觉,表示的是一种动作,人还没到床上。 It's time to go to bed.到了上床睡觉的时间了。

When did you go to bed last night?

你昨天晚上几点钟睡的觉?

at nine o'clock.在九点钟。

5.区别must与have to

①两者都可意为“必须”。must强调主观上认为有义务或有必要。have to强调客观上的需要,含有“不得不”的意味。

The students must work hard.学生们必须努力学习。(主观上认为要这样做)

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We have to work hard.我们得卖力工作。(客观原因不得不这样做) ②must只有一种形式,而have to有多种时态。

I already had to work when l was twelve.

当我十二岁时,我就不得不工作了。

I’ll have to go with my mother tomorrow.

明天我不得不和我妈妈一起去。

③用于否定句时,两者的意思有很大的不同。mustn't表示不准、不许可、禁止,而don’t have to则表示不必。

We must smoke in the room.不准在房间内吸烟。

You don't have to worry about his healthy.你不必为他的健康担心。 句子细说

1.Don't run in the hallways.别在走廊上乱跑。

①这是一个祈使句。祈使句是用来表示请求、命令、劝告等,通常省略主语you,它的谓语动词用祈使语气(即动词原形)。句子末尾一般用降调。祈使句有肯定和否定两种:

Come in.please!请进!

Sit down,please.请坐。

Let's go to schoo1.我们上学吧。

②否定的祈使句是在动词前(即句首)加Don't。

Don't talk loudly in class!不要在课堂上大声喧哗!

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Don't open the door.It's too cold outside!别开门,外边太冷! Don't be late for school.上学别迟到。

2.Can we eat in school? 我们能在学校吃东两吗?

Yes,we can.能。

①can为情态动词,情态动词不表示动作或状态,不能单独做谓语,没有人称和数的变化。疑问句和否定句不需要助动词,其后接动词原形。 ②can表示许可

Can I sit here? 我可以坐在这里吗?

No,you can’t.不能。

Can I play football now,Mr.Smith?

Smith先生,我现在可以踢足球了吗?

You can go home now.你现在可以回家了。

③can还有一种最常见的意义“能,会”,表示具有某种能力。 Can you play basketball? 你会打篮球吗?

Yes,I can.会。

Can she speak English? 她会讲英语吗?

No,but she can speak French.不会。但她会讲法语。

3.Do you have to wear a uniform at school?

你们在学校必须穿校服吗?

Yes,we do.是的。

①have to 不得不,必须,主语是第一、二人称和第三人称复数时用have 102

to,主语是第三人称单数用has to。

We have to do our homework now.我们现在不得不做作业了。 I have to do my homework now.我现在不得不做作业了。

You have to do your homework now.你们现在必须做作业。 They have to do their homework now.他们现任必须做作业。 She/He/Jim has to stay at home.她/他/Jim不得不呆在家里。

②与其他情态动词不同,含有情态动词have/has to的句子在变成疑问句或否定句时要借助于助动词do或does,回答时也一样。

Do you have to leave now?你必须得现在离开吗?

Does Tom have to go with his parents'?

Tom必须得和父母一起去吗?

Yes.he does./No.he doesn’t.是的。/不,不必。

当前面有相应助动词时,后面的has应该用have。

4.I can’t watch TV on school nights.在上学晚上我不能看电视。 ●on school nights在上学的晚上

一般我们说at night在夜里,当night前有定语时,介词用on,如:on Sunday night。

5.Then I have to help my mom make dinner.然后我必须帮助我妈妈一起做饭。

①make dinner做饭

Who makes dinner in your family?你家谁做饭?

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Did your father make dinner yesterday?

昨天你爸爸做饭了吗?

②help sb.do sth.帮助某人做某事

He often helps me do my English homework.他常帮助我做英语作业。

6.I never have any fun.我从来都没有快乐过。

①never从不,否定词,放在be动词后.实义动词前。

He never watches cartoons on school nights.

他从来没有在上学的晚上看卡通片。

I never arrive late for class.我从来没有上学迟到过。

②any一些;some也表示“一些”。some用于肯定句,any用于否定句和疑问句,后面都是接可数名词复数或不可数名词。

There is some water in the glass.杯子里面有些水。

Is there any milk in the glass?杯子里面有牛奶吗?

I don’t want any homework on weekends.我不想在周末有任何作业。

7.No talking! 禁止交谈!

这是一种在公共场所下经常见到的标志,也是一种规章制度。它由“No十动词ing”构成,表示不许做?.与don’t+do的用法相似。 No wet umbrellas!/Don’t put、wet umbrellas here!

禁止放湿雨伞!

No food!/Don’t eat food here!禁止吃食物!

No smoking!/Don’t smoke here!禁止吸烟!

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交际用语

1.What are the rules at your school?你们学校有什么规定?

Don’t run in the hallways and don't arrive late for class. 不要在走廊上跑,不要迟到。

2.Can we eat in school?我们能在学校吃东西吗?

We can eat in the cafeteria.but we can’t eat in the classroom.我们可以在自助餐厅吃东西,但是我们不能在教室吃东西。

3.Can you wear hats in school?你们在学校可以戴帽子吗?

Yes.we can./No.we can’t.是的.我们可以。/不,我们不可以。

4.Do you have to wear a uniform at school?

你们在学校必须穿校服吗?

Yes.We do./No,we don’t.是的,我们要穿。/不,我们不穿。

5.What else do you have to do?你还有别的不得不做的事情吗? We have to clean the classrooms.我们不得不打扫教室。 语法讲解

1.情态动词have to的用法,意思是“必须、不得不”,它侧重于客观上的必要和外界的权威。

(1)结构:主语+have to+动词原形+其他。

一般现在时,主语是第三人称单数时,用has to;句子表示过去时,用had to。

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We have to wear sneakers for gym class.在体育课上我们必须穿上运动鞋。

I had to get up at 5:00 a.m.1ast Monday.

上周一我不得不早上5点起床。

(2)否定形式:主语十don’t have to+动词原形+其他。

一般现在时,主语是第三人称单数时,用doesn't have to;句子表示过去时时,用didn’t have to。

Nick doesn’t have to wear a uniform.Nick不必穿制服。

We didn't have to do our homework at once.我们不必马上完成作业,

(3)疑问句:Do(Does或Did)+主语+have to+动词原形+其他。

Do you have to stay at home on weekends?周末你必须呆在家里吗? Yes.I do./NO.I don’t.是的,我必须。/不,我不必。 Did he have to go to bed by 11:00 last night?

昨晚他不得不11点前上床睡觉吗?

2.情态动词can的用法

(1)表示能力,意为“会”、“能”(在第一册中已经学习这种用法)。 Can you play the guitar?你会弹吉他吗?

Judy can speak a little Chinese.Judy会说一点中文。

I can dance and sing.我能唱歌又能跳舞。

(2)表示允许、许可,意为“可以”、“能”。

Can the students run in the hallways?学生们可以在走廊上跑吗? 106

We can eat outside.我们可以在外面吃东西。

Can I come in?我能进来吗?

[注意]

同样是情态动词,can和have to的用法是有区别的,和大部分情态动词一样.can在否定句中,直接在can后加上not,在疑问句中,把can放到主语前面,并且没有人称和数的变化。

3.介词by的用法。

(1)by+交通工具:by bus,by boat,by car等表示乘??

We will travel by ship.我们将坐轮船旅行。

Did you go to Boston by plane?你是坐飞机去波士顿的吗?

(2)by+时间:by 1992;by 11:OO o'clock,by now等表示到(某时候)。 The students in our school have to be in bed by 9:30 p.m. 我们学校的学生必须在晚上9:30前上床睡觉。

(3)by+某人/oneself:by Maria;by himself等表示由(某人干的)。 We washed our clothes by ourselves.我们自己洗衣服。

Maria wrote a story by herself.Maria自己写了一个故事。

4.祈使句

祈使句是用来表示请求、命令、叮嘱、号召或者劝告等的句子,这类句子的主语常是第二人称you,也就是听话者,因而you常省去。祈使句的开头是动词原形。在朗读时,一律用降调。

Look out!小心!

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Wait here for me!在这等我!

Be sure to come here on time!务必准时来到这里!

祈使句的否定形式多以do not(常缩写成don't)开头.再加上动词原形。 Don't arrive late for school!上学别迟到!

Don't fight!别打架!

Don’t look out of the window.不要向窗外看。

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