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如何把主动语态变为被动语态 (1)

发布时间:2013-12-21 12:39:26  

主动语态变为被动语态

一、主动语态和被动语态概说

英语的语态分主动语态和被动语态,主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,而被动语态则表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成:

Everybody likes him. 大家都喜欢他。 (主动语态)

He is liked by everybody. 他受到大家的喜欢。(被动语态)

二、主动语态变被动语态的方法

1. 主动语态变被动语态的基本方法

在将主动语态变为被动语态时,可按以下三个步骤:

a. 把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

b. 把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词) ,并根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定be的形式。

c. 把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。在无须说明动作的执行者或只强调动作的承受者时,by短语可以省略。例如:

All the people laughed at him. →He was laughed at by all people.

They make the bikes in the factory. →The bikes are made by them in the factory. He broke the cup. → The cup was broken by him.

【注意】若不强调动词执行者,被动语态中的by短语通常可以省略:

He was born in 1986. 他生于1986年。

What is this flower called? 这种花叫什么花?

2. 双宾动词的被动语态

双宾动词即指带双宾语的动词,它们在变为被动语态时,有以下两种情形值得注意:

(1) 有些双宾动词(如award, buy, give, leave, lend, offer, pay, show, teach, tell等)在变为被动语态时,既可把间接宾语(指人)变为被动语态的主语,而把直接宾语(指事物)保留下来(称为保留宾语),也可把直接宾语(指事物)变为被动语态的主语,而把间接宾语改为介词to 或for引起的状语(到底用to还是for,与所搭配的动词有关)。比较: He gave her some money. 他给她一些钱。

→ She was given some money. / Some money was given to him.

He bought her a watch. 他给她买了一快表。

→ A watch was bought for her. / She was bought a watch.

(2) 有些双宾动词(如bring, do, make, pass, sell, send, sing, write等)通常用直接宾语(指事物)作被动语态的主语,而将间接宾语用作保留宾语(其前根据情况用介词to或for):

Father made me a doll. → A doll was made for me.

He wrote her a letter. → A letter was written to her.

(3) 有些双宾动词(如answer, deny, envy, refuse, save, spare等)通常用间接宾语(指人)作被动语态的主语,而将直接宾语用作保留宾语:

He answered me that question. → I was answered that question by him.

3. 被动语态的时态

被动语态的时态由被动结构“be+过去分词”中的动词be来体现,其基本结构和用法如下:

(1) 一般现在时的被动语态:am [is, are]+过去分词

English is taught in our school. 我们学校学英语。

We are taken good care of at school. 我们在学校受到很好的照顾。

(2) 一般过去时的被动语态:was [were]+过去分词

He was taken to the police station. 他被带到了警察局。

The house was built ten years ago. 这座房子是10年前建的。

(3) 一般将来时的被动语态:will be+过去分词

A new building will be built here soon. 不久这里将建一栋新楼。

The meeting will be held at two this afternoon. 会议将于今天下午2点举行。

(4) 现在完成时的被动语态:have [has]been+过去分词

All the work has been done now. 所有的工作现在都做好了。

Have the letters been posted? 信都寄了吗?

(5) 过去完成时的被动语态:had been+过去分词

He said the work had been finished. 他说工作已完成了。

(6) 现在进行时的被动语态:am [is, are] being+过去分词

My watch is being repaired by him. 我的表正在由他修理。

The plan is now being discussed. 计划现在正在讨论。

(7) 过去进行时的被动语态:was [were] being+过去分词

He said that the man was being operated on. 他说那个人正在动手术。

He told me that a new station was being built. 他说正在修建一个新车站。

(8) 过去将来时的被动语态:would be+过去分词

He said that the meeting would be held next week. 他说会议将于下周举于。 注: 在转变语态时,要注意保持两种语态时态的一致性:

The students will study the problem.

→The problem will be studied by the students.

A friend of ours is repairing the roof.

→The roof is being repaired by a friend of ours.

4. 含有情态动词的被动形式

若主动语态中谓语含有情态动词,在相应的被动语态中通常应保留该情态动词,其结构

为“情态动词+be+过去分词”:

Everyone must know this. →This must be known by everyone.

请看以下带情态动词被动句实例:

This can’t be done in a short time. 这不是短期内可以完成的。

Can this be done by machine? 这可以由机器来做吗?

The work must be done at once. 这工作必须马上做了。

练习

将下列句子变为被动语态:

1. We often sing this song. 2.

3. She will sell her house soon. 4.

5. He has finished his work. 6. We call him Lao Wang.

7. We must do something to help her. 8.

9. He gave me some old magazines. 10.

【参考答案】

1. This song is often sung. 2.

3. Her house will be sold soon. 4.

5. His work has been finished. 6. He is called Lao Wang.

7. Something must be done to help her. 8.

9. I was given some old magazines. 10.

① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词

② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词

③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词

④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词

⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词

⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词

⑦一般将来时 will +be + 过去分词

⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词

⑨情态动词的被动语态

情态动词+ be +过去分词

⑨情态动词的被动语态

情态动词+ be +过去分词 He broke his leg in the match. He is repairing the machine. What did you say at the meeting? He told me to wait at the gate. His leg was broken in the match. The machine is being repaired. What was said at the meeting? I was told to wait at the gate.

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