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that引导的定语从句的用法 2

发布时间:2013-12-22 15:46:06  


关系代词that可以引导限定性定语从句, 修饰代表人或事物的先行词, 但不能用于引导非限定性定语从句。that可以充当从句的主语、 宾语、 表语。例如:

The bag that lies on the ground is hers. 地上的那个包是她的。(关系代词that修饰bag的定语从句中充当主语)

The old man that I visited yesterday is my teacher. 我昨天拜访的那个老人是我的老师。(关系代词that在修饰man的定语从句中充当宾语)

在先行词是事物的限定性定语从句中, that和which一般可互换, 但在下列情况下不可以互换:

1. 只能用that, 不能用which作先行词的情况

(1)先行词是不定代词或者先行词被不定代词所修饰时, 关系代词通常只用that, 不用which。例如:

① That’s all that I know. 我知道的就这些。

② Is there anything that you want to buy in town? 你有什么东西要在城里买吗? ③ Nothing that the teacher does doesn’t influence his students. 老师所做的事情没有不影响到学生的。

(2)先行词被序数词、 形容词最高级、 the only, the very, the last等修饰时, 关系代词通常只用that, 不用which。例如:

① The first English novel that I read was Cities. 我读的第一本英文小说是《城市》。

② This is one of the most exciting football games that I have ever seen. 这是我见过的最激动人心的足球比赛之一。

③ This is the only thing that we can do now. 这是我们现在惟一能做的事情。

(3)先行词既有人又有物时, 关系代词只用that, 不用which。例如:

① The scientist and his achievements that you told me about are admired by us all. 我们所有人都钦佩你告诉我的那位科学家和他所取得的成就。

② The foreign visitors spoke highly of the pioneers and their performances that they saw at the Children’s Palace. 外国游客高度赞扬了他们在少年宫所看到的少先队员以及他们的表演。

(4) 关系代词在限定性定语从句中作表语并带有类比含义时, 通常只用that, 不用which。例如:

① He is no longer the star that he was. 他不再是过去的那位明星了。

② Our school is no longer the school that it used to be. 我们的学校不再是以前的那所学校了。

(5) 句中其他位置已出现which, 为避免重复, 不用which而用that引导限定性定语从句。例如: Which is the car that has overtaken us? 超过我们的是哪辆车?

2. 只用which, 不能用that作先行词的情况

(1) 在介词提前到关系代词之前形成“介词+关系代词”结构来修饰表事物的先行词时, 关系代词必须用which。例如:

① The house in which we live is very large. 我们住的房子非常大。

② This is the reference book of which the teacher is speaking. 这就是老师正在谈及的那本参考书。

注意: 如果介词不放在修饰事物的限定性定语从句的句首, which就可换为that, 例如: This is the question which/that we’ve had so much discussion about. =This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion. 这就是我们已经多次讨论过的问题。

(2) 先行词为“those+表事物的复数名词”时, 关系代词通常只用which而不用that。例如:

①Students should keep in mind those regulations which restrict their behavior. 学生应牢记那些规范自己的行为准则。

②A bookshop should deal with a variety of those best sellers which are newly published. 书店应该经营新出版的各种畅销书。

[考题1] All ____ is needed is a supply of oil. (1989)

A. the thing B. that C. what D. which

[答案] B

[解析] 先行词是不定代词all, 其限定性定语从句应由关系代词that引导, 在该定语从句中充当主语。

考点72: who/whom引导的定语从句的用法

who、 whom可以引导定语从句, 修饰表示人的先行词, 在从句中分别充当主语和宾语(在非正式场合下, 除非紧跟于介词之后, who经常可以代替在定语从句中作宾语的whom)。例如:

1. The visitor who came yesterday is Tom. 昨天来访的那个人是汤姆。(who引导修饰visitor的限定性定语从句, 并且在该从句中充当主语)

2. His friends, who had tried to dissuade him from smoking, did not succeed. 他的那些已经尽力劝阻他抽烟的朋友们并没有成功。(who引导修饰friends的非限定性定语从句并且在该从句中充当主语)

3. First came Mary, whom few of us had expected. 首先来的是我们当中几乎没有人料到的玛丽。(whom引导修饰Mary的非限定性定语从句并且在该从句中充当宾语, 这里的whom可以被who所代替)

4. He is John to whom you ought to address the request. 他是约翰, 你应该向他提出此项请求。(whom引导修饰John的非限定性定语从句并且在该从句中充当介词to的宾语, 这里紧跟于介词to之后的whom不可以被who代替)

注意: that引导限定性定语从句修饰表示人的先行词时, 通常可以与who换用。不紧跟在介词后的whom和that通常可以换用(紧跟在介词后的whom不可以被that代替)。例如: The scientist who/that discovers a cure for cancer will be great. 发现治愈癌症的方法的科学家将会因此而伟大。// Jim is the man with whom she talked. 跟她说过话的那个人是吉姆。

[考题1] Women ____ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ____ don’t. (2006北京)

A. who; 不填 B. 不填; who C. who; who D. 不填; 不填

[答案] C

[解析] 两个下划线处分别引导定语从句修饰表示人的women、 those, 并且在定语从句内部充当主语, 均应采用who的形式。

[考题2] The famous basketball star, ____ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. (2002北京春)

A. where B. when C. which D. who

[答案] D

[解析] Who引导非限定性定语从句, 修饰先行词star。

[考题3] He is the only one of the students who ____ a winner of scholarship for three years. (2002上海春)

A. is B. are C. have been D. has been

[答案] D

[解析] 被who所引导的限定性定语从句所修饰的先行词是表达单数含义的“the only one”(of the students是the only one的后置定语), 题干中的“for three years”意味着应采用现在完成时表示已经赢得奖学金的情况, 因此本题只能选D。

[考题4] In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ____ she could turn for help. (1992)

A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom

[答案] D

[解析] “turn to sb. (for sth.)”是表示“(就某事或某物)求助于某人”的固定搭配。介词to必不可少, 可以紧跟介词to后引导定语从句, 修饰表示人的先行词person的关系代词只能是whom, 所以下划线处应是“to whom”的形式。

[考题5] I have many friends, ____ some are businessmen. (2005)

A. of them B. from which C. who of D. of whom

[答案] D

[解析] 表示“在其中, ??之中的一部分”的含义, 应用介词of (from没有类似用法), 例如: several of my friends (我的几个朋友)、 one of them(他们中间的一个)。修饰先行词friends、 能够紧跟介词of表示“朋友中的一些(是生意人)”的关系代词只有whom, 所以本题只能选D。注意: 本题不选A是因为该形式不能引导定语从句, 填入下划线处会导致整个句子包含两个单独的、 缺乏连词连接的简单句(通常情况下这属于病句); 不选B是因为which通常不能引导定语从句修饰表示人的先行词; 不选C是因为of放于who之后与some连用导致整个句子的意思难以理解。

[考题6] I was told that there were about 50 foreign students ____ Chinese in the school, most ____ were from Germany. (2006辽宁)

A. study; of whom B. study; of them

C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom

[答案] D

[解析] 第一个下划线处引导修饰students的定语, 不能采用动词原形而应用现在分词的形式, 据此直接排除选项A、 B; 第二个下划线处引导修饰students的定语从句, 用来补充说明students的情况, 由于them不能引导定语从句, 应直接排除C而选出D。

[考题7] We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, ____ we gave some bells and glasses. (2006湖南)

A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which

[答案] B

[解析] 根据“give sth. to sb.”的搭配, 下划线处应以to whom的形式引导定语从句。Which不能引导定语从句修饰人, 所以A、 D应首先排除。

考点73: whose引导的定语从句的用法

whose可以引导定语从句, 修饰表示人或事物的先行词, 在定语从句中充当定语。例如:

Is there anyone here whose name is Li Hua? 这儿有叫李华的人吗?(先行词表示人) // The bicycle whose brake was damaged has now been repaired. 刹车坏了的自行车现在已被修好。(先行词表示物)

[考题1] George Orwell, ____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. (2004北京)

A. the real name B. what his real name

C. his real name D. whose real name

[答案] D

[解析] 题干的意思是: 真名是 Eric Arthur的George Orwell写了很多政治性的小说和短评。四个选项中只有D选项可以引导定语从句修饰主语George Orwell(在定语从句中whose充当定语), 其他选项都使得下划线部分出现一个“主语+系动词+表语”结构, 从而导致整个句子结构紊乱。

[考题2] Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ____ roof is under repair. (2006福建)

A. whose B. which C. of which D. what

[答案] A

[解析] 下划线处引导house的定语从句并在从句内部充当主语roof的定语, 应填入引导词whose。

[考题3] Have you seen the film Titanic, ____ leading actor is world*9鄄famous? (2001上海春)

A. its B. it’s C. whose D. which

[答案] C

[解析] 下划线处引导定语从句并充当定语从句中主语leading actor的定语, 只能选C。注意: 选项A、 B使得整个句子的结构出现混乱, 应排除。

[考题4] Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from ____ effects the people are still suffering. (2005天津)

A. that B. whose C. those D. what

[答案] B

[解析] 题干中逗号之后为floods的定语从句, 下划线处在定语从句内部充当suffer from的宾语——effects的定语, 相当于名词所有格floods的含义。

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