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unit1 where did you go on vacation?人教版八年级上

发布时间:2013-09-17 20:54:33  

1. Vocabulary and phrases

anyone pron. 任何人

wonderful adj. 精彩的,绝妙的

something pron. 某事,某物

seem v. 好像,似乎,看来

someone pron. 某人

try v.&n. 尝试,设法,努力

difference n. 差别,差异

umbrella n. 伞,雨伞

hungry adj. 饥饿的

dislike v.&n. 不喜爱(的事物),厌恶(的事物) anywhere adv. 在任何地方

most adj. ,adv.&pron. 最多,大多数

everyone pron. 每人,人人,所有人

bored adj. 厌倦的,烦闷的

decide v. 决定,选定

wonder v. 想知道,琢磨

wait v.&n. 等待,等候

enough adj.&adv. 足够的(地),充分的(地),充足的(地)

Phrases

go on vacation 去度假

go out 出去

of course 当然,自然

because of 因为

take photos 照相

come up 出来

quite a few 相当多

have a good time 玩得高兴,过得愉快

feel like 给??的感觉;感受到

find out 找出,查明

up and down 上上下下

so…that 如此??以致于??

练习题

1. 翻译

去度假_________________ 当然,自然_____________ 照相___________________ 玩得高兴_______________ 找出,查明_____________ 上上下下_______________

2. 一般过去时

(1) 一般过去时的概念、结构以及用法

一般过去时用来表示过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态以及过去习惯性、反复性的动作。谓语动词要用动词的过去式,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday昨天、last night昨晚、last week上周、last year去年,等。

◆一般过去时主要表示过去的动作或状态。在句子中由主语+动词的过去式来表达。

1.He walks to school. (一般现在时)

2.He walked to school. (一般过去时)

例1.中的动词walks时现在式, 由于主语是第三人称单数he, 因此原因的walk必须加上 “s”,表示目前习惯性、经常性动作。可译为“他现在经常步行上

学”。

例2.中的动词walked是过去式,过去式是叙述过去事情的动词形式,所以这句话时表示的是过去的某时,例如昨天、上周或学生时代等过去的某一时间,这句可译为“他曾经步行上学”。 (2)一般过去时的几种结构

2. be 动词的过去式

am与is的过去式是was

are的过去式是were

be 动词的过去时的句型如下:

?

?

? 肯定句: 主语+be动词的过去式(was were)~ 否定句: 主语+ be动词的过去式(was, were)+ not ~ 疑问句: be动词的过去式(was, were)+ 主语~?

○He was busy yesterday. (肯定句) 他昨天很忙。

○He was not busy yesterday. (否定句) 他昨天不忙。

○Was he busy yesterday? (疑问句) 他昨天忙吗?

(1)be动词过去时的肯定句

Mike was in the United States last year. 麦克去年在美国。

be 动词的现在式和过去式: There is (are ) 的句型用于一般过去时需把is ,are 变为它们的过去式:There was (were) ?

(2)be动词过去式的否定句

He was not in Canada last year. 他去年不在加拿大。

be动词过去时的否定句的结构和现在时一样,只要在be动词过去式(was, were)后面加上not就可以了。否定式的was not , were not 大多使用缩写形式wasn’t 和weren’t .

——I wasn’t busy the other day.前几天我不

忙。

(3)be动词的过去时的疑问句(一般疑问句)

Was it raining in Beijing yesterday?

——Yes, it was.

—— No, it wasn’t. I t was cloudy.

昨天北京下雨了吗?

——是的,下了

——不,没下雨。昨天北京阴天。

be 动词过去时一般疑问句的结构和一般现在时一样,只要把be 动词的过去式was, were 调到主语前面即可。was (were ) + 主语~? 回答时,需要用Yes, ?was (were) .或No?wasn’t (weren’t)

Was your father free this morning? 今天上午你爸爸有空吗?

Yes, he was . 是的,他有空。 No, he wasn’t . 不,他没空。

练习题

一、 用be动词的适当形式填空

1. I _______ at school just now.

2. He ________ at the camp last week.

3. We ________ students two years ago.

4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.

5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.

6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.

7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.

8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.

2.一般动词的过去时

★一般动词过去式的基本句型如下:

肯定句: 主语+ 动词的过去式~ 否定句: 主语+ did not + 动词原形~ 疑问句:Did + 主语+ 动词原形~?

○He played tennis last week. (肯定句) 他上周打网了。

○He did not play tennis last week. (否定句) 上周他没打网球。

○Did he play tennis last week? (疑问句) 上周他打网球了吗?

★ 规则动词的过去式

1一般情况下,在动词原形后面加-ed。

look→looked play→played start→started visit→visited pull-pulled, cook-cooked

2.以不发音e结尾的动词,在词尾直接加-d。

live→lived use→used taste-tasted

3.以―辅音字母+ y‖结尾的动词,先将 y 改为i ,再加 –ed。

study→studied try→tried fly→flied

4.以重读闭音节(即辅音+元音+辅音)或r音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要先双写这个辅音字母后,再加 –ed。

stop→stopped plan→planned prefer→preferred

◆那么什么是重读闭音节?

①必须是重读音节

②以一个辅音字母结尾

③元音字母发短音

总结来说就是:一元一辅,又重又短

例子:beg drag drop drip(滴下)

5.不规则动词的过去式需特殊记忆。

(1)把中的i改为a,变成过去式。如:

begin—began,drink—drank,give—gave,ring—rang,sing—sang,sit—sat,swim—swam

(2)把重读开音节中的i改为o,变成过去式。如:

drive—drove,ride—rode,write—wrote

(3)改动词原形中的aw /ow为ew,变成过去式。如:

draw—drew,grow—grew,know—knew,throw—threw(动词show除外,show—showed)

(4)动词原形中的e改为o,变成过去式。如:

get—got,forget—forgot

(5)动词原形中的ee改为e,变成过去式。如:

feed—fed,meet—met

(6)动词原形中的eep改为ept,变成过去式。如:

keep—kept,sleep—slept,sweep—swept

(7)动词原形中的eak改为oke,变成过去式。如:

break—broke,speak—spoke

(8)动词原形中的ell改为old,变成过去式。如:

sell—sold,tell—told

(9)动词原形中的an改为oo,变成过去式。如:

stand—stood,understand—understood

(10)以ought和aught结尾,且读音是〔 :t〕的过去式。如:

bring—brought,buy— bought,think—thought,catch—caught,teach—taught

(11)以ould结尾且读音为〔ud〕的情态动词过去式。如:

can—could,shall—should,will—would

(12)把动词原形中的o改为a,变成过去式。如:

come—came,become—became

(13)在动词原形后加d或t变成过去式,并且发生音变。如:

hear—heard,mean—meant

(14)动词的过去式与动词原形一样。如:

let—let,must—must,put—put,read—read,cost—cost,cut—cut,hit—hit,put—put,hurt—hurt

(15)不符合上述规律的动词过去式。如:

am,is—was, are—were, build—built, do—did, eat—ate, fall—fell, feel—felt,find—found, fly—flew, go—went, have /has— had, hold—held, leave—left,make—made, may—might, run—ran, see—saw, take—took, say—said

★1.一般动词过去式的肯定句

We had a good time yesterday.昨天我们过得很愉快。

He had a good time yesterday.昨天他过得很高兴。

一般过去时没有人称和数的变化。因此,主语即使是单数、第三人称,也和其他人称一样化。

○I watched TV for an hour. 我看了一个小时的电视。

○She studied Russian two years ago. 两年前他学俄语。

2.一般动词过去时的否定句

We did not have a good time yesterday.昨天我们过得不好。

一般动词过去时的否定句的结构和一般现在时够定句的结构一样,不论主语是第几人称,还是单、复数,在主语后面加上did not (而不是do not ,或does not)就可以了。 否定式did not 常用缩写形式didn’t 。

○He didn’t have classes this morning. 今天上午他没课.

○You didn’t do your best to do it. 你没有尽力去做。

3.一般动词过去时的疑问句

Did he go there?他去那了吗?

Yes, he did. (No, he didn’t .) 是的,他去了。 (不,他没去。)

When did you get up this morning? At six.今天早晨你几点钟起床的? 六点钟。

一般动词过去时一般疑问句的结构和一般现在时一般疑问句的结构一样,无论主语是第几人称,单数、复数,在主语前面加上did即可。

○Did Tom go with you?汤姆和你一起去的吗?

Yes, he did . (No, he didn’t .)是的。(不,不是的)

○How many subjects did you study last term?上学期你们学习几门功课?

We studied seven.我们学习七门课。

◆ 比较一般动词的现在时和过去时

一般现在时 一般过去时

肯定句 I go ~. He goes ~. I went ~. He went ~.

否定句 I don’t go ~. He doesn’t go ~. I didn’t go ~. He didn’t go ~.

疑问句 Do you go ~? Does he go ~ ? Did you go ~? Did he go ~?

(3)一般过去时的几种用法

1.带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时

如:yesterday (昨天) , two days ago(两天前), last year(去年)., the other day(前几天), once upon a time(过去曾经), just now(刚才), in the old days(过去的日子里), before liberation(解放前), when I was 8 years old(当我八岁时).

2.表示过去一段时间内经常反复的动作。 常与always, never 等连用。

○Mrs. Peter always carried an umbrella.

彼得太太过去老是带着一把伞。(只是说明她过去的动作,不表明她现在是否常带着伞。)

○Mrs. Peter always carries an umbrella.彼得太太老是带着伞。

(说明这是她的习惯,表明她现在仍然还习惯总带着一把伞。)

3.有些句子,虽然没有表示过去确定时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时,这一点,我们要特别注意。

○I didn’t know you were in Pairs.我不知道你在巴黎。(因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.)

○I thought you were ill.我以为你病了呢。(这句话应是在说话前,我以为你病了,但是现在我知道你没病。)

练习题

一、请用正确动词形式填空

1. He _____ (live) in Wuxi two years ago.

2. The cat ____ (eat) a bird last night.

3. We ____ (have) a party last Halloween. 4

4. Nancy ____ (pick) up oranges on the farm last week.

5. I ____ (make) a model ship with Mike yesterday.

6. They _____ (play) chess in the classroom last PE lesson.

7. My mother ____ (cook) a nice food last Spring Festival.

8. The girls _____ (dance) at the party last night.

9. I ____ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday last week.

10. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?

11. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.

12. Gao Shan _______ (put) up the picture last night.

13. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday.

14. 14. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning?

15. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.

16. Mike _________________(not go) to bed until 12 o’clock last night.

17. I listened but ___________ (hear) nothing.

18. How many people ________ (be) there in your class last term?

二、改错题

1.How is Jane yesterday? _____________________

2.He go to school by bus last week. ____________________________

3. He often goes home at 6:00 last month. ____________________________

4.I can fly kites seven years ago. ______________________________

5. Did you saw him just now. ____________________________________

三、按要求变换句型。

1. Frank read an interesting book about history. (一般疑问句)

_______ Frank _______ an interesting book about history?

2. He cleaned his room just now.. (划线提问) What________ he _______?

3. Thomas spent RMB 10 on this book. (否定句)

Thomas _______ _______ RMB 10 on this book.

4. My family went to the beach last week. (划线提问)

________ ________ ________ family _______ last week?

3. 复合不定代词

something某些事 somebody 某些人 someone 某些人 somewhere某些地方

anything 任何事 anybody 任何人 anyone 任何人 anywhere 在任何地方

以some和any开头的复合不定代词的用法与some和any的用法大致相同,前者多用于肯定句,后者多用于疑问句和否定句

例子

I can’t find it anywhere.

I lost my key somewhere near here

Do you want anything from me? Something new意味一些新的东西,new为形容词,修饰不定代词应后置

例题

Excuse me, is there ______in today’s newspaper?

—No, nothing.

A. something new B. new something C. anything new

答案 C 形容词修饰不定代词应后置,所以排除A,疑问句中一般用anything,所以选C

nothing没有事 nobody没有人 no one没有人

everything所有事 everybody 每个人 everyone每个人

练习题

一、 用所给出单词补全下面的短文

anything everything nothing everyone no one

Dear Bill:

How was your vacation? Did you do____ interesting? Did____ in the family go with you? I went to a friend’s farm in the countryside with my family. ____was great. The only problem was that there was ____much to do in the evening but read. Still ____seemed to be bored. Bye for now!

Mark

答案 anything everyone everything nothing no one

课后作业

一、单项选择: 从下列各题后所给的四个选项中选择最佳答案填空。

( )1. My father______ill yesterday.

A. isn't B. aren't C. wasn't D. weren't

( )2. ______your parents at home last week﹖

A. Is B. Was C. Are D. Were

( )3. The twins______in Dalian last year. They______here now.

A. are; were B. were; are C. was; are D. were; was

( )4. ______

A. Was; before B. Is; before C. Was; after D. Is; after

( )5. —Who was on duty last Friday﹖

—______.

A. I am B. I was C. Yes, I was D. No, I wasn't

二、请用正确动词形式填空。

1. I _________ (have) an exciting party last weekend.

2. _________ she _________(practice) her guitar yesterday? No, she _________.

3. What ________ Tom ________ (do) on Saturday evening?

He ________(watch) TV and __________(read) an interesting book.

4. They all _________(go) to the mountains yesterday morning.

5. She _________(not visit) her aunt last weekend.

She ________ (stay) at home and _________(do) some cleaning.

三、 改错题

1.How is Jane yesterday? _____________________

2.He go to school by bus last week. ____________________________

3.He often goes home at 6:00 last month. ____________________________

4.I can fly kites seven years ago. ______________________________

5.Did you saw him just now. ____________________________________

四、用somebody,anybody,anything,nobody填空

1) _____broke the window last night.

2) Did _________ see or hear__________?

3) I didn't hear or see___________.

4)I heard a big noise and I looked out, but I didn't

see_________.

5)I heard a noise outside last night. There was a strong wind. I think the window wasn't closed. It broke in the wind. I think you are right. ____________broke it. It was the wind.

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