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中考英语介词讲解及练习

发布时间:2013-12-25 12:47:30  

(一)介词

介词是一种用来表示词与词、词与句之间的关系的虚词,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。介词可以分为时间介词、地点介词、方式介词、原因介词和其他介词。

(二)介词的用法 ① 作定语: 介词短语在句中作定语时,放在所修饰的名词之后。

e.g. He is the monitor of Class Four. 他是四班班长。

② 作状语:介词短语作状语,用来修饰句中的动词。

e.g. We do eye exercises at nine every morning.

我们每天上午九点钟做眼保健操。

注意:在含有介词短语作状语的句子中,状语按照先地点(由小到大),再方式,最后时间(由小到大)的顺序排列。

e.g. He arrived in Paris by air at 9:00.他9点钟乘飞机到了巴黎。

③ 作表语: 介词短语作表语时往往与连系动词一起使用。

e.g. It sounds like fun. 这听起来很有趣。

(三)介词的分类 1. in, at, on 与表示时间、地点的词连用

表示时间时,in后接表示一段时间的词,如:年、月、星期、四季或morning, afternoon, evening (注意:noon, night前用at),但当morning 或Sunday 等前有this, that, next, last 等词修饰时,一般不用介词。

at 多用于钟点时刻前,所表示的时间大多比较短暂。

e.g. at a quarter to eleven 在10:45

on 主要用在星期几、具体某一天或某一天的早、午、晚或节日前。

e.g. on Mid-Autumn Day在中秋节 on June 2nd在六月二日

表示地点时,in与表示“国家”、“城市”等大地方的词连用。

e.g. in Shanghai 在上海 in China 在中国

at用于小地点前。in表示“在??里面、内部、某一范围内”,on表示“在??上”。

e.g. at the desk 在桌子旁

on the tree 表示树上长的东西“在树上”。

in the tree 表示人或其他东西“在树上”。

on the wall 表示东西张贴或挂“在墙上”。

in the wall 表示门、窗等嵌“在墙上”。

2. in, to, on 与表示方位的词连用

in 表示在某地区范围之内;to 表示在某地区范围以外;表示与某地接壤用on。

e.g. Shanghai is in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

Japan is to the east of China. 日本在中国的东边。

The Pacific Ocean is on the east of China.太平洋在中国的东边。

3. between 和among 表示“在??中间”

between 表示两者之间; among表示在三者或三者以上之间。

e.g. Mike sits between Peter and me. 迈克坐在彼得和我之间。

His parents were among those people.他的父母在那些人中间。

4. with 和in表示“用??”

表示“用??工具”用with; 表示“用??材料、语言、声音”用in。

e.g. Please write with a pen. 请用钢笔写。

Say it in English, please. 请用英语说。

5. across 和through 表示“穿过”的区别

两者都用于表示“穿过,越过”,across含有“从??表面穿过”之意,表示游渡、乘船过海或过河时用across; through 含有“从??内部穿过”之意。

e.g. The train is running through the tunnel.火车正穿过隧道。

The train is running across the bridge. 火车正穿过大桥。

6. but, besides 和except 表示“除了”

but表示“除??之外”,常与有否定意义的词连用;except 表示“除??之外(不再有)”,指从整体中排除except 所带人或物,前面常有all, every, any, no及其他复合词,但在否定句中,except 却没有排斥性;besides表示“除了??之外(还有)”,它的意义是在原来的基础上加上besides 除外的人或物,其前常有another, other, any other, a few 等词。

e.g. We've had nothing but trouble with this car.我们这辆车净出毛病。

She knows nothing except English.她除了英语之外,什么也不懂。

We all went to visit the zoo except Li Lei.除了李雷外,我们都去了动物园。

Li Lei also went to the park besides you.除了你之外,李雷也去了公园。

(四)介词与其他词类的搭配 1.名词与介词的搭配

a bit of有一点儿 a couple of两个、几个 a kind of一种、一类 cover an area of占地面积 have pity on sb.怜悯某人 huge amounts of大量的 make friends with与??交朋友 make fun of拿??开玩笑

meet the needs of迎合??的需要 one after another一个接一个;连续地 play a trick on捉弄 the week after next下下周

2.动词与介词的搭配

agree with sb.同意某人的意见 apologize to sb. for sth.为某事向某人道歉

arrive at/in a place到达某地 ask for请求、寻求

be covered with被??所覆盖 be made of由??制成

be made up of由??组成 belong to属于

break into破门而人、闯入 call on拜访

care for照顾、喜欢 carry out执行

check in办理登机 come across被理解;遇见 come from出生于、来自 come on跟我来、走吧

communicate with与??交 cut down砍倒

deal with= do with处理 depend on= rely on依靠、依赖 die of因??病而死 dream of梦见

dress up穿着、打扮 eat up= finish off吃光、喝完、吞噬 enter for报名参加 fall off从??跌落

fill in填充、填写 find out找出、查明、了解 get along/on with进展、与??相处 get in the way挡道

get in进入、收集 get on上车

get off下车 get rid of摆脱

get ready for为?.作准备 get to到达

get tired of对??感到厌倦 go in for参加、从事于、酷爱 ,'^ go ahead先走、向前走;去吧 go for a swim去游泳

go on a diet实行节食 go over复习

go on with继续做某事 grow up长大、成长

hand in上交 hear from收到??的来信 hear of听说 help sb. with sth.帮助某人做某事 hold on等等(别挂电话) hold up举起

hurry off匆忙离开 join.n参加、加入

keep... from使??不做

keep off阻挡;不让接近

later on过来;后来

learn.., from向??学习

let out放出

live on靠??为生

look at看;观看

look forward to期待着

look out of从??朝外看

make out辨认出

meet with遭遇

pay for付??钱

play with玩弄

point out指出

prefer... to(比起??来)更喜欢

protect... from保护??免受

put off延期

put out伸出

run after追捕;追踪

search for搜寻;搜查

sell out售完

set up建立;设立.

share with与??分享

show sb around带某人参观

speed up加快速度

take away拿走

take charge of负责;管理;

take in吸入

take out取出

take up开始从事

talk to/with与...谈话

think of想起;想到

throw away扔掉

try on 试穿

turn into变成 keep in touch with与??保持联系 knock over撞倒、撞翻 laugh at嘲笑 leave for动身去 line up整队;排成行 look after照顾;照料 look for寻找 look like看上去像;显得 look up查寻;抬头看 make up one's mind下决心 operate on sb.为??动手术 pick out拾起 point at指向;指着 praise sb. for sth.为某事表扬某人 prepare for准备 pull down推倒 put on穿;戴上;上演 put up举起;挂起 run away逃跑 see off为??送行 set out/off for出发去??;起程去?? shake hands with与??握手 show off炫耀 shut up住口 stop...from阻止??做 take care of照料 take hold of抓住 take off脱掉(衣物等);起飞 take part in参加 talk about谈到 tell... from区别;分辨 think over仔细考虑 tie up捆绑 turn down(把音量)调低 turn off关掉(电灯、电视、收音

机等) turn on开,旋开(电灯、电视、收音机等) turn over翻车;翻阅;翻身 turn out结果是;证明是 wake up醒来;叫醒 wait for等待;等候 write down写下 work out算出;制定出

3. 形容词与介词的搭配

be afraid of害怕 be angry with生气 be bad for有害于

be careful with小心

be familiar to为……所熟悉

be fond of爱好

be interested in对……感兴趣 be late for……迟到

be pleased with对……满意

be ready for为……做准备

be thankful to对……很感激

be worried about为……而担心

plenty of许多

4.其他介词

1)表示时间的介词

after school放学后

at once=in no time立刻;马上 be busy with 忙于 be different from与……不 be famous for以……而闻名 be good at/poor at擅长 be keen on喜爱 be located in/on/at位于 be proud of为……而感到自be surprised at对……感到惊奇 be used to习惯于 far away from离……遥远 at first起先,开始的时候 at present现在;目前

at the same time同时 at the moment此时;当时;目前;那时 from now on从此以后 from time to time不时;有时

in a minute一会儿 in one’s fifties在某人五十多岁时 in the end=at last最后;终于 in the future在将来

in the years to come在即将来临的几年中 in time及时

out of date过时

2)表示事物之间位置的介词

at school在学校;在上课

in front of在……前面

in line成一排;成一直线

next to紧挨着;紧靠着

on the right在右边

on show 在展出

over there在那边

3)表示方式、手段的介词

by bus乘公共汽车

by phone= on the phone打电话

in a hurry匆忙

in one's opinion根据某人的看法

instead of代替;而不是

in this way这样

on foot步行;走路 at work在工作 in hospital住院 in the middle of在……中间 on one’s side在某人一边 on the other hand另一方面 out of从……里出来;缺乏 up and down上上下下 by oneself亲自 by the way顺便说;顺便问一下 in English用英语 in return作为回报 in surprise惊奇地 on business有事;出差. on holiday在休假

on the/one's way to在去……的路上 with great care非常小心

with one voice异口同声 with one's own eyes亲眼(目睹) with the help of在……的帮助下

4)表示原因、目的的介词

because of因为 in order to为了

for example例如 with pleasure愉快地

5)表示根据、所属、比较等的介词

according to按照 after all终究;毕竟

belong to属于 in all总共

in charge of负责 in fact事实上

in trouble处于困境中 not… at all.一点也不;根本不

of course当然 the same…as与……同样

(五)介词练习 1. We traveled overnight to Paris and arrived _______ 5 o’clock ______ the morning.

A. on; in B. at; in C. at; on D. in; on

2. Where’s Lily? We are all here _______ her.

A. beside B. about C. except D. with

3. She sent her friend a postcard _______ a birthday present.

A. on B. as C. for D. of

4. Jack has studied Chinese in this school _______ the year of 2000.

A. since B. in C. on D. by

5. ---What is a writing brush, do you know?

---It’s _______ writing and drawing.

A. with B. to C. for D. by

6. English is widely used ______ travellers and business people all over the world.

A. to B. for C. as D. by

7. ______ the help of my teacher, I caught up with the other students.

A. Under B. In C. With D. On

8. Hong Kong is ______ the south of China, and Macao is ______ the west of Hong Kong.

A. in; to B. to; to C. to; in D. in; in

9. ---You’d better not go out now. It’s raining.

---It doesn’t matter. My new coat can keep ______ rain.

A. in B. of C. with D. off

10. Japan lies ______ the east of China.

A. to B. in C. about D. at

11. China lies _____ the east of Asia and ___ the north of Australia.

A. to; to B. in; to C. to; in D. in; on

12. ______ the afternoon of March 8, the women in the city had a big party.

A. To B. In C. At D. On

13. Where’s Lily? We are all here ______ her.

A. besides B. about C. except D. with

14. Mum, today is Mother’s Day. Mike and I want to invite you to have dinner ____ us at Shanghai Restaurant, which is famous _____ its seafood.

A. with; of B. with; for C. for; to D. to; for

15. He has got a chair to sit _______, but nobody to talk _______.

A. on; to B. /; with C. on; / D. /; to

16. English is widely used ______ travelers and business people all over the world.

A. To B. for C. as D. by

17.—It’s kind ___ you to come to see me.

—It’s a pleasure. You were so kind ___ me.

A. of; with B. for; with C. of; to D. for; to

18.—Is the manager in?

—Sorry, he is out. But he will be back ____ three o’clock.

A. in B. on C. until D. before

19. _____ the age of fifteen, she had written scores of articles for a newspaper.

A. At B. Before C. Since D. By

20.—Bob, you are wanted _____ the phone.

—Thanks a lot.

A. on B. by C. of D. for

21. The soil is made ____ the dead leaves of the trees.

A. up of B. of C. from D. by

22. The writer often sat up far into the night working ______ a new novel.

A. for B. on C. with D. in

23. You must stand _____ line when you are waiting _____ a bus.

A. on; in B. in; for C. in; on D. on; for

24. It’s very nice _____ you to get me two tickets _____ the World Cup.

A. for; of B. of; for C. to; for D. of; to

25. We should do something to stop sandstorms _____ happening again and again.

A. from B. on C. by D. to

26. The foreigners arrived __________ Shanghai __________ night.

A. at…at B. in…at C. in... in D. at... in

27. Wushu is becoming more and more popular __________ westerners.

A. among B. between C. in D.within

28. __________ the help of the teachers, we decorated. Our classroom__________ lanterns, flowers and pictures yesterday.

A. Under... without B. Under... among C. With... with

D.With...between

29. The cakes __________ the shape of a round moon is called mooncakes.

A. like B. look like C. as D. likes

30.The manager told his secretary that he would be back __________ three-thirty.

A. in B. after C. before D. at

31. It was clever _______ the boy to work ______ the maths problems in less

than ten minutes.

A. for…out B. of... out C. for...on D . of... on

32. My aunt Jane tried her best to reduce her weight ________ 6kg.

A.about B.at C.to D.by

33. In my opinion, I agree __________ you __________ that.

A. to… with B. with…to C. with.., with D. with.., on

34. I am familiar__________ this school since I have worked here for more than fifteen years.

A. with B. to C. about D. of

35. Would you please look __________ my baby girl __________ my absence?

A. after…during B. for…during C. after… in D. to...in

36. The boy ____ the bike is Jackie Hu from Britain.

A. by B. on C. in D. with

37. Smoking and drinking are not good _______ your health.

A. for B. to C. of D. at

38. It's fun to see a large number of stars shining in the sky ________ a clear night.

A. at B. in C. on D. of

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