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中考英语代词分类及练习

发布时间:2013-12-25 12:47:30  

(一)代词

代词是用来替代名词或其他同类词语的词。大多数代词都具有名词和形容词的功能,是历年来全国各省市中考必考内容之一。

(二)代词的分类

1. 人称代词

代替人或事物的代词是人称代词。它有人称、性、数、格的变化,在句中用作主语的人称代词叫主格,用作宾语的人称代词叫宾格。

出现并列主语或宾语时,其排列顺序为:单数时是第二、第三、第一人称(简称231)即you,he and I或you,her and me;复数时是第一、第二、第三人称(简称123)即we,you and they或us,you and them。

2. 物主代词

表示所有关系的代词是物主代词。它分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词,两者的关系是:名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词。

3. 指示代词

专门用来指出或表示人或物的代词是指示代词。常用的指示代词有单数的this和that以及复数的these和those.

1. this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:

This is a pen and that is a pencil.

We are busy these days.

In those days the workers had a hard time.

2. 有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this 和these则是指下面将要讲到的事物,例如:

I had a cold. That’s why I didn‘t come.

What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用that或those代替,例如: Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.

4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。例如:

Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

4. 反身代词

反身代词又叫自身代词,其构成形式为:第一人称和第二人称的反身代词由“形容词性物主代词+ self / selves”构成,第三人称的反身代词由“宾格代词+ self / selves”构成。

反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。

1. 作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人或一些人。

He called himself a writer.

Would you please express yourself in English?

2. 作表语。

It doesn't matter.I'll be myself soon.

The girl in the news is myself.

3. 作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。

I myself washed the clothes.(=I washed the clothes myself.)(作主语同位语)

You should ask the teacher himself.(作宾语同位语)

4.反身代词的常用搭配:

enjoy oneself hurt oneself

teach oneself = learn?by oneself all by oneself

help oneself to ? look after oneself leave sb. by oneself say to oneself

dress oneself

5. 相互代词

相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,在句中多作宾语,相互代词可加-'s构成所有格。

6. 疑问代词

疑问代词表示对某人或某物疑问,主要用来构成特殊疑问句,一般用在特殊疑问句的句首。在初中阶段,我们所学的疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which.

7. 关系代词

英语中的关系代词是一种引述前面已经提过的名词或代词的一类词,常用来引导定语从句。它主要有who,whom,whose,which,that等。

8. 不定代词

不明确指代某个特定名词的代词叫作不定代词。根据所表达的意义,不定代词可以分为两大类,即肯定性不定代词和否定性不定代词。肯定性不定代词有:both,all,many,much,one,other,each,another,a few,a little,either,some(someone,somebody,something),any(anyone,anybody,anything),every(everyone,everybody,everything)。否定性不定代词有:no,neither,none,nobody,nothing.现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下:

(1). some与any的区别

1)some多用于肯定句,表示“一些,几个”作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library.

Some rice in the bag has been sold out.

2)any多用于疑问句、条件句和否定句中,表示“一些,任何”用作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

If you have any questions, please ask me.

There isn't any orange in the bottle.

Have you got any tea?

3)any和some也可以作代词用,表示“一些”。any多用于疑问句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中。

How many people can you see in the picture?

I can't see any.

If you have no money, I'll lend you some.

注意:与some, any结合的词如something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法,大致和some, any的用法相同。

(2). few, a few, little, a little在用法上的区别

用于可数名词 用于不可数名词 1)用作形容词:

用于可数名词a few虽少,但有几个few不多,几乎没有

用于不可数名词a little,虽少,但有一点little不多,没有什么 I'm going to buy a few apples. He can speak only a little Chinese. There is only a little milk in the glass. He has few friends.

They had little money with them.

2)a little和little也可以用作副词,a little表示“有点,稍微”,little表示“很少”。

I'm a little hungry. (修饰形容词hungry) Let him sleep a little. (修饰动词sleep)

Mary, go a little faster, please. (修饰副词比较级) She slept very little last night.

(3). other, the other, another, others, the others的区别。

表示肯定

a few虽少,但有几个

a little,虽少,但有一点

表示否定

few不多,几乎没有 little不多,没有什么

1)other可以作形容词用,后面可以跟单数或复数名词,意思是“其他的、别

的”。

Where are his other books?

I haven't any other books except this one.

2)other也可以用作代词,与冠词the连用构成“the other”,表示两个人或物中的“另一个”。常与one搭配构成“one ..., the other ...”句型。

He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old. She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.

3)other作代词用时,可以有复数“others”,泛指“另外的人或物”。常与some搭配构成“some ...., others ...”句型。

Some went to the cinema, others went swimming.

This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.

4)“the others”表示特指某范围内的“其他的人或物”。

We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.

In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese.

5)another可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为“另一个”,还可以跟代词one.

You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?

Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one?

6)another也可以作代词用,表示“另一个”。

I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.

(4). every与each的区别。

every: 1) 强调全体的概念;2)指三个以上的人或物(含 三个); 3)只作形容词,不可单独使用; 4)有反复重复的意思; 5)every 与not 连用,表示部分否定

each: 1)强调个体概念;2)指两个以上的人或物 (含两个) ;3)可作代词或形容词;4)each 和not连用表示全部否定。 The teacher gave a toy to each child.

Each ball has a different colour.

Every student loves the English teacher. = All students love the English teacher.

Every child likes playing. = All children like playing.

(5). all和both的用法。

1)all指三者以上,或不可数的东西。谓语动词既可以用单数,也可以用作复数。在句中作主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。

All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢Pope先生。(作主语)

= We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语)

All the water has been used up. (作主语)

That's all for today. (作表语)

Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语)

All the leaders are here. (作定语)

2)both作代词。

①与其他名词或代词并列出现,表示“两个都”。

Lucy and Lily both agree with us.

They both passed on their sticks at the same time.

How are your parents? They're both fine.

②与“of +代词(或名词)”连用,表示“两者都”。

Both of them came to see Mary.

Both of the books are very interesting.

③单独使用,表示“两者(都)”。

Michael has two sons. Both are clever. I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both.

3)both用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示“两者都”。 Both his younger sisters are our classmates.

There are tall trees on both sides of the street. (6). no one 和none

1) none 后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,

2)none 做主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可;

3) no one只单独使用,只指人, 4) no one做主语谓语动词只能是单数。

----None of you could lift it.

---- Did any one call me up just now? ---- No one. ----How many boys are in the room? -----None. (7).it, one, that 作代词的区别 ①it指上文提到过的事物。

② one泛指上下文提及的同类事物中的一个。

③that常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,避免重复.

(1) I have many books. Which___ do you like?

(2) The book is mine. ____ is very interesting.

(3)The weather in Beijing is much colder than____ in Hainan. it的用法

(1)指物:It's a robot.

(2)指自然现象: It's raining now, but it will be fine soon.

(3)指时间:What time is it? It's 8 o'clock.

(4)指距离:It's twenty minutes' walk.

(5)作形式主语:It's important for us to fight pollution.

It took me half an hour to finish the work.

It's kind of you to say so.

(三)代词的练习 1. My mother is a teacher. _______is very kind and easygoing.

A. He B. Her C. She D. Him

2. _______camera is not so expensive as _______,but it works well,too.

A. My; his B. Mine; him C. My; him D. Mine; his

3. The pears in my basket are smaller than _______ in Jim's.

A. it B. that C. ones D. those

4. He is too young to look after _______.

A. herself B. himself C. myself D. yourself

5. The new car has been here for several days. _______ is it?

A. Where B. What C. Whose D. Who

6. The young lady _______ we met yesterday is our new maths teacher.

A. what B. whose C. whom D. which

7. There's _______ with your watch because it often keeps bad time.

A. nothing wrong B. something wrong

C. wrong nothing D. wrong something

8. Mary, please show ________ your picture.

A. my B. mine C. I D. me

9. ---What’s on TV tonight? Is there _________ interesting?

---I’m afraid not.

A. something B. anything C. nothing D. everything

10. _______ of them has his own opinion.

A. Both B. Some C. Every D. Each

11. ---Where is my pen?

---Oh, sorry. I have taken _______ by mistake.

A. yours B. his C. mine D. hers

12. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers.

A. you B. me C. him D. Her

13. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

14. ---You want ________ sandwich?

---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

15. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______.

A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs

16. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk?

---______________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

17. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food.

---Never mind. You can have ________.

A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

18. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?

---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

19. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term?

---Work harder than last term.

A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself

20. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?

---Her cousin, Susan.

A. that B. whose C. who D. which

21. ---Is _______ here?

---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave.

A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody

22. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.

A. many B. some C. few D. more

23. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you’ll have to pay ______ $ 30.

A. more B. other C. the other D. another

24. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang?

---Yes. I have two sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America?

A. neither B. both C. none D. either

25. ---Have you sent your parents an E-mail telling them you arrived safe?

---No. _______ of them can use a computer.

A. None B. Both C. Neither D. All

26. Who taught _______ English last term? Was _____ Mr. Smith?

A. you; it B. you; he C. your; it D. your; that

27. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What’s in her _____ hand?

A. another B. other C. one D. the other

28. We decided to go for a field trip with some friends of _______.

A. us B. our C. ours D. ourselves

29. ---Is there a bus to the zoo?

---I’m afraid there’s _______ bus to the zoo.

A. no B. any C. some D. none

30. You forgot your dictionary? You may have _______.

A. me B. my C. mine D. myself

31. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______?

A. our; them B. us; they C. our; theirs D. ours; theirs

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