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9.动词-非谓语动词-动词不定式做宾语、宾语补足语、目的状语

发布时间:2013-12-26 12:43:48  

动词不定式

动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形 “,有时可以不带to. 动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句子中 不能作谓语。在句中可以作主语、表语、宾 语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。

构成:to + do(动词原形) 用法: 1. 用作宾语 (v. + to do ) I want to buy a computer. She hopes to find a better job. I wish to go with you. need to do learn to do agree to do plan to do decide to do refuse to do begin to do start to do try to do forget to do remember to do like to do Stop to do go on to do

2. 用作宾语补足语:(v. + sb. + to do )
She asked me to help her. The teacher told him to come on time. Edison’s mother taught him to read and write. want sb to do get sb to do find sb to be would like sb to do wish sb to do order sb to do like sb to do help sb to do

作宾语补足语不带to 的情况: 常见动词有: 一感:feel 二听:listen to,hear 三让: let, make, have 四看: see, look at,watch, notice
比较: I saw her crossing the street. I saw her cross the street.

3. 用作状语(adverbial):

I went there to see my teacher. (目的)

She came back to get her English book. (目的)
The box was too heavy to move. (结果)

4.用作主语 (这时可将其用形式主语it来替换) 1.To be an actress is my dream. It is my dream to be an actress. 2. To go abroad is his dream. It is his dream to go abroad.

3. To say is easy, to do is difficult.
It is easy to say, it is difficult to do.

句型
? It’s +adj+of sb+to do sth. Eg:你能邀请我,你真是太善良了。 It’s very kind of you to invit me. 若形容词是描述人的性格、品质的,如 kind,good,nice,right,wrong,clever, careless,polite,foolish等,用of sb. Eg:你真聪明,解出了这道数学题。 It’s clever of you to work out the maths problem.

? It’s +adj+for sb+to do sth.
? ? ? ? ? 若形容词是描述事物的性质,用for sb.这类 形容词有difficult,easy,hard, important, dangerous,(im)possible等。 Eg:对孩子们来说,穿过繁忙的街道很危险。 It’s very dangerous for children to cross the busy street. ? Eg:对我们来说,完成这项工作很困难。 ? It’s difficult for us to finish the work.

5.用作表语

His work is to feed the animals. Her job is to look after the patients.

My wish is to be a scientist.

6.用作定语(这时不定式与被修饰词有动宾关系。 若是不及物动词,介词不能省略) Give me something to drink.
They have much food to eat. He asked for a room to live in.

I don’t have a pen to write with.

7.疑问词who, what, which, where, when, how 加to do可构成不定式短语,在句中可用作主语、 宾语、宾语补足语、表语等。

When to start has not been decided. (主语)
I don’t know what to do. (宾语) He can tell you where to get the book. (宾语补足语) The question is who(m) to ask. (表语)

比较(Compare)
I don’t know what to do. I don’t know how to do it. I don’t know what to do about it.

说出句子中的不定式,及在句中做什么成分: 1. It takes you ten minutes to get there. 主语

2. I hope to see him soon.

宾语

3. His wish is to become an artist. 表语

4. People eat to live, but not live to eat. 状语
5. I have a lot to tell you. 定语

6. It’s not right to be always thinking of oneself. 主语 7. We often see him play football. 宾语补足语

Exercise
1

To dance is a lot of fun. It is a lot of fun to dance.
跳舞非常有趣。 种些植物是非常有必要的。

2

To grow plants is very important.
3 说英语对我来说并不容易。

To speak English is not easy for me.
4 听到你的声音真高兴。

To hear your voice is so nice. It is so nice to hear your voice.

Exercise
1 我的工作是每天打扫这间屋子。

My work is to clean the room every day.
2 最上策的计划就是马上离开这儿。

The best plan is to leave at once.
3 我的梦想就是成为一名科学家。

My dream is to be a scientist.

1 他想借用我的录音机。

Exercise

He wants to borrow my radio.
2 他们开始读和写。

They began to read and write.
3 李琳喜欢玩什么?她喜欢踢足球。

What sports does Li Lin like to play? She likes to play soccer.
4 你长大了想做什么?

What do you want to be when you grow up?

I have many books to read.
2 她有几个问题要问。

1 我有许多书要看。

She has a few questions to ask.
3 他有一台电视要修。

He has a TV set to repair.
4. 我没什么可担心的。

I have nothing to worry about.

5 他是一个值得信赖的人。

He is a man to believe in.
6 爱迪生是第一个发明电灯的人。

Edison was the first man to invent the lights. His sick mother has three months to live at most.

7 他那生病母亲最多可活三个月。

They looked for him everywhere and found him __ under the tree. a. lies b. lying c. lay d. lain √ 考点:see/hear/find/watch sb. do sth. (看见某人做了某事) See/hear/find/watch sb. doing sth. (看见某人正在做某事) I saw him __ the supermarket just now. a. entered b. entering c. enter d. to enter √ The girl who sold matches was found ___ the next morning. a. die b. dying c. died d. √ dead

-Do you remember ___ me somewhere in Hangzhou? -Yes. I think that’s 2 years ago. a. see b. √ seeing c. to see forget/remember to do sth. d. saw

forget/remember doing sth.

stop/go on to do sth
stop/go on doing sth
The scientist stopped __ to me though he was busy. a. talking b. to talk √

c. to have talk

d. having talk

The more you think about it, the more questions you will think of __. a. ask b. asked c. asking d. to ask √

考点:to do 表示目的
The doctor did what he could __ that child. a. save a. writing I have no pen ____. b. to save c. saved √ d. saving

b. writing with

c. to write with √

d. writing

to do 作定语

, 如是不及物动词构成不定式短语作定 语,其后需接介词


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