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9.动词-语态-一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时

发布时间:2013-12-26 12:43:51  

被动语态

什么叫被动语态?
I 主 close 谓 is the door 宾 d by me

一、被动语态含义
? 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。

? 将宾语变主语 ? 主语变宾语 ? 谓语变 be+V.pp

二、被动语态结构
主+

be+V.pp+(by sb.)

Exercise
? 1.许多树被种。 ? Many trees are planted (by people).

? 2.那首歌被唱了许多遍了。 ? The song is sung many times (by people).

三、被动语态的时态
八种时态下的被动语态

1)一般现在时 am/is/are +V.pp

2)一般过去时 was/were +V.pp Eg:那个杯子昨天被我打破了。 That cup was broken by me.

? ? ? ?

3)现在进行时 am/is /are being +V.pp Eg: 这里一个新电影院正在被建。 A new cinema is being built here

? ? ? ?

4)过去进行时 was/were being + V.pp Eg:昨晚八点一个会议正在被召开。 A meeting was being held at 8 o’clock last night.

5)现在完成时 has /have been + V.pp eg:工作已经被他们完成了。 The work has been finished by them.

? 6)过去完成时 ? had been + V.pp ? eg:截止去年底,一个新体育馆已经在北 京被完成了。 ? By the end of last year, a new gym ? had been completed in Beijing.

7)一般将来时 will be + V.pp Eg:如果工厂关闭,成百上千的工作将会被丢 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

? 8)过去将来时 ? should/would be + V.pp ? Eg:她说消息会被送给Tom。 ? She said that the news would be sent to Tom.

? 9)情态动词的被动语态 ? can/may/must be+V.pp ? Eg:你的作业必须被完成。 ? Your homework must be finished.

四、句子种类
? ? ? ? ? 主+系+表 主+动 主+动+宾 √ 主+动+双宾 √ 主+动+宾+宾补 √

1)主+动+双宾的被动
? I give you a book. ? 主 动 间接宾语 直接宾语 ? You are given a book (by me). ? A book is given to you (by me).

2) “主+动+宾+宾补”结构的被动语态,将宾语 变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动. They turned the room into a shop. 主 动 宾 宾补

The room was turned into a shop.

? 3)在使役动词have, make, get以及 ? 感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel ? 等变为被动结构时,要加to.
I saw a stranger walk into the building

A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

4) 有些动词词组用于被动结构,要把它们看作一个整体, 不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 She looked after the baby carefully. The baby was looked after carefully.

课堂练习 (一)改写句子 1. We plant trees in spring every year. Trees are planted _________________ by us in spring every year. 2. She posted the letter yesterday. The letter was posted ____________________ by her yesterday. 3. Mr Turner gave me a birthday present. I was given _______________a birthday present by Mr Turner. 4. He is drawing a picture. A picture is being drawn _______________________ by him. 5. Yo

u may hand in your homework tomorrow. Your homework may be handed in ______________________________ by you tomorrow. 6. She is going to write a letter. __________________________ by her. A letter is going to be written

7. I have given you the new book. The new book has been given __________________________ to you. 8. Her bag cannot be found by her. _________________ her bag. She cannot find 9. Do you often hear her sing Russian songs? _________________________Russian songs by you? Is she often heard to sing 10. She doesn’t let her son swim in the river. Her son isn’t let to swim _______________________ in the river by her. 11. The bridge was being built by them at this time last year. They were building __________________ the bridge at this time last year. 12. Does she often sing the song? Is the song often sung _____________________ by her?

A 1. If city noises ____ from increasing,people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner. A. are not kept;will have to B. are not kept;have C. do not keep;will have to D. do not keep;have to C 2. The fifth generation computers, ____and perfected now. A. developed B. have developed C. are being developed D. will have been developed A 3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off. --- Yes,it all depends on the weather. A. I've been told B. I've told C. I'm told D. I told

D 4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___. A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed C 5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut 6. The new bridge ___ by the end of last month. B A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed 7. When part of a pencil is in a glass of water, C it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken

B 8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. were taken place; were set up D 9. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost 10. --- Look! Everything here is under construction. A --- What’s the pretty small house that __ for? A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building 11.--- Do you like the cloth? C --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt

B 12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese. A. write B. to write C. to be written D. written 13. I have no more letters ____ ,thank you. C A. to type B. typing C. to be typed D. typed 14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, A for it __ easily. A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out 15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___. D A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out

D 16. The comp

uters on the table ___ Professor Smith. A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to 17. --- What do you think of the book? C ---Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read C 18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch D 19. This page needed ___ again. A. being checked B. checked C. to check D. to be checked B 20. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do it. A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching


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