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一、句子种类两种分类法 ( 一 )、按句子的用途可分四种： 1 、陈述句（肯定、否定）： He is six years old; She didn’t hear of you before. 2 、疑问句（一般、特殊、选择、反意）： Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can’t she? 3 、祈使句： Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class 4 、感叹句：How clever the boy is!
1、陈述句 说明一个事实或陈述一个看法，有肯 定式和否定式，语序是主语在前，谓语在后。
She arrived early.
She can not have arrived now.
注：1）半否定句 I hardly know anything about it. 2）部分否定句与全否定句 I don’t like both the films. I like neither Cathy nor Mary. 3)否定转移
I don’t think it will be very cold today.
(believe, expect, suppose, imagine)
用来询问一件事，答案通常是yes或 no，注意语序。 Have you anything to say? Did someone phone me last night?
否定疑问句 Can’t you understand it? Isn’t it a beautiful lake?
---Haven’t you been to the UK? ---No, I haven’t.
以特殊疑问词开头，对句中某一成分提问的 句子叫特殊疑问句。 常用的疑问词有：
what who whom whose which
when where how why等。
Who was the first man in space?
Whom are you talking about?
注：A、简略式 Why not go alone? Why get so angry? How/What about taking a rest? B、复杂特殊疑问句 What do you think he has done?
questions） ? 一般提出两种或两种以上的可能，问对方选择哪 一种。 ? 其结构可用一般疑问句，也可用特殊疑问句，供 选择的两部分由or连接，前者用升调，后者用降 调，如：
you go there by bus or by train？
would you like，coffee or tea？
Is he a teacher or a doctor or a policeman? Shall I help you or can you manage?
Which do you prefer, red wine or white?
How shall we go there? By bus or by train? (3) or not构成的选择疑问句
Do you want to buy it or not？
4)： 反意疑问句 A、含义： 在一个陈述句之后附上一个简 短的疑问句，对陈述句提出相反 的疑问，这种疑问句叫反意疑问 句。 如： 1. He is clever, isn’t he? 2. We speak Chinese, don’t we?
结构一： 前肯，+ 后否
eg. He is clever, isn’t he? 结构二： 前否，+ 后肯 eg. He isn’t clever, is he?
结构一： 前肯，+ 后否
aren’t you 1. You are an actor, ________ _____ ? 2. He is a good boy, ________ ______ ? isn’t he 3. It was fine yesterday, _______ ___ ? wasn’t it 4. You were studying when I called weren’t you you last night, __________ _____ ? 5. She is going to visit me, _____ ____? isn’t she 6. I am Chinese, ______ ______? aren’t I
doesn’t it 1. It often rains here, ________ ___ ? 2. He likes soccer, _________ ____ ? doesn’t he 3. You have a headache, _______ you? don’t ___ 4. I called you yesterday, _______ __? didn’t I
1. You will go to America, ______ ___ ? won’t you 2. We have ever been to Shanghai, _________ ______ ? haven’t we
1. His mother is a doctor, ______ ____ ? isn’t she 2. The dogs are fighting, _______ _____? aren’t they 3. There is a boy in our classroom, _______ _______ ? isn’t there 4. There were many cars in the street, _________ ________ ? weren’t there 5. There will be robots in our families, ________ ______ ? won’t there
6. Sit down please, _______________ ? will / won’t you 7. Please call me, _________________? will / won’t you 8. Let’s go home, ________________ ? shall / shan’t we
9. Let us go home, ________________ ? will / won’t you
10. Let me see, __________________ ? will / won’t you
结构二： 前否，+ 后肯
1. You aren’t an actor, ______ ____ ? are you 2. He isn’t a good boy, ______ _____ ? is he 3. It wasn’t fine yesterday, ____ ____ ? was it 4. It doesn’t rain here, ______ ____ ? does it 5. His sister doesn’t have a headache, ________ _____ ? does she 6. You didn’t call me yesterday, did you _______ _____?
7. You won’t go to U.S.A., ______ ____? will you
8. There isn’t a boy in our classroom,
______ _______ ? is there 9. There weren’t many cars in the street, _______ _______ ? were there will you 10. Don’t smoke, _______ _____ ? shall we 11. Don’t let’s do it, _______ _____ ？
1）带第二人称的祈使句 Be quiet, please. Don’t make any noise!
You call a taxi.
Don’t you forget it.(强调)
Give me a hand, will/won’t/would/wouldn't’ you?
Let me try again.
Let us go.
Let’s not say anything about it./Don’t let’s say…
Let him be here by 10 o’clock.
Do be careful of my broken leg. Do let me have another try. 2 、祈使句的省略式 A :Shall I open the window? B :Yes, please do./ No, please don’t. A :Shall we watch the game? B :Yes, let’s.
What a good time we had last night!
What interesting films !
What fine weather we have today! How foolish she is!
How clearly you speak!
How clever a boy he is!
A、感叹句的句式 感叹句一般由what或how开头，句 末加
感叹号“！”。 What修饰名词， how修饰形容词、副词、动词。
1.“What + a(an) + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + (主 语 + 谓语)！” 如： What a clever boy (he is)! What a pity! 2.“What + 形容词 + 复数可数名词 + （主语 + 谓 语）！”如： What beautiful flowers (they are)! 3.“What + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + （主语 + 谓 语）！”如： What fresh milk (it is)! What fun!
1.“How + 形容词 + 主语 + 谓语！”如：
How beautiful the girl is! 2.“How + 形容词 + a(an) + 单数可数名词 + （主语 + 谓 语） +……！”如： How good an example he set for us! 3.“How + 副词 + 主语 + 谓语！”如： How fast he runs!
4.“How + 主语 + 谓语！”如：
How time flies!
三换位四去掉”的方法。具体步骤为： ? 第一步：“一分”， ? 即在谓语动词后面划一双竖线，使句子分为两部 分。如： ? He is ‖a very honest boy. ? 他是一个诚实的孩子。 ? Li Lei works‖ very hard. ? 李雷学习很刻苦。
第二步：“二加” 即如果第二部分的中心词是名词， 就加上what； 如果是形容词或副词，就加上how. 如： He is ‖(what) a very honest boy. Li Lei works‖(how) very hard.
第三步：“三换位” 即把第一部分与第二部分互换位置， 句号换位感叹号。如： What a very honest boy he is! How very hard Li Lei works!
第四步：“四去掉” 即原陈述句中含有very, too等程度 副词时，在变成感叹句时要去掉。 以上两个句子就应该变为以下形式： What an honest boy he is! How hard Li Lei works!
强烈的感情。如： ? He is a kind-hearted man! ? Have you ever read such an interesting book before!
? Wonderful!妙极了！ ? Good
idea!好主意！ ? Well done!干得好！ ? Great!棒极了！
an interesting story it is! interesting the story is!
? What ? =How ? what
a beautiful building it is!
beautiful the building is!
Exercise: 一。用How , What (a / an) 填空 1. ____ a heavy box ! 2. ____ heavy the box is ! 3. ____ hard work ! 4.____ hard the work is ! 5. ____ wonderful the film is ! 6. ____ a wonderful film !
What 1. ________ delicious food it is ! What an 2. ________interesting film! What 3. _________bad weather ! What a 4. _________good day ! How 5. ________tall the boy is ! 6. _________good news it is ! What 7. _________beautiful clothes they are ! What 8. _________ nice teacher he is ! What a How 9. _________nice Tom is ! W
hat 10._________ hard work ! What a 11. _________ hard job !
Exercise: 二、句型转换 1 .What a heavy rain ! ___ ___ the rain is ! 2. How interesting the boy is !
___ ___ interesting boy !
( 二 )、按句子的结构可
简单句 (simple sentence)
并列句 (compound sentence)
复合句 (complex sentence)
1.简单句 (simple sentence)
Mary opened the door.
Steve and his friend are coming to dinner.
Mary opened the door and greeted the guests.
(1) 主语+连系动词+表语(S+V+P ) The weather is very cold.
(2) 主语+不及物动词(S+Vi ) +adv He laughed.
(3) 主语+及物动词+宾语(S+Vt+O ) I like Chinese food.
(4) 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 (S+Vt+IO+DO)
She taught them physics.
(5) 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 (S+Vt+O+C)
We must keep the room warm.
1.Summer is coming. S+Vi 2.They won’t let me go. S+V+P S+V+C S+Vi 3.He showed me a new S+Vt+O S+V+IO+DO TV set. S+Vt+IO+DO 4.She knows what to do. S+Vt+O+C S+V+O 5.The weather is very cold. S+V+P
I turned on the TV. I watched it.
? I turned on the TV and
I bought my sister a present.
She didn’t like it.
?I bought my sister a present,but she didn’t like it.
常用并列连词 coordinating conjunctions
and, both…and, not only… ? 平行并列连词: but also, neither…nor ? 转折并列连词： but, however, while, yet, when
? 因果并列连词: ? 选择并列连词:
for, so, therefore
or, otherwise ,either…or
1、The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John. ? 2、Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train. ? 3、He was a little man with thick glasses, ? but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. ? 4、August is the time of the year for rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.
1.August is the time of the year for harvesting , so ________every day I work from dawn until dark.
and 2.He is a basketball fan,____ his wife is a volleyball fan.
3.Honey is sweet,_____ the bee stings. but
for 4.Don’t be late, ______there is a meeting.
5.Hurry up, or ____you’ll be late. 6.He works hard ______his brother is a lazy bone. 7.He was enjoying his KFC _____ a friend came.
请用合适的并列连词把每组句子 合并为一个并列句。 1.He was tired. He went to bed.
He was tired, so he went to bed.
2.The child hid behind his mother's skirt. He was afraid of the dog.
The child hid behind his mother's skirt,for he was afraid of the dog.
He made a promise.He didn’t keep it. He made a promise,but he didn’t keep it. Mary is opening the door. John is greeting h
Mary is opening the door,and John is greeting her guests.
3.复合句:主句+从句 主句是一个完整的句子(independent sentence),它可以独立存在。
By the time he arrived, 1 主句 we had already left. 2
在复合句中，主要包含以下类型从句： 1.主语从句 2.宾语从句
指出下列各从句的类型： ?I hope that everything is all right. ?She was reading the newspaper when I came in. ?She is the girl who sings best of all.
He has found out .She was late.(why)
He has found out why she was late.
I still remember the day .I first came to Beijing on that day.(when) I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.
?I’ll give the letter to him .I see him. (时间状语从句) ?He didn’t come yesterday .He was ill. (原因状语从句) ?It is such a big box .Nobody can move it. (结果状语从句) ?We’ll go to the great wall .It’s fine tomorrow. (条件状语从句) ?We should not go there all the time. The place is quite pleasant.(让步状语从句)
?I’ll give the letter to him when I see him. ?He didn’t come yesterday because he was ill. ?It is such a big box that nobody can move it. ?We’ll go to the great wall if it’s fine tomorrow. ?Although the place is quite pleasant, we should not go there all the time.
1、时间（after, before, as, when, while, since, till, until, whenever ,as long as, as soon as; the moment, every time, next time; no sooner…than, hardly…when ）； 2、地点（where, wherever） ； 3、方式（as, as if, as though） ； 4、程度/比较（as…as , more …than, ） ；
5、原因（because, since, as, now that ,that） ；
6、结果（,so that ,so…that ,such…that） ； 7、目的（so that ,in order that ,in case） ；
8、条件（if, unless） ；
9、让步（though ,although, even if, even though , so ,whenever ,wherever, whoever ,whichever,however ,no matter how, whether） 。
English is widely used in the world, but China has the largest number of people who speak Chinese.
请用所学知识改正下列病句 ? My roommate was sleeping, we didn’t want to wake her up. ? I went to bed.Because I was tired.
?My roommate was sleeping . We didn’t want to wake her up. ?My roommate was sleeping, so we didn
’t want to wake her up. ?I went to bed because I was tired.
合句： ? 1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 简单句 ? 2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 复合句 简单句 ? 3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? ? 4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 简单句
He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. ? 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet 复合句 a child. ? 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 并列句 ? 8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? 复合句 ? 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 简单句 ? 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.
1. Give me one more minute ____ I’ll be able to finish it. ? A. and B. or C. if D. so ? 2. It’s the third time that John has been late, ____? ? A. hasn’t he B. isn’t he ? C. isn’t it D. hasn’t it ? 3. ____ joyful he was to meet his brother again! ? A. How B. What C. What a D. What an
4. Let us pass, ____? ? A. shan’t we B. shall we C. won’t we D. will you ? 5. I suppose he’s serious, ____ ? ? A. do I B. don’t I C. is he D. isn’t he ? 6. You had better not smoke here, ____? ? A. will you B. had you
C. shall you D. have you ? 7. Train as hard as you can ____ you’ll win the swimming competition. ? A. then B. but C. and D. or
8. I’m sorry to have to say this, ____ you forgot to turn off the lights when you left the room last night. ? A. and B. but C. so D. because ? 9. John has not yet passed the driving test, and ____. ? A. Henry hasn’t too B. Henry also has not either ? C. neither Henry has D. neither has Henry ? 10. There are many sports lovers in his office. Some love climbing, ____ others enjoy swimming. ? A. or B. for
C. while D. so ? 11. ---- Do you feel like going out ____ would you rather have dinner at home? ? ---- I’d like to go out. ? A. or B. and C. but D. so
12. ---- “____ is the temperature today?” ? ----“It’s 38 degrees.” ? A. Which B. How C. How hot D. How high ? 13. ---- Your uncle isn’t an engineer, is he? ---- ____. ? A. Yes, he isn’t B. No, he isn’t C. No, he is D. He is ? 14. ____ friendly ____ to everyone! ? A. How, is she B. What, is she C. How, she is D. What, she is ? 15. Mary went to bed early, ____ she felt very tired. ? A. or B. so C. for D. yet
16. Mother ____ a dress when she cut her finger. ? A. was making B. makes C. is making D. made ? 17. He lay in bed ____ read something borrowed from library. ? A. but B. and C. or D. yet ? 18. ---- I’d really like some lunch but I have so much work to do. ? ---- ____ what you want and I can get it for you. ? A. Tell me B.
If you would say to me ? C. You will tell me D. If you tell me ? 19. As he is strong, ____ can lift one hundred pounds. ? A. yet he B. but he C. and D. he
20. ---- I thought you had an umbrella. ? ---- I had, ____ I’ve lost it. ? A. since B. but C. because D. so ? 21. ____ down the radio ---- the baby’s asleep in the next room. ? A. Turning B. To turn C. Turned D. Turn ? 22. ---- I don’t like chicken ____ fish. ? ---- I don’t like chicken ____ I like fish very much. ? A. and, and B. and, but ? C. or, and D. or, but ? 23. ---- Would you like to come to dinner tonight? ---- I’d like to, ____ I’m too busy. ? A. and B. so C. as D. but
24. Would you like a cup of coffee ____ shall we get down to business right away? ? A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise ? 25. She set out soon after dark ____ home an hour later. ? A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and arrived ? 26. “Can’t you read?” Mary said ____ to the notice. ? A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointed ? 27. She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter. ? A. whom B. where C. which D. while
____ it with me and I’ll see what I can do. ? A. When left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave ? 29. ---- Alice, you feed the bird today, ____? ---- But I fed it yesterday. ? A. do you B. will you C. didn’t you D. don’t you ? 30. ____ him and then try to copy what he does. ? A. Mind B. Glance at C. Stare at D. Watch
1. He dares to tell the truth.（改为否定 句） He doesn’t dare to tell the truth.
或He dare not tell the truth.
They have lived here for more than ten years.（对画线部分提问） How long have they lived here? ? 3. There will be a sports meet at the won’t there end of this month, ____________? （完成反意疑问）
You must be careful with your pronunciation.（改为祈使句） Be careful with your pronunciation. ? 5. They went for a walk after supper yesterday evening.(改为一般疑问句)
Did they go for a walk after supper yesterday evening?
It is an interesting story.（改为感叹句） What an interesting story (it is)! 或 How interesting the story is!
This magazine comes out（出版） every other week.（对画线部分提问）
How often does this magazine come out?
They could hardly believe his words, could they ____________?（完成反意疑问）
The moon is shining brightly. （改为感叹句）
9. How brightly the moon is shining!
English teacher is always encouraging us to speak English in class. （对画线部分提问） 10. Who is always encouraging us to speak English in class?
二、判断下列短文中各句是简单句、并列句还是复合句： ? I hope you are very well（ 复合句 ）. I'm fine, but tired（ 简单句 Righ
t now it is the summer vacation and I'm ）. helping my Dad on the farm（ 并列句 ）. August is the hottest month here（ ）. It is the time of 简单句 year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.（ 并列句 ） Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors（简单句 ）. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat（ 并列复合句 We ）. have a lot of machines on the farm（ 简单句 ）. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him（ 复合句 ）. But he employs more men for the harvest（ 简单句 My brother takes care of ）. the vegetable garden（ 简单句 ）. It doesn't often rain in the summer here（ 简单句 As a result, we ）. 简单句 ）. Every have to water the vegetable garden（ evening we pump water from a well（ 简单句 ）. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden（ ）. 简单句
Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at 简单句 ）. These parties often make us harvest time（ very happy（ 简单句 ）. We cook meat on an open fire outside（ 简单句 ）. It's great（ 简单句 ）! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion （简单句 ）. Some of my friends drink beer（ 简单句 ）. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party（ 复合句 ）. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States（ 简单句）. There are five different time areas in the States（简单句 ）. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time （简单句 ）. How many different time areas do you have in China（ 简单句 ）? Well, I must stop and get some sleep（ 简单句 ）. Please give my best regards to your parents（ 简单句）.
4）反意疑问句 1.Tom hardly knows French, ______ does he ?
2.—Mary didn't fail her exam, did she?
---______, she didn‘t. No
3.You needn’t come, ______ you? need
You need to come, ______ you? don’t
4.He had a big time there, ______ he? didn’t didn’t/hadn’t He had a car, ______ he?
do We hardly have to get up early, ______ we? 5.He used to live in Leeds, ______usedn’t he? didn’t/
shall 6.Let’s go to the match at once, ______ will/won’t you? we? Leave me alone, ______
7.They must have learned to drive, haven’t ______ they?
was he/were they 8.No one was hurt, ______ ______ ? is there 9.There is no doubt about it, ______ ?
10.I don’t think Anna has to go to school does on Sundays, ______ she?
11 . Something must be done to solve mustn’t it the problem , ______________ ?
12 . It is impossible for him to lift such a isn’t it big stone , ______________ ? 13 . I wish to have a talk with you , may I _______? 14 . What a beautiful mountain , isn’t it _________? 15 . Anny said that she would come to didn’t she see me ,___________?