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9.动词

发布时间:2013-12-26 12:43:57  

第三章

动词

动词的分类

1.系动词 2.实义动词(及物和不及物) 3.助动词 4.情态动词

一、系动词
系动词:连系表语的词。 系动词有词义,不能独立做谓 语。 He is wrong.(系词+表语做谓语)

be(am,is,are,was,were)

系 动 词

感官动词 (look,smell,taste,sound,feel,seem)

表示发展变化的词 (turn,get,keep,become)

他是强壮的。 He is strong. 你必须保持健康。 You must keep healthy. 树叶变绿了。 The leaves turn green. 莉莉似乎很生气。 Lily seems very angry.

Exercise
? 1.Autumn is coming,the leaves ______yellow. turn looks ? 2.The girl _______beautiful. ? 3.The food_______delicious. tastes gets ? 4.Autumn is coming,it______colder and colder. ? 5.That song ________ well. sounds

二、实义动词
能独立做谓语的词,按句法作用分 为及物和不及物动词。

?I

hit
及物 vt.

her.
his finger. rises.
不及物 vi.

? He cut ? The
及物 vt.

sun

A-A-A
? hurt-hurt-hurt(受伤、伤害)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

say-said-said stand-stood-stood spend-spent-spent think-thought-thought buy-bought-bought bring-brought-brought catch-caught-caught teach-taught-taught

A-B-B

? hold-held-held ? lend-lent-lent ? send-sent-sent ? leave-left-left ? meet-met-met ? sweep-swept-swept ? sleep-slept-slept ? keep-kept-kept

Orise-rose-risen

A-B-C

write-wrote-written ? speak-spoke-spoken ? steal-stole-stolen Oride-rode-ridden Odrive-drove-driven √sing-sang-sung

Otake-took-taken Ogive-gave-given ? fly-flew-flown Oknow-knew-known Othrow-threw-thrown ? eat-ate-eaten ? forget-forgot-forgotten

三、助动词

I like it. 其中like是实意动词,如何变否定疑问. 用do来帮助它,我们把do、does、 did等称为助动词。 I don’t like it. Do you like it?

助动词,无词义,不能独立做谓语,

帮助构成时(态),语(态),否(定句)和 疑(问句)。
常见助动词有五个,be,do,have,shall,will. be构成被动与进行,do构成疑问和否定

have构成现在完成时,shall,will表示将来时

be(am/is/are/was/were)
1.I am watering the flowers. 帮助构成(现在/过去)进行时。 2.Tom was hit by his father yesterday. 帮助构成被动语态。 小测试: She is Lily.(is 是助动词吗?) 答案:NO.

have/has/had
? I have a book.其中have是助动词吗? ? 答案:NO.

? have/had+V.过去分词 ? 现在完成时/过去完成时 其中have是助动词吗? 答案:YES.

will/shall
? 用于一般将来时态。 ? will用于所有人称,shall只用于第一人 称。 ? She will finish her homework in ten minutes. ? Shall I take an umbrella?

四、情态动词
? She can speak French and I can’t. ? 什么叫情态动词? ? 表示说话人对所述动作的看法,如 需要、可能、意愿或怀疑等情感或 状态。

情态动词的特征
He can speak English well,but

I can’t. We must stay here.

情态动词有词义,不能单独做 谓语,无人称和数的变化,后面 必须接动词原形。

can/could/be able to
eg: I couldn’t speak English. I can speak English now.

1.三个都表“能力”could 是can的过去式。

将来能力使用shall/will/be able to. eg: I will be able to speak French.

2. can/could 表“请求、允许” could 比can 更委婉。 eg:Could I borrow your book?
3. can/could 表“怀疑、推测” 可能性 can‘t be eg:It can’t be Lily’s bag.

may/might
1.表“请求、许可” might 比may更委 婉、客气。 eg:May I come in? Might I come in? 2. “可能”,表推测。 可能性 may be >might be eg:He may come tomorrow. He might come tomorrow.

必须

must/have to

不得不

1.must表个人意志和主观上的必要,意 为“必须”“应该”用于一般现在时; I must go now. 2.have to表客观上的必要。意为“必 须”“不得不” 除可用于现在时外,还可以表将来时 shall/will have to和过去式had to。

1.这台电视机不能用了,我们必须买 台新的。 This TV doesn’t work.We have to buy a new one. 2.那时我们必须买台新的。 We had to buy a new one. 3.我们将不得不买台新的。 We will have to buy a new one.

must ? I _____study hard,because I want to go to Beijing University. have to ? I _______go shopping,because the fridge is empty now.

should/would/ought to
应该 愿意 理所应当
ought to 1.You are his mother,you_________look after him. should 2.You are a student,you_______study hard. would 3.She would be glad if you ______ help her.

情态动词表推测
must be may be might be can’t be

?

>

>

>

dare , need
? 既可作情态动词,又可作行为动词。 ? 做情态动词,无人称、数变化,主要 用于否定句和疑问句

情态动词类型
1.只作情态动词的有: must,can(could),may(might) 2.可作情态动词也可作实义动词的有 need,dare 3.可作情态动词也可作助动词的有 will(would).shall(should) 4.具有情态动词的某些特征的有have to,ought to


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