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初中英语语法大全

发布时间:2013-09-21 21:26:28  

名词:

1、名词的种类

1) 专有名词

2)普通名词:

a 可数: 个体名词:nurse, house, horse, apple, pen;

集体名词:people, family, class, trousers

B 不可数:物质名词: water, paper, air, milk;

抽象名词: work, housework, homework, information, news, weather

2、名词的可数与不可数

1、物质名词与抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,为不可数名词。 不可数名词前不能加冠词a 或an来表示量, 也没有复数形式。要表示“一个(只,块,张。。。)”的概念,须加 a piece of ? , a bowl of ?, a drop of ?等。表示“一些,许多” 可用:some, any, a little, little, a lot of ,lots of , much, 等

2、集体名词象people, police,trousers, scissors只有复数形式。Family, class等指个体成员时为——,指整体时为———

3、有的名词在表示某一词义时是可数名词,而表示另一词义时又是不可数名词。 Glass, chicken, paper, exercise, orange

3、名词的数

1、单数:___egg, ___green desk, ____orange, _____yellow orange, ___interesting film, ___ eight-year-old boy

2、复数:词尾加 s 或 es

复数的构成:

规则:bus, box; tomato, potato; radio, photo,piano; match, watch; wish, brush; baby,factory,party; monkey , day; life,thief, knife;

不规则:man, woman, child, foot, tooth, mouse, Chinese, Japanese,fish, sheep, deer

复合名词:Boy friend_____, apple tree______ Man doctor______, woman engineer_______

代词

1、 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

主格 I we you She he it they

宾格 Me us you Her him it them

形容词性物主代词 My our your Her his its their

名词性物主代词 Mine ours yours Hers his its theirs

Give an example of each prons

2、人称代词使用时应注意

1)、分清its和it’s : its 它的。 例如: The clock has its face.; it’s=it is 例如:It’s a toy clock.

2). 名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词,名词是单数,名词性物主代词为单数,

反之为复数。

例如: His brother is a soldier. Mine is a driver and hers is an engineer.

I left my clothes on the chair. Where _____his?

a friend of his/mine/yours= one of his?friends

3). A friend of his /mine=one of his /my friends; the watch of hers

4.) 冠词不能和形容词性物主代词一起用例如:a my cat(wrong)

5.) This/that +single noun; these/those + plural noun.

6.) In the dialogue, it can be used to refer to (this/that), they refer to (these /those)

7.) That 可用来代替前面提到过的单数名词或不可数名词,those代替复数名词 例如:The weather today is finer than that yesterday.

The radios made in Beijing are as good as those made in Shanghai.

8).反身代词:A、能写出 B、注意搭配 例如:

Say to oneself enjoy oneself

By oneself For oneself

Help oneself Teach oneself

3、It 的用法

1)、用以指前文提到的物,有时也可指不知性别的婴儿或不确指性别的人 例如:Where is your book? It is over there.

The baby is crying. It may be hungry

Who is knocking at the door? It must be Li Lei.

2)、It 也可用来表示天气、时间、距离等

It is rainy today. It will turn out fine tomorrow

What is the time? It is nine.

It is ten minutes’ walk from here

3)、作形式主语或形式宾语,没有意义

It takes me ten minutes to walk from there.

I found it very hard to learn grammar.

It /that /one 用以指前文提到过的单数名词

them/those/ones用以指前文提到过的复数名词

1.The bag is in the middle of the road. Let’s move ____away.

2. If you need an eraser, I can lend you _____.

3. If you need the eraser, I can lend _____to you.

4. I have a new coat and some old _____.

5. The story of my father is more interesting than ____of mine.

6. The weather here is warmer than ____in Beijing.

7. The temperature in the daytime is half of _____at night.

7.The exercises in this paper are much easier than ____ in the mid-term paper.

8. My radio is broken. I will buy a new ____.

结论:1、that, those 后常跟介词短语(that/those +介词短语)前文是不可数名词时

只能用that 替代

2、one/ones 前常有形容词、冠词、数量词、等修饰。

3、it 指前文提到的那个名词

? some/any/no

My brother doesn’t need _____help.

If you have got ____questions, please put up your hands.

Would you like to have_____bananas? Yes, I’d like to.

There isn’t ___water here.could you get ____for me?

I asked her for ____paper, but she didn’t have _____

You can come at _____time.

? some, any与 thing, body, one 构成的合成词的用法与some,any 一样

? a little /little; a few/few

Though it was late last night. I could still see ___persons in the street. People are all getting together at a big dinner with their families at the new year’s eve, so you could see ____persons walking in the street. Can you speak German? Yes, but only _____.

The lake is far away. ____people like to go fishing there.

There is ___rain this summer. The trees are going to die.

Sorry, I can’t answer your question. I know ___about the news.

Don’t hurry. We still have ____time left.

The old man has ___friends. So he feels very lonely.

He wanted to borrow some money from me, but I had _____.

? other/ another

必背: Each other, (两者) 互相

one another,(三者或以上)相互

one after another, 一个接一个

from one to another, 从一个到另一个

the other day 不久前的某一天(用于过去时)

Another 另一个,泛指众多中的一个,another+单数名词

“再,又”:Another+数词+名词复数;相当于:数词+more+名词复数

1、some/any/many+other+

2. The other: 两个中另一个

3.The others:(= the other+plural noun)

4.others: some?.others?

1.Jimmy is taller than ____ ____ boy in his class.

2. This cap is too small. Could you show me ____?

3. Jimmy and Carter are back in the classroom now. where are _____?

4. On Sundays some students are watching TV, ____are going to the clubs.

5.there are only two books left.but I don’t like this one. Will you show me ______?

4、不定代词

Both, all

Neither, none,no one

Each, every, either,any

1)、Both (两者)都

all ( 三者或以上)都

1、 All the (my) students are very bright.

All of the (my) students are very bright.(all of them)

The (my)students are all very bright.

All are here. (all = all people)

All has gone well.(all = everything)

2、 Both of my parents work in the children’s hospital. (both of them) Both my parents work in the children’s hospital.

My parents both work in the children’s hospital.

3. Phrases: all day, all year, not at all, both?and?

重点提示:

1、both 表两者都,all 表三者都

2、Both+可数名词复数;all+可数名词复数或不可数名词

3、both, all +of + 人称代词宾格;of 不能省

4、all both 作副词时,位置在主动词后,行为动词前

2)、 neither (两者) 都不 none (三者或以上)都不,no one没人

Neither、none:The (one’s)+可数名词复数 谓语动词用单数或复数

或不可数名词单数谓语动词用单数

注意这些词作主语时谓语动词单数和复数

1. Mr. Blare has two daughters. _____is a doctor.

2. Lily and Lucy both like singing, but ____ of them is good at dancing.

3. ---Can you speak Chinese or Japanese?

---I can speak ___, but I can speak English.

4. The old man has six children, but ____ of them would take care of him.

5. His father bought him many English story books but he read ______.

6. Who is in the room? ______.

7. How much money is there in the box? ____. It is empty.

3)、each, every, either, any

1、Each: (两者或以上)每一;可作代词、形容词、副词

Each of us has a English-Chinese dictionary.(代词)

We each have an English-Chinese dictionary.(副词)

Each student has an English-Chinese dictionary.(形容词)

2、every: (三者或以上)每一的,仅作定语

Every student has bought an English-Chinese dictionary.

3、 Either: (两者之间) 任何一个 作代词、形容词、副词

There are many trees and flowers on ____side of the river. (形容词) ---When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow morning?

---I don’t mind. ____is OK.(代词)

He can’t swim very well, I can’t ____. (副词)

4、any: (三者或以上)任何一个,作代词,形容词

复习: Both, all

Neither, none, no one

Each, every, either,any

1.—When shall we meet again next week?

---___day is OK. It’s no problem with me.

2.____of the students in our class want to go to plant trees.

3. ---How are your grandparents?

---They’re ____fine. Thank you.

4. There are many trees on ___side of the street.

5.Both the two boys are new to me. I don’t know ____of them.

6. ---Do you want an apple or a pear? ----_____, I really don’t mind.

7. –Which of these two sweaters will you take?

---I’ll take ____. They look nearly the same, and I just need one.

8.—Which do you like better, a cup of milk or a bottle of orange? -----____, thanks. I’d just like a cup of tea.

改错:

1.Let each them finish his work.

2. They each has got a flower.

3.You can use any of the two bikes.

4.My parents are all working in the field now.

5. Those football fans draw pictures on every side of his face.

6. No one of his pens are broken.

7. Neither Lily and my sister is the first to get there.

形容词

形容词的位置?

1、名词前。例:一本有用的书、我们美丽的学校、

佳影片、愤怒的人们

2、名词后。一个装满水的 瓶子、很远的小镇、

一棵两百米高的树、

3、不定代词后。有些奇怪的东西、没什么严重的

名词化的形容词

The + (adj): 表一类人或物。作主语时,谓语动词为复数:The rich, the poor, the old, the young, 等

表语性形容词

只作表语、不能作定语置于名词前但可作后置定语。没有比较级的变化。不用very修饰。 这样的形容词多以a开头:alone,afraid,asleep,awake,able,ill,well等

The baby is asleep. A sleeping baby. Don’t wake up the baby asleep The old man is alone. A single man. A lonely man.

这些表语性形容词可作状语

The man lives alone in a small house

形容词比较级

规则变化: 单音节词和双音节词,在词尾加-er构成比较级, -est构成最高级

A. tall, high

B. nice, fine,

C. big, thin, fat, hot,

D. easy, busy,

E. clever, narrow,few

不规则变化

Good— ______ ______ bad-- ______ _______

Well--- ______ _______ badly-- ______ _______

ill------ ______ _______

Many—______ ______

Much—______ ______ old

Little—______ ______

Far—______ ______

形容词比较等级的用法

1、比较级+than?

2、the +比较级+ of +the +two? 两个当中比较?的一位

3、the +最高级+ of (in) +三者或以上。。。

4、as+形容词原级+as?

5、not so (as)+原级+as?

6、the 比较级,the 比较级:越。。。就越。。。

7、比较级+ and + 比较级:越来越。。。

8、one of the 最高级+名词复数

比较级与最高级之间的转换

1、比较级+than +any other+名词单数

2、比较级+than+the +other(any of the other)+ 名词复数

3、No one + 谓语+比较级+than

4、比较级+than +anyone else?

汤姆比他的班上同学都高

汤姆比其他班上同学都高

Can we do our work with ____money and_____people?

A.less?few B. less?fewer C. little?less D. few?less

2. Roy is cleverer than ____students in his class.

A. every one of the B. all the C. any of the other D. many more

3. It is much colder here than ____. A. Australia B. Australia’s

C. in Australia D. of Australia

4. China is larger than _____in Africa. A. any other country

B. any country C. all the other countries D. any the country

5. He made the ___mistakes in the exam in his class. A. fewer

B. less C. fewest D. least.

6. A lot of visitors come to Hangzhou because she’s _____city.

A. very a beautiful B. quite a beautiful C. so a beautiful D. a quite

beautiful

7. Jeff ___music and knows a lot about it. A. is interested on

B. is interested in C. is interesting about D. is interesting with

8. The smile on his face shows that he is ___with his result.

A. pleased B. sorry C. angry D. strict

9. I think the shop ____from 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. A. is opening

B. opens C. is open D. opened

10. There’s ____with my bike, but I hurt my leg. A. wrong something

B. nothing wrong C. anything wrong D. wrong everthing

11. The boy always plays ___. He looks very ____. A. alone, alone

B. alone, lonely C. lonely, lonely D. lonely, alone

12. Would you like two more pieces of sausage ?

No, thanks. I’m ___. A. hungry B. full C. enough D. thirty

Yesterday on my way home, it rained ___and I could ___see the road. A. hardly, hardly B. hard, hard C. hardly, hard D. hard, hardly

Don’t worry. Everything will go on ___with you. A. good B. nice C. fine

D. well

We can’t put this bag in the car. It’s ___crowded. A. very B. so C. too

D. rather

The shirt is very beautiful, but it is ___expensive. A. too much B. much too C. many D. more

The patient ate ____rice ___he did yesterday. A. fewer than B. as little as C. as less as D. many more than

The words on the screen are too small. I can’t see them ___. A. clearly

B. clear C. carefully D. good

She walked so ____that she missed the last bus. A. fast B.quickly C. slower

D. slowly

Which would you like ___, tea, orange or water? A. good B. better C. well

D. best

--How are you now? I am feeling __now after I have taken the medicine. A. well B. best C. better D. good

He wasn’t ___with the knife. He cut himself. A. careful enough B. enough careful C. carefully enough D. enough carefully

He ran and ran but he couldn’t run __to catch the bus. A. enough fast B. fast enough C. quick enough D. enough quickly

Which is ____building in Hang Zhou?

A. high B.tall C. the highest D.the taller

4. Shanghai is the largest ___all the cities in China.

A. in B. on C. of D. at

5. She is ___than any other girl in her class.

A. thiner B. thinner C. thin D. the thinnest

6. Of the two pencil-boxes, the boy chose ___one.A. less expensive B. the least expensive C. the less expensive D. the most expensive

7. Which problem is ___difficult, this one or the other two?

A. more B. the more C. most D. the most

8. I think that is ___song at the most. A. more popular B. the most popular

C. popular D. most popular

1.—Why were you shouting? –Alice asked me to speak more ___. The line was bad. A. noisily B. quietly C. politely D. loudly

2. Bruce didn’t come to the classroom as ___as Dick yesterday. A. early

B. earlier C. earliest D. the earliest

3. I think football is ____basketball in America. A. more popular B. so popular as C. as popular D. less popular

4. You must write as ___ as you can. A. more careful B. carefully C. careful

D. care

5. Would you please say it ___? I still can’t follow you. A. more slow B. much slow C. more slowly D. much slowly

6. This bottle is ___. There is no water in it.

A. empty B. full C. big D.small

7. The car is running ___. It seems to be flying. A. more and faster B. more and more faster C. fast and fast D. faster and faster

Longjin tea and Wuyi tea are both famous, but which do you think tastes ____?A. well B. good C. better D. best

The story sounds ____. A. to be true B. as true C. true D. being true The noodles taste ___ You’d better not eat them. A. good B. well C.bad D. nicely

--Doctor , I think I am ____to leave the hospital.

---Not really. You’d better stay here for another two days.

A. so well B. so good C. well enough D. good enough

5.Jimmy is the oldest boy and is taller than ____boys in his class. A. any other B. the other C. any D. all

6.---Shall I sit at this end of the boat or the other end?

----if you don’t move, you can sit at ___end. A. neither B. each C. either

D. any

Nancy is as tall as Salvia if ____. A. short B. not taller C. not as tall

D. shorter

The horse is getting old and can’t run ____it did. A. as faster as B. so fast than C. so faster as D. as fast as

John plays football ____if not better than, David. A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as

It takes a long time to go there by train. It is ___by road. A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker

The piano in the other shop will be ____, but ____.

A. cheaper; not as better B. more cheaper; not as better

C. cheaper; not as good D. more cheap; not as good

6. If you don’t like the red coat, take the blue one. ---OK, but do you have a ____one in blue, this is too small.

A. big B. bigger C. biggest D. nice

常见副词的用法区别

1、either, also, too, neither 11. enough

2、before , ago

3、hard, hardly

4、too, very, much

5、no more, no longer

6、how often, how soon

7. As+副词+as?/not so(as)?as

8. Already/yet/ever

9. Sometime, some time, sometimes

Either/also/too: 也

1、Mary likes collecting stamps. I like collecting stamps, too

2、She also went climbing last week.

3、Johnson didn’t come in the morning and she didn’t come in the afternoon, either.

Too用于肯定句,放句尾,用逗号隔开。

also 放在助动词后,行为动词前。

Either用于否定句,放句尾,用逗号隔开。

Before/ago

I have heard about the UFO before.

I had heard about the UFO ten years before.

I heard about the UFO ten years ago.

一段时间+ ago:用于过去时

一段时间+before: 用于过去完成时

Before: 用 于现在完成时或过去时

Hard/hardly

She was very tired after a day’s hard work.

Diamond is a kind of hard stone.

It was raining hard outside.

She worked hard than any other girl in her class.

He can hardly read or write his name.

There is hardly any food left in the fridge.

Very,too,much

1.The box is very heavy.

2. The box is too heavy.

3. I like my school very much.

4. This box is much heavier than that one.

Very 只用于修饰形容词或副词

very much用于修饰动词

Too 修饰形容词时,带否定意思

No more 不再?、no longer 不再

The man no longer lives here. He has gone abroad.

He has no longer(no more ) played for the National Team.

She said no more about it after she heard that.

I have no more time for holidays

No longer 时间上“不再” 只作状语

No more 数量上“不再” 可作状语、宾语、定语

How long , how soon, how often

How long: 多久,对一段时间提问

How soon: 对 “in + 一段时间” 提问

How often: 对频率副词提问:twice a week, every other day等

How long will the film last? ----About two hours.

How soon will they finish the composition? ----In an hour.

How often do they go shopping? ----once a month.

1、 ____is it from your home to the school? ---ten minutes’ walk.

A. How often B. How soon C. How long D. How far

2.The car may be ____but _____. A. more quickly, not as safer B. quicker, not so safer C. more quickly, not so safe D. quicker, not as safe.

3. I can ___understand in class when she speaks English too fast.

A. hard B. almost C. hardly D. ever

4. Lily doesn’t like nylon dresses. Erin doesn’t , _____. A. too B. also

C. either D. neither

5. Mom won’t cook supper. ____will Dad. A. So B. Either C. Also D. Neither

6. He asked me to speak ____to the new classmates. A. fast B. more quickly

C. more politely D. Friendly

7. The boy has few friends so he often plays ____. A. lonely B. alone C. all of himself D. happy

8. Mr. Wu ___. A. doesn’t any more work here

B. doesn’t any longer here work

C. doesn’t work any more here

D. doesn’t work here any longer

动词

1、连系动词

2、助动词‘

3、情态动词

4、实意动词

系动词:Be, look, smell, taste, sound, feel, become, get,turn keep, seem 实义动词:及物动词:;不及物动词:

助动词:do, does, did,is am, are, was, were, have, has, had, 情态动词 情态动词

常用动词及动词短语

1、look, see, watch, read

Look: vi. 看(动作)look at/like/after/up/down/over/out of /into. See: vt. 看见 (结果)see a film

Watch: vt. 观看 (动作) watch TV, watch a match

Read: vt.看(书,报等文字的东西)

1). _____out! A car is flying toward you.

2). The boy likes to sit by and ______ the others play ball games.

3). Can you ____ a bird in the tree? ____, it’s behind the leaves.

4). He often ____magazines in the library after lunch.

5). He _____into the hole but he couldn’t _____anything.

2. Spend, take, cost

Sb. Spend(s) time or money (in) doing sth./ on sth.

It takes sb. Time to do sth./ to do sth. Takes sb. time

Sth. Cost(s) sb. Time or money It costs sb. Time or money to do sth.

1). She ____ two dollars on the book. The book ____her only two dollars. And it ____her five minutes to read it through.

2). It’ll ___us half an hour _____there. So it’s half an hour’s walk.

3). It ____me nothing to make the trip. It was free.

4). I spent two hours ____sorting out the documents.

5). Planting the trees ____them two days.

3. Take, bring, fetch, carry

Take the box there

Bring that box here

Go and fetch the box for me

1). Please ____ the ball to the teacher’s office, will you?

2). Who can ___some chalk for the teacher?

3). You must ____your composition back when you come here next time.

4). No one can ____the newspaper out of the library.

5). Our shop doesn’t let people ____food in.

6). You’d better ___your umbrella when you leave.

7). He forgot ____his textbook again. The teacher was very angry.

4. Put on, wear, dress, take off,try on

Put on: 穿上(动作)反意词:take off;wear 穿着(状态)

Dress oneself: 给(某人)穿衣; try on: 试穿

1). It is going to rain. You’d better______your raincoat.

2). The girl likes _____herself like a boy.

3). Today Mr. Li _____ a red T-shirt and a pair of white trousers.

4). You can _____the hat before you decide to buy it.

5). He _____his shoes and crossed the river.

6). The baby is too young to ______ himself.

7). It is cold outside. _____your coat when you go out.

5、Borrow, lend, keep

Borrow: 借进 borrow sth. From sb. (短暂性动词)

Lend: 借出 lend sth to sb (短暂性动词)

Keep: 延续性动词 How long can I keep the book?

1). He _____some books from the library before the end of the term.

2).May I _____your bike, please? ---sorry I ____it to Lily.

3). How long can I ____ the book ?

4). You can ____it for two days.

6、Look for, find, find out

Look for: 寻找(强调动作)

I can’t find my bike. Have you see it?

Don’t look for it any more. The policeman has taken it away.

Find: 找到 (强调结果)

I have looked for my key everywhere but I still can’t find it. Find out: 找出查明 (通过调查研究找到事实的真相) :

The teacher found out who broke the window.

7、Turn on/ turn off/turn up/turn down

Turn on:开(灯,自来水等)

Turn off: 关

Turn up: 开大 turn down: 关小

8、Say, speak, talk, tell

Say: vt 说 “什么” say sth.to sb. / Say it again. Speak: vi 讲话,讲(语言) speak English; learn to speak

Talk: vi/noun 谈话,谈论(about, with, to)

Tell: 告诉(双宾语)tell sb sth/ tell sth to sb/ tell sb to do/tell sb.not to do?/tell a story/tell the time

1.He _____he was in Class One. / He ____me he was in Class One.

2. He will give a three minutes’ ____ at the beginning of the class.

3. The old man can _____seven languages.

4. We _____about the language of the Inuit tribe in tomorrow’s class.

5. Can you ____it again? I didn’t hear you clearly.

6. Would you please ask him _____ louder next time?

9、Get to, arrive, reach 到达

Get to?: I will write to you as soon as I get to New York.

Arrive vi: arrive at /in A group of British visitors arrived at our school yesterday morning.

Reach: vt When he reaches the school, he will telephone us.

There /here/home: 放在get, arrive后不用to, at, in

I got home very late last night.

They arrived there three minutes later so they didn’t see

the sunrise.

10、Listen / hear

Listen 听 不及物,常与介词to连用如:

I listened carefully, but heard nothing.

Hear 听到 及物 后直接跟宾语

Hear 听说 后跟宾语从句

hear from sb 收到某人的来信如:

Jim's mother haven't heard from him for a long time.

hear of 听说如: Have you heard of the news?

Forget/leave

forget-leave

forget忘了某物如:

I forgot to tell you about it.

leave把某物忘在某地如:

Kate left her key to her room at home.

put on-wear-dress

put on 穿上 (强调动作)如:It's cold outside. Please put on your coat. wear穿着(强调状态)如:Lucy is wearing a blue sweater today.

dress打扮,给...穿衣服 ①dress sb. / oneself 给某人(或自己)穿衣服 ②get dressed 穿好衣服

③dress up 打扮 穿上盛装” 如:She often dresses up in a red skirt. 连系动词

有:be, become, get, turn, seem,

feel, sound, look, taste, smell, keep 等

1 、Link verbs + adj: The mooncake tastes delicious.

2 、Link verbs + like: look like, feel like, taste like

3 、Link verbs 在疑问句和否定句中:

The mooncake doesn’t taste delicious.

Does the mooncake taste delicious?

4、 Look at?为行为动词 注意下列两句句子的区别:

The little dog looked hopefully at me

The little dog looked very sad.

Pass past

Pass: vt 经过 过去时为: passed

Past: adj/prep

He was the first one to pass the finishing line.

He passed the final exam.

He was first past the finishing line.

The word passed is the past form of “pass”.

When I ___by the shop, I saw some retired ladies dancing waltz. Please buy me a handkerchief when you go ___the supermarket.

The old men like to think about something ____while the young men like to look ahead.

The exam is so hard that few students _____it.

Across: 介词 横穿,穿过

Cross: 动词 穿过 cross the street=go across the street

Crossing: 十字路口

Through:(从物体中间穿过,如穿过森林,高楼林立的城市,窗户等 )

Asleep, sleepy, sleeping, awake

asleep是表语形容词,在句中放在be 动词之后;它不能放在名词之前,例如我们不可以说:Look at the asleep baby. (asleep应改为sleeping) 例:

She was fast asleep;I couldn't wake her up.她睡得很熟,我喊不醒她。 The old man has fallen asleep.那个老人睡着了。

请注意: be asleep是指“睡着”的状态,如果表示“入睡”的意味,就要用fall asleep。

Sleeping: 是定语形容词,它放在它所修饰的名词之前,如the sleeping baby。如果放在 verb “to be”之后(He is sleeping),sleeping 不是形容词,而是动词,is sleeping 是现在进行时。例:

Who is that sleeping man?那个在睡觉的人是谁?

Keep an eye on the sleeping baby.照看好那个在睡觉的婴孩。

Let sleeping dogs lie.莫惹事生非。

sleeping一词有构词能力,它能和另一些词构成复合名词。如:sleeping-bag(睡袋);sleeping-car ( 卧车);sleeping-pill(安眠药)

Sleeping有一近义词,即sleepy。

sleepy既可作表语,又可作定语。作表语时,means“困倦”、“想睡觉”,用作定语时,means: “贪睡”、“寂静的”。例:

The children feel sleepy;put them to bed.孩子们困了,把他们放到床上睡吧。 Job、work

job是可数名词,work是不可数名词,一般表示抽象意义的工作,可用a piece of work修饰。

He is doing an interesting job.

He is doing interesting work.

–Tickets, please. May I ___at your ticket, madam?

--Yes, here it is. A. show B. watch C. see D. look

2. We all went to ____the match last night. A. look B.watch C. see

3. We ___carefully but we could ___nothing. A. listened, hear B. listened to, hear C. heard, listen D. heard, listen to

4. We listened but could not ____clearly. A. hear B. listen C. hear about

5. What are the girls doing?—they ___the music. A. heard B. are hearing

C.are listening to D.were listening

6. My husband likes reading very much. He often ____much money on books.

A. costs B.pays C.spends D.takes

7. I enjoy reading, but I can’t ____much time ___it. A. spend?on B. pay?in C. take?in D. costs?on

8. It ____me about half an hour to do the exercises. A. used B. took C. paid

D. spent

9. I like collecting stamps but it ____a lot of time and money.

A. spends B.took C. costs D. uses

10. How long will it ___us to get there by bike? A. spend B.use C. take

11. How much did you ____, Kate? ------ Twenty dollars. A. cost B. take C. spend D. use

12. The dictionary ____me 178 yuan. A. spent B. took C. cost D. pays

13. He likes the book but it ___too much. A. costs B. takes C. spends

14. The box is not heavy. Wu Peng can ___it by herself. A. take B. learn

C. carry D. bring

15. ---Will you show me your family album ?---OK, I’ll ___it here tomorrow.

A. take B. bring C. catch D. carry

16. He always gets up early and ____his clothes quickly in the morning. A. dressed B. puts on C. wears D. has on

17. The book ___him ten yuan. A. cost B. took C. spends

18.With the help of computers, news can ___every corner of the world quickly.

A. get B. arrive C. reach D. return

19. The heavy snow ____arriving in time. A.let the train not B. made the train not to C. stopped the train of D. stopped the train from

20. Allan is busy ___his motorbike. A. mend B. mending C. to repair D. repaired

21. I think teachers are the most hard-working people. Do you ___me?A.go on with B. catch up with C. agree with D. laugh at

22. You’d better tidy your room. ___your things. A. Put away B. Put on C. Take off D. Wear

23. When he heard the bell, he ___ the door. A. hurried off to open B. hurried off opening C. hurried up to open D. hurried up opening

24. David’s always the winner of the race, but this time he ____others.

A.fell behind B. fell down C. fell over D. fell off

25. The doctor ____the boy carefully as soon as he was taken to hospital.

26.The radio is too noisy. Would you please turn it ___a little? A. down

B.up C. off D. on

27. Hello, Joe! What does that radio say? please ____it ___so that everybody can hear it? A. turn..on B. turn ?down C. turn?up D. turn?off

28. How long have you ____the book? ---Two days. A. lent B. borrowed C. bought

D. kept

29. –Can I ___your bike? ----With pleasure. But you mustn’t ___it to others.

A. lend, borrow B. borrow, lend C. carry, lend D. lend, returned

30.---Will Mr. Smith be here soon? ---I can’t tell. Let’s go and ____when the train arrives. A. look B.look for C. find D. find out

31. Where is my pencil? I can’t ___it anywhere. A. find B.carry C. look for D. put

32. Why, here’s my pen! I ___it just now, but I didn’t ___it. A. looked for, found B. found, look for C. looked for, find D. found, looked for

33.Will you please__us a story, Miss Gao? --OK. Shall I _it in English or in Chinese? A. tell, speak B. talk, speak C. tell, say D. talk, say

34. What did the boss ____you to ___at the meeting? A. tell, say B. ask, speak C. tell, speak D. ask, talk

35. What nice clothes! Can I _____! A. try them on B. try on them C. try it on D. try on it.

36. It is quite warm here? Why not ___ your coat? A. take off B. turning off C. put on D. to put away

37. Mum told me ____ the coffee until it boiled(开) and ___the gas.

A.see, turned off B. to watch, turn off C. looked at, to turn on D. watching, turn down

38. Don’t ____Chinese in an English class. A. say B. speak C. tell D.talk

39. What are you ____, Mary? ---the broom, I can’t ____it. Do you know where it is ? A. finding, find B. finding for, find C.looking for, find

D.looked for, look at

40. Don’t forget ____your sun glasses before you go out. A. wear B. to put on C. taking off D. try on

41. A friend of __is coming to see my family. A. my B. his C. him D.our

42. May I ___ Tom my radio, Mum? ---Certainly. A. borrow B. lend C. keep

D.use 43. What a long run! It made us ___. A. to feel tired B. to be thirsty

C. tired D. feel tiring

44. Do you feel ___when you are left ___at home at night? A. lonely, alone

B.alone, lonely C.alone, lonely D. along, alone

45.How much did you ____on all these things in the shopping list? A.take

B. cost C. spend D. pay 46. Mum said that cooking ___much time every day. A. spent B. costs C. took D. uses 47.___your shoes at once. We must hurry. A. Put on B. Dressing up C. to wear D. Takes off 48. –What did you think of her talk? ---she ___for one hour but didn’t ___much. A. spoke, speak B. spoke, say C. said, speak D. said, say

49. I can hardly hear the cassette. Could you please _____? A. turn it on

B. turn it down C. turn it up D. turn it off

动词时态

1、一般现在时

2、现在进行时

3、现在将来时

4、现在完成时

5、一般过去时

6、过去进行时

7、过去将来时

8、过去完成时

一般现在时

1、主语(复数名词、代词、I、you )+ 动词原形。。。

2、主语(单数名词、代词)+ 动词(加 s、es)。。。。

3、否定句、疑问句中的一般现在时

练习:1、你们是中学生 2、姑娘们喜欢看足球,男孩子喜欢踢足球 3、星期天,吉姆通常在 家做作业 4、他经常帮妈妈做家务 5、你怕狗吗?6、在夏天,你的家乡经常下雨 一 般现在时与时间状语

1、一般现在时表示经常性或习惯性动作。常用的时间状 语有:always, usually, often, never, sometimes, every(?.), once a week, on Saturday

2. 在时间,条件状语从句中

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go for a picnic.

I will tell her the message as soon as I see her.

She wouldn’t stop crying until her mother came home.

3、一般现在时表客观事实或普遍真理

The teacher said that the moon is smaller than the earth. 一般过去时

1、主语+did。。。/ 主语+ was、were。。。。

2、助动词有:did/was/were;既行为动词没有主谓一致变化;

be动词单数是was 复数是were

3、熟记动词的过去时态形式

这位老人年轻时当过兵

我们两小时前就到达了

过去时及其用法

1、一般过去时表过去某时发生的动作或存在的状态

2、常见时间状语有:yesterday(?), last (?), (?.) ago,

just now , in( ?), one day, at the age of ? when?

The boy began to learn English when he was five.

Jack often got up very late during the summer holiday.

Did you visit the Great Wall while you were traveling in BJ? I didn’t see him in the office this morning

现在进行时

1、主语+(is, am, are)+现在分词(v-ing)-----be doing?

2、现阶段 “正在,在” 进行的动作,常用时间状语有:

now, right now, at the moment, these days, look! Listen! look out! Don’t you hear? Don’t make so much noise ,It’s 7:00 o’clock, 地点状语,上下文等

例如:1.Have you moved into your new house?---Not yet. It ____ (paint) 过去进行时

1、was/were + doing?

2、过去某个“时间点” “正在,在” 进行的动作

3、时间状语有:at seven yesterday morning, from 9 to 10 last night, at this time last Monday, when someone knocked at the door等

例如: I was watching TV when my teacher came to my home.

He was drinking with us when the killing happened.

现在将来时

1、主语+will do?or will be?

主语+ (is am are) going?

2、有些动词象:go, come, arrive, leave,start, die 等表示移动的动词,它们的进行时态形式表示将来

The Greens are leaving for Shanghai tomorrow.

3 一般将来时表示“将,将要”来要发生的动作或状态, 常用时间状语有:tomorrow(?),

this afternoon (?), next week(?), in+一段时间

注意:

1、Shall I /we?? 而 Will you??

2、在以引导的时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,主句用一般将来时,状语从句动作虽发生在将来,但只用现在时表示。例如: I will help you when I am free.

3、祈使句,or /and 陈述句 (将来时态)

1.Tom ____(学习) harder this year than last year.

2.They usually _____TV in the evening.

3. Miss Gao ____(学习) English on the radio every morning.

4. –Do you like this kind of paper?—Yes, it ____very nice. (摸上去) 5.Our teacher told us that the earth _____around the sun.

6. There ____a big tree near the house last year.

7. I will tell them the news as soon as they _____back.

. They won’t go to the West Lake if it ______tomorrow.(下雨)

9.I ___him at the station when he returns.(接)

10.Please go out to take exercise when you ____free.

11. I can catch up with Harry before he _____the finishing line.(到达)

12.We won’t leave until the rain ____. (停)

13.—What did you do last night?---I did my homework and ___TV.

14.They ____home two hours ago. (离开)

15.____he _____the teacher the day before yesterday?(看见)

16.—Is the old man still living? ---I’m sorry he’s ___. He ____two weeks ago.

17.I _____to bed until my parents came back home.

18.I ___an old friend of mine when I ____in the street yesterday afternoon.(遇见,散步)

19. The child ____crying when he saw his mother.

20.When I ___(经过)by the shop, I saw the accident ______(发生)

21.Mr.Smith doesn’t have any money with him. He ____his wallet at home.(遗留)

22.When ____the accident _____? (发生)

23. Who washed the bowls on the table?---Jenny ____.

24.---Excuse me, look at the sign: No Smoking!

---Sorry, I _____it. (没看见)

25.Look! LiPing and Li Ying ____the piano now.

26.It’s 11 and the Smiths ____ lunch now.

27.Don’t speak to me while I ______a composition.

28.Listen! Someone _____in the next room.(吵架)

29.They ____for NewYork on Friday. Shall we go and see them off at the airport? (前往)

30.----Good morning, Madam, can I help you? ----No, thanks. I _____.(随便看看)

31.I am not sure if she ____to the zoo with us tomorrow.

32.He ____to your office tomorrow afternoon, please wait for him.

34.I don’t know when he _____. When he ____, I will let you know.(来)

35. Do you know if he ___ to play basketball with us ? ---I think he will come if he ____nothing to do.

36.They say there ____a new film tomorrow evening.

37.--- What are you going to give our teachers for Teachers’ Day? ---I’m not sure. Maybe I ___him some flowers.

38.I don’t know if they ___the spring sports meeting next month. If they ____it,I must get ready for it.

39. ---Where is Jim? ---He ______vegetables in the garden.(浇水)

40. Everyone___(知道) the red light ___ “Stop”.(意思是)

41.The dog ___(sleep) now. it always ____at the door.

42.I ____(fly) a kite when it ____(begin) to rain.

43.Look out of the window and you will see the children ____with water in the swimming pool.(play)

45.She is at home now. she _____(look)after her brother because their mother ____(be) away.

46.Jim ____to the ground when he ___the tree and ___his leg.(fall, climb, break)

47.The telephone ____(ring). Could you answer it, Mary?

48.Mr Black put the food in a paper bag and ___(take) to his work place.

49.---Would you please not draw on the wall? ---Oh, sorry, I _____it again.(not , do )

50. When I ____(leave) my office last night, it _____(rain) heavily.

51. There were no seats on the bus so I ___(keep) standing all the time.

52.Look at those girls. How happily they _____(play)!

53. Be quiet, please. I can’t hear what the teacher ______(say).

54.Look at the dark clouds in the sky. It ____(rain).

55. Mr Black ____ some washing after he read two books.

56.---May I speak to Mrs White, please? ---Hold on, please. She ____with an old friend of hers. (talk)

57. What ___he ___(do) from seven to ten last night? He ___(make) a model plane. He _____(take part in) a model plane contest the next week.

58. When I ___(wait) for the bus, I ____(meet) an old friend of mine.

59. I ___(break) a piece of glass while I _____(clean) the window.

60.My brother ___(go) to study in America in 1995. He ____(come back)until 2003.

61.When you ___(knock) at the door, I ____(think) and didn’t hear you.

62.Work hard at your lessons and you ____(catch up with ) the others.

63. The children were shouting loudly and the driver _____the horn.(not hear )

64. My brother ___(not do) well in the English exam. He ____(fall) behind. He ___(be) more careful from now on.

65. When I saw them, they ____(sweep)the floor in the classroom.

66. My mother has gone out. She ____(do) some shopping in town.

67. Do you think he will call us as soon as he ____(arrive) in town?

68. They won’t have a picnic if it ____(rain)

69.Mary ___(make) a dress when she cut her finger.

70. He ___(break) his leg when he ____(play) in a football match.

71.My sister ____(lose) her watch when she ____(play) volleyball.

72. ---When ____he ____back again?(come)----When he ____, I’ll let you know.

73.---Sorry I ___(forget) to send the letter for you.----Never mind, I ___(send) it myself tonight.

74. John ___(go) out of the gate when no gatekeepers_____(look).

75. We were all surprised when he said that he ___the office soon.(leave)

76. Can I go to school, daddy? ---You can when you ___a bit older.(get)

77. Do you like the paper? ---Yes, it ____(feel) very soft.

78.---Your telephone number again? I ___(not,hear) it quite well. ---It is 89912812

79. While the teacher ____(read) the text, Ma ming ____(fall)asleep in class. When the teacher ____ (find) this , he ____(be) very angry.

80. Shirley ___(write) a book last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it.

81. Has Jack finished his homework yet? I’ve no idea, but he ____it the whole afternoon.

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