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近义词组辨析

发布时间:2013-12-28 11:53:49  

【本讲教育信息】

一. 教学内容:

暑假专题二:七年级常考近义词或词组辨析(二)

二. 教学过程:

1. another, the other, the others和others

another“另一个”,表示泛指,用于三者或三者以上中的任何一个人或物。 Would you like another orange?

the other指两者中的另一个,常用于“one?, the other”

I have two apples. One is big, the other is small.

others相当于other+名词复数,表示除去一部分以后的另一些,但不是剩下的全体,常和some对比使用。

The students are cleaning their classroom. Some are cleaning the window, others are sweeping the floor.

the others相当于the other+名词复数,表示某一范围内除去一部分以后,其余的全部。 Some students are in the classroom. Where are the others?

例1、There’re forty-five students in our class. Twenty of them are boys, ______ are girls.

A. other students B. the others C. others D. another

例2、I don’t like this book, give me ______ one.

A. the other B. another C. other D. others

2. too many, too much和much too

too many 太多??,修饰可数名词复数。

There’re too many rules in our school. I can’t stand them.

too much太多??修饰不可数名词,也可以作副词使用。

There was too much rain last summer.

He always speaks too much.

much too“太,非常”用作副词词组修饰形容词和副词,但不修饰动词。

My teacher is much too kind to us.

例3、I have ______ homework to do today. I can’t go with you.

A. too many B. too much C. much too D. very much

例4、The supermarket is too crowded. ______ people are shopping.

A. Too many B. Too much C. Much too D. Very much

3. a little, little, a few和few

a little修饰不可数名词,“一点儿”,表肯定含义。

little 修饰不可数名词,“几乎没有”,表否定含义。

I have little water, can you give me some?

a few修饰可数名词,“几个,一些”,表肯定含义。

few修饰可数名词,“没有几个”,表否定含义。He is a man of few words.

例5、He is not a kind-hearted man. ______ people can get on well with him.

A. Few B. A little C. Little D. A few

例6、There are few ______ in the fridge(冰箱). Let’s go and buy some carrots and cabbages.

A. vegetables B. fruit C. meat D. eggs

例7、This English newspaper is very easy for the students because there are ______ new words in it.

A. little B. a little C. few D. a few

4. it, one和that

it代词,特指,指代上文提到过的事物。I have a math book. I like it very much. one可代替上文中提到的可数名词单数,泛指同类事物,不是同一个事物。 I don’t like this pen. Please show me another one.

that: 特指,指代前面提到的那类物。可指代可数和不可数名词。

The weather in Taiyuan is colder than that in Wuhan.

例8、My son wants a pet rabbit, but I have no time to buy ______ for him.

A. it B. that C. the one D. one

例9、——Have you got a ruler?

——Yes, I have ______. I bought ______ yesterday.

A. one, it B. it, one C. it, it D. one, one

例10、——Two Evening Papers, please!

——Only one copy left(只剩下一份了). Would you like to have ______, sir?

A. one B. it C. this D. that

5. stop to do sth和stop doing sth

stop to do sth 停下来(停止手中的活)去做某事

stop doing sth停止做某事

例11、It’s time for class. Now stop ______ the music.

A. to listen to B. to listen C. listening to D. listening

例12、We have worked for three hours. Now let’s stop ______ a rest.

A. had B. have C. to have D. having

6. forget/ remember to do sth和forget/remember doing sth.

forget/ remember to do sth 忘记/记住去做某事(事未做)

I forget to tell him the news.

forget/remember doing sth 忘记/记住做过某事(事已做)

She remembered telling me the story.

例13、Don’t forget _______ Miss Zhao to come to my party.

A. asking B. to ask C. let D. to let

例14、I’m sorry I forgot _______ the floor.

A. clean B. cleaning C. to clean D. cleaned

7. put on和wear

put on 穿上(衣服)表动作。

Here is a coat for you, you’d better put it on now.

wear穿着,戴着,表状态。

He often wears a sweater, but today he is wearing a blue jacket.

例15、Many girls like _______ skirts in spring.

A. wearing B. putting on C. put on D. wear

8. how many和how much

how many“多少”,修饰可数名词

How many students are there in your class?

how much“多少”,修饰不可数名词

How much money does it cost?

how much“多少钱”用来询问价格

How much are the books?

例16、(对划线部分提问)

(对划线部分提问)

9. sometimes, some time, sometime和some times

sometimes副词 “有时,不时”。Sometimes we go to the cinema. some time词组 表示“一段时间”“若干时间”

I have been waiting for you some time.

sometime副词 表示某个不确切的时间“在某一时间”

I saw him some time in May.

some times词组,表示“几次”

I have been there some times.

例17、I have seen him _______, but I still don’t know his name.

A. sometimes B. some time C. some times D. sometime

10. in front of和in the front of

in front of在??(外部)的前面

There is a river in front of the house.

in the front of在??(内部)的前部

There is a teacher’s desk in the front of the room.

例18、There are a lot of trees ____ the building.

A. in front of B. in the front of

C. on front of D. on the front of

11. too, also, either

too,用于肯定句和疑问句中。表示“也”,放在句末。

He can swim. I can swim, too.

also多用于肯定句中,位于be动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实义动词之前。 My father also works in a hospital.

either, 多用于否定句,放在句末。

Jane can’t answer the question. Lily can’t, either.

例19、Chinese food is _______ very popular in the world.

A. also B. too C. either D. and

例20、She doesn’t like math. I don’t like _______.

A. also B. too C. either D. and

12. in hospital和in the hospital

in hospital 表示“生病住院”

My friend is in hospital. I want to see him.

in the hospital表示“在医院里”强调地点。

My friend is in the hospital to look after his mother.

例21、——What is Mary doing _______?

——She is looking after her mother.

A. in hospital B. in the hospital C. at hospital D. at the hospital

【模拟试题】(答题时间:60分钟)

一、根据句意及首字母提示补全单词。

1. Go s_______ down this road, and you can find the hospital.

2. There are many books, newspapers and m_______ in the library.

3. R_______ to close the windows when you leave.

4. How d_______ the food is.

5. The lions are d_______ animals in the world.

二、用所给单词适当形式填空。

1. Every year, there are a lot of _______ (visit) to China.

2. Stop _______ (talk). Let’s begin our class.

3. It was a _______ (sun) day yesterday.

4. Would you like _______ (swim) with me?

5. My family _______ (go) to the movies last night.

6. ——What is he like? ——He’s _______ (fun) and outgoing.

7. Thank you for _______ (tell) me the news.

8. Are they very _______ (friend) to you?

9. She wears colorful clothes because she wants _______ (be) young and beautiful.

10. _______ (not arrive) late for school.

三、单项选择

1. Do you mind his _______?

A. smoke B. to smoke C. smoking

2. How many _______ are there in your school?

A. woman teacher B. woman teachers

C. women teacher D. women teachers

3. What _______ it is today!

A. a nice weather B. nice weather

C. nice weathers D. nice a weather

4. I was late for class _______ I didn’t get up early.

A. but B. and C. because

5. Mike, _______ in bed.

A. not read B. doesn’t read

C. no reading D. don’t read D. smokes D. or

6. I found _______ in the next room.

A. him singing B. his singing C. he sing

7. I have _______ to tell him.

A. something interesting B. interesting something

C. anything interesting D. interesting anything

8. The apples are _______ high. I can’t reach them.

A. too many B. too much

9. He has to be in bed _______ ten o’clock.

A. by B. for C. on

10. Don’t go out _______ windy nights.

A. in B. at C. on C. many too D. in D. he singing D. much too D. by

四、改写句子

1. I’(对划线部分提问)

_______ _______ you _______ _______ ?

2. What do you think of Culture Beijing?(改为同义句)

_______ _______ you _______ Culture Beijing?

(对划线部分提问)

_______ _______ the children _______ in the garden?

4. Could you please not close the window?(改为祈使句)

_______ _______ the window, please.

(对划线部分提问)

_______ _______ Lucy _______ to _______ after school?

【本讲教育信息】

一. 教学内容:

暑假专题一:七年级常考近义词或词组辨析(一)

二. 教学过程:

1. say, speak, tell和talk

say, “讲,说”强调说话的内容,常用作及物动词,宾语可以是代词或从句,也可用于直接或间接引语。She said, “I don’t know.”

speak “讲话,演讲”强调动作,用作及物动词,宾语为表语言的名词,用作不及物动词时常用短语:speak to/ with 和??讲话 speak of/ about sth/ sb. 谈及某事/某人 I can speak some Japanese now.

talk “谈话”多用作不及物动词,可与to,with和about连用

She is talking to her friends.

tell “告诉,讲述”用作及物动词,后面跟双宾语,宾语补足语,从句或动词不定式 Can you tell me your name?

Tell him not to be late again.

例1、What would you like to _______ us about your hometown?

A. speak B. talk C. say D. tell

例2、It’s hard to _______ who will win the game in the end.

A. speak B. tell C. say D. talk

2. look, see, watch和read

look 有意识的看,不及物动词,强调看的动作,look at?

What are you looking at?

see用作及物动词,强调看的结果。When I got home, I saw him crying.

watch“观看,注意看”指为欣赏或某一特定的目的而注意观看,侧重过程。watch TV/ the match

I watched the basketball game on TV.

read“看,读”更强调读的意义。I like reading story books.

例3、I have many interesting books to _______.

A. see B. look at C. watch D. read

例4、——There must be something wrong with the TV.

——I’m afraid you are right. I think we can _______ it in Uncle Wang’s room.

A. see B. look at C. read D. watch

3. bring, take, get 和carry

bring指从别处把某人或某物带来或拿来。You much bring your homework here. take指从这里把某人或某物带走。Can you take these books to the classroom?

get“弄来,取来”去某处把某物取来。Can you get some water for me?

carry“搬运,提,运送”等等,常表示用人力或交通工具“把??带到??”,无方向性。

He always carries a small box in his hand.

例5、Trucks _______ all kinds of things here and there.

A. carry B. take C. bring D. get

例6、Please _______ him to the nurse there, and she’ll give him some pills(药片).

A. carry B. bring C. get D. take

4. look for, find和find out

look for强调“寻找”的动作。 I’m looking for my pen, but I can’t find it.

find指偶然发现,也指经过一番努力后才“找到”,强调结果。

She found a small boy standing in the corner.

find out指经过探询,询查之后才发现某人或某事,意为“弄清楚,查明”。 Put your hand up when you find out the answer.

例7、——Did you _______ your ticket, sir? ——No, I’m still _______it.

A. find, finding B. look for, looking for

C. find, looking for D. look for, finding

例8、The window is broken(破了). Try to _______ who broke it.

A. find out B. find C. look D. look for

5. listen和hear

listen强调有意识或注意地听,表听的动作,不及物动词常用listen to 搭配。

hear侧重听的结果,是及物动词,hear of/ about 听说 hear from 收到??来信

例9、_______ me carefully, boys and girls. Can you _______ me?

A. Listen to, hear from B. Hear, listen to

C. Hear, hear D. Listen to, hear

6. cost, take, spend和pay

cost主语是物,常指花费金钱、时间和精力等,可带双宾语。 The book cost me 10 yuan.

take花费时间、精力或金钱,主语可以是名词或动名词,常用句型It takes sb some time to do sth.

It took me 10 yuan to buy the book.

pay主语是人,指某人为买到东西而付钱,常与for 搭配。I paid 10 yuan for the book. spend主语是人,指花费时间或金钱在某事或某物上。spend on sth. 或spend (in) doing sth.

I spent 10 yuan on the book.

例10、Did you _______ four yuan for the book?

A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

例11、I bought some CDs for my friend and they _______ me 30 yuan.

A. spent B. paid C. cost D. took

例12、I’m afraid it will _______ you much time to work out the problem.

A. spend B. take C. cost D. pay

例13、Every day, I spend two hours _______ my homework.

A. finishing to do B. finishing doing

C. to finish to do D. to finish doing

7. arrive, get to和reach

arrive“到达”不及物动词,常用短语arrive in/ at

What time does the plane arrive in New York?

get to后跟表地点的名词。When will they get to that city?

reach及物动词,后面直接加地点名词。 When will they reach the city?

例14、When they _______ at the village, it was 10 in the evening.

A. arrived B. reached C. got D. got to

例15、 A. came B. arrived C. arrived in D. reached to

8. borrow和lend

borrow借,从主语角度讲是“借进”常用句型borrow sth. from sb.

He wants borrow some books from you.

lend借,从主语的角度讲是“借出”,常用结构lend sb sth.

He lent me his pen.

例16、Will you _______ me your pencil? Mine is lost.

A. borrow B. lend C. take C. buy

例17、I’ll never _______ him anything, because he always forgets to return it to me.

A. borrow B. lend C. give D. buy

例18、As we know, some people are good at _______ but bad at giving back.

A. lending B. keeping C. borrowing D. using

9. across, through和cross

across介词“横过,穿过”,强调从表面穿过,含义与on有关,walk across the street through介词“穿过,通过”,强调从物体空间通过,含义与in有关,through the forest/ door

cross动词,穿过,越过 cross= walk/ go across

例19、The students walked _______ the gates with the teacher.

A. across B. through C. cross D. over

例20、When you _______ the street, you must be careful.

A. cross B. across C. through D. walk

10. join, join in和talk part in

join参加,多指参加某个组织并成为其中一员。如参加某党派,组织或社会团体。 I joined a health club last year.

take part in, join in可以互换,指参加群众性活动、会议、劳动或游行等。

We should take an active part in school activities.

She is going to join in the English evening.

例21、Many countries _______ the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games last year.

A. joined B. took part in C. join in D. take part in

11. have和there be

have具有,有,指某人有某物,主语一般是人。I have a new pen.

there be结构表“存在”,指某处有某物或某人。There’s a pen on the desk.

例22、Paris _______ a beautiful name, the city of lights. After dark _______ a lot of lights in Paris.

A. have, there is B. there is, have C. there are, has D. has, there are 例23、There _______ two children and a woman swimming at the pool yesterday.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

12. learn和study

learn“学习,学会”,侧重学习的成果,强调通过学习去获取知识和技能,也可指向某人学习,从某处学习,常见短语:learn music, learn to swim, learn from Lei Feng

study“学习,研究”,侧重学习的过程,带有勤奋、努力的意味,其学习对象是科学、艺术等。常用短语study hard, study for math test

If you study hard, you’ll learn the language well.

例24、Where did you _______ to dance?

A. study B. learn C. teach

13. job和work

job是可数名词,即指职业,也指临时或某项具体的工作。

work 是不可数名词,泛指各项工作。a piece of work

例25、My father is looking for a _______ these days.

All _______ and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

(只工作不休息,聪明的孩子也变傻)

【模拟试题】(答题时间:60分钟)

一、单项选择

1. ——How do you know that she likes singing?

——I often hear her _______ after class.

A. to sing B. sang C. sing D. sings

2. I’m going skating. Would you like to go with _______?

A. me B. I C. my D. mine

3. We all love him. He always makes his class _______.

A. interest B. interests C. interesting

*4. Li Lei’s words made her _______. D. interested

A. happily B. angrily C. crying

5. I’ve heard the story. It _______ very interesting. D. angry

A. looks B. feels C. sounds D. thinks

6. I can’t _______ which pair of shoes to buy. They are all beautiful.

A. like B. follow C. take D. decide

7. We didn’t have enough chairs, _______ some of the students had to sit on the floor.

A. but B. so C. or D. and

8. _______ sleep too late. It’s bad for your health.

A. Do B. Not C. Don’t D. Please not

9. ——It’s time for class. ——Let’s stop _______.

A. talk B. to talk C. talking D. not talk

10. The new term is coming. The students are busy _______ the classrooms.

A. clean B. cleans C. to clean D. cleaning

11. Don’t worry(别担心). We still have _______ time.

A. little B. a little C. few D. a few

12. This sweater _______ me $ 88.

A. spent B. cost C. paid D. took

13. My teacher _______ us to study hard at English.

A. lets B. makes C. keeps D. wants

14. Dad, could you teach me to _______ dumplings, please?

A. do B. take C. get D. make

15. ——_______? ——Well, it’s really a very interesting book?

A. How about reading a book in the library

B. Do you like reading

C. What do you think of the book

D. Are you reading the book now

二. 用所给词的适当形式填空

1. Dashan _______ Chinese quite well. (speak)

2. Mr King _______ us English last term. (teach)

3. It _______ outside. Please take this raincoat with you. (rain)

4. Who _______ to the beach last weekend? (go)

5. I did some _______ at the library on Tuesday. (read)

6. I am always busy. What about _______ (she)?

7. I think these backpacks are _______. (child)

8. ——Can you help me with my Chinese? ——I’m sorry, I can’t.

I can help you _______. (late)

9. I want to wear my _______ shoes. (sport)

10. She is in the _______ hall. She is having lunch there. (dine)

三. 句型转换

1. You can put the book on the table. (改为否定祈使句)

_______ _______ the book on the table.

2. My sister often helps me with my English. (同义句)

My sister often helps me _______ English.

3. At home we must finish our homework. (同义句)

At home we _______ _______ finish our homework.

(对划线部分提问) _______ _______ _______ he _______ cleaning the room?

5. I won’t go with my brother. He thinks. (合并成一个复合句) He _______ _______ I _______ go with my brother.

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