(4)相互代词 如：each other, one another
(5)指示代词 如：this, that, these, those, such, same (6)疑问代词，如：who，whom，which，what，whose等。 (7)关系代词，如：who，whom，whose，that，which等。
(8)不定代词some，any，no，all，one，every，much，many，little，a little，few，a few，either，both，something，anything，somebody，anybody，nobody等。 （1）人称代词：
2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语，宾格作宾语。如： I like table tennis. （作主语） Do you know him?（作宾语）
3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如： ---Whos is knocking at the door? ---It’s me.
4.人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时，用主格和宾格都可以。如： He is older than me. He is older than I am. （2）物主代词：
1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性 Our teacher is coming to see us.
This is her pencil-box.
3. 名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词，在句中可用作主语、宾语和表 语。 Our school is here, and theirs is there.（作主语） Is this English-book yours? （作表语）
No. Mine is in my bag. I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? （作宾语）
This is a pen and that is a pencil．
We are busy these days．
In those days the workers had a hard time．
2. 有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物，this 和these则是指下面将要讲
I had a cold. That‘s why I didn’t come.
What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English．
Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai．
4. this 在电话用语中代表自己，that 则代表对方。例如：
Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?
（作主语） (作表语 (作定语
关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词。例如： I’m looking at the photograph （7）不定代词：
You may ask somebody to help you．
你可以叫几个男孩帮你的忙。(some用于肯定句，修饰复数名词，词义为“—些”，“几个”)： He had a good position in some shipping company．
他在某运输公司谋得一个不错的职位。(some用于肯定句，修饰可数名词的单数，词义为“某个”) Now you should give me some advice．现在你得给我出点主意。(some用于肯定句，修饰不可数名词，词义为“一些”)
Are there any cows in the field?
If there is any trouble，let me know．
There aren’t any flowers in the garden．花园里没有什么花了。(any用于否定句，修饰复数名词，词义为“什么”)
Will you get me some milk? 请你给我点奶牛好吗?(请求)
Will you have same hot tea? 喝点热茶好吗?(邀请)
Are you expecting some friends this evening? 你今晚有朋友来吗?(估计对方作出肯定答复)。 any在表示“任何”这个意义时，也可用于肯定句中。例如：
Come any day you like． 你愿意哪一天来都行。
He did the wok without any difficulty． 他没有遇到任何困难就完成了这项工作。
There is no fire without some smoke． 无风不起浪。(no修饰不可数名词)
Time and tide wait for no man． 岁月不等人。(no修饰可数名词单数)
No pains，no gains． 不劳则无获。(no修饰可数名词复数)
None of them spoke English except Mary． 除了玛丽外，她们之中谁也不说英语。(none作主语) He liked none of the books． 这几本书中他—本也不喜欢。(none作宾语)
Jack of all trades and master of none．
There is(are) none blind as those who will not see．
None of his money was ever invested in this project．
None of my friends ever come(s) to see me．
Many people attended the meeting． 许多人参加了这次会议。
There are many reasons against this proposal． 反对他的提议的理由是很多的。
Many of us were too tired to go any farther． 我们中间有许多人都累得走不动了。
He did not pay much attention to what you said． 他对你说的话没有太注意。
I don’t think you have much time． 我认为你的时间不多了。
few，a few与little，a little
few与a few修饰或代替可数复数名词。little与a little修饰或代替不可数名词。
few表示“没有几个，很少几个”；a few表示“有几个，有一些”。little表示“很少，几乎没有”；a little表示“有一些，有少量”。few与little表示基本否定的概念；a few与a little表示的是基本肯定的概念。例如：
There are few people in the streets． 街上没有几个人。
He is a man of few words． 他是个不爱说话的人。
Few of them saw the film． 没有几个人看过那部电影。
Could I say a few words with you? 我可以和你说几句活吗?
I met a few of my friends there． 我在那里见到了我的几个朋友。
He had little spare time last week． 他上星期几乎没有空余时间。
She did little to help her father． 她很少帮助她爸爸。
She had a little money，fifty dollars or so． 她有一点钱，大约50美元。
Give me a little of that wine，please． 请给倒—点那种酒吧!
He gave two apples to each boy. 他给每个男孩两只苹果。
Each of the houses is painted a different color． 每所房子涂的颜色都各不相同。
They have a common sitting-room but each has a bedroom．
Every man working there knew the accident． 在那里工作的每个人都知道这起事故。
We have every reason to refuse his claim． 我们有种种理由拒绝他的要求。
other, the other, another, others, the others
Where are his other books?
I haven't any other books except this one.
2）other也可以用作代词，与冠词the连用构成“the other”，表示两个人或物中的“另一个”。常与one搭配构成“one ..., the other ...”句型。
He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old.
She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.
3）other作代词用时，可以有复数“others”，泛指“另外的人或物”。常与some搭配构成“some ...., others ...”句型。
Some went to the cinema, others went swimming.
This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.
We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.
In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese.
You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?
Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one?
I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.
All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢Pope先生。（作主语）
= We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语)
All the water has been used up. (作主语)
That's all for today. (作表语)
Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语)
All the leaders are here. (作定语)
Lucy and Lily both agree with us.
They both passed on their sticks at the same time.
How are your parents? They're both fine.
Both of them came to see Mary.
Both of the books are very interesting.
Michael has two sons. Both are clever.
I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both.
Both his younger sisters are our classmates.
. There are tall trees on both sides of the street.
1. (2004年北京市中考试题)Mary, please show ________ your picture.
A. my B. mine C. I D. me
2. (2004年北京市中考试题)---What’s on TV tonight? Is there _________ interesting?
---I’m afraid not.
A. something B. anything C. nothing D. everything
3. (2004年上海徐汇区中考试题)________ of them has his own opinion.
A. Both B. Some C. Every D. Each
4. (2004年安徽省中考试题)---Where is my pen?
---Oh, sorry. I have taken _______ by mistake.
A. yours B. his C. mine D. hers
原句：__________________________ 原句： _____________________________ 否定句：________________________ 否定句： ___________________________ 一般疑问句：____________________ 一般疑问句：___________________________ 肯定、否定回答：________________ 肯定、否定回答：_______________________
1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers.
A. you B. me C. him D. her
2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.
A. a little B. little C. a few D. few
3. ---You want ________ sandwich?
---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry.
A. other B. another C. others D. the other
4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______.
A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs
5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk?
---______________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea.
A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None
6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food.
---Never mind. You can have ________.
A. us B. ours C. you D. yours
7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?
---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow.
A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None
8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term?
---Work harder than last term.
A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself
9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?
---Her cousin, Susan.
A. that B. whose C. who D. which
10. ---Is _______ here?
---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave.
A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody
1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him . Ａ. knew Ｂ. have known Ｃ. must know Ｄ.will know
2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?
Ａ. already Ｂ.never Ｃ.ever Ｄ. still
3、Have you met Mr Li ______？
Ａ. just Ｂ. ago Ｃ.before Ｄ. a moment ago
4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .
Ａ. is writing Ｂ.was writing Ｃ.wrote Ｄ.has written
5、—Our country ______ a lot so far .
—Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .
Ａ. has changed ; well Ｂ. changed ; good
Ｃ. has changed ; better Ｄ. changed ; better
6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .
Ａ. was ; studying Ｂ. will ; study
Ｃ. has ; studied Ｄ. are ; studying
7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .
Ａ. know Ｂ. had known Ｃ. have known Ｄ. knew
8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .
Ａ. will see Ｂ. have seen Ｃ. saw Ｄ.see
9、—These farmers have been to the United States .
—Really ? When _____ there ?
Ａ. will they go Ｂ. did they go
Ｃ. do they go Ｄ. have they gone
10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ?
—Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .
Ａ. Did ; do ; finished Ｂ. Have ; done ; finished
Ｃ. Have ; done ; have finished Ｄ. will ; do ; finish
11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 .
Ａ. joined Ｂ. has joined Ｃ. was in Ｄ. has been in
12、—Do you know him well ?
— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .
Ａ. were Ｂ. have been Ｃ. have become Ｄ. have made
13、—How long have you ____ here ?
—About two months .
Ａ. been Ｂ. gone Ｃ. come Ｄ. arrived
14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .
Ａ. has begun Ｂ. had begun
Ｃ. has been on Ｄ. began
15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army .
Ａ. is Ｂ. has Ｃ. will Ｄ. was
16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library .
Ａ.has gone Ｂ. went Ｃ.will go Ｄ. has been
17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .
Ａ. have been in Ｂ. have been to
Ｃ. have gone to Ｄ. have been
18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ?
A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they
19、 has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China?
A. How soon, comes B. How often, got
C. How long, came D. How far, arrived
20、 His uncle for more than 9 years.
A. has come here B. has started to work
C. has lived there D. has left the university
1. This is not my pencil-box. _______ ( I ) is in the bag.
2. Trees are planted in ______ ( we ) country every year, which makes our
country more and more beautiful.
3. ---Is that bike Miss Gao’s?
---Yes, it is ______(she) . Beautiful, isn’t it?
4. Help ______ (you) to some fruit, Jack.
5. ---Who taught your brother to surf?
---Nobody. He learnt all by _______ (he).
6. Their English teacher is from America, but ______ (we) is from England.
7. Mary’s answer is different from ________ ( I ).
8. ---My watch keeps good time. What about _______(you)?
---Mine? Oh, two minutes slow.
9. Sam is my brother. Do you like to play with ______ (he)?
10. Did you enjoy _______ (you), Mary and Kate?
1. The old man has two sons. One is a worker, _______ is a teacher.
2. Students are usually interested in sports. Some like running; some like swimming; _______ like ball games.
3. Let’s go and have a drink. We’ve got _______ time before the train leaves.
4. We were all very tired, but _______ of us would like to have a rest.
5. ______ of the twins are in our class.
6. Boys, don’t touch the machines, or you may hurt _______.
7. It is said there is going to be ________ important in the CCTV news.
8. We couldn’t buy anything because _______ of the shops opened at that time.
9. They didn’t learn _______ new in this lesson.
10. ---Why is ______ easy for such a young girl to learn three foreign languages so well? ---Because Britain, Germany and France are all very near ______ country.
1. ______ is the population of the world today?
2. _______ jumped the longest of all in the long jump?
3. --- _______ colour is your mother’s dress?
4. ---______ is your car?
---The red one in front of the tree.
5. ---______ of the following can you often find on a medicine bottle?
---I know, sir. It’s instruction.
6. The necklace ______ she is wearing is beautiful.
7. Do you know the person _______ lost his bike?
8. Most people _______ live in less developed countries are quite poor.
9. The boy ______ is helping the old man is John’s brother.
10. People ______ use credit cards to buy things online should be very careful.
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