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中考英语介词及现在完成时讲义

发布时间:2013-12-29 15:56:56  

中考英语代词及现在完成时讲义

一、代词:(Pron.)

代词(pronoun)是代替名词的词。代词可细分为八粪。 (1)人称代词,如:I,you,they,it等。

(2)物主代词,如:my,your,his,their,its,our,mine,hers等。

(3)反身代词,如:myself,yourself,itself,himself,ourselves,themselves等。

(4)相互代词 如:each other, one another

(5)指示代词 如:this, that, these, those, such, same (6)疑问代词,如:who,whom,which,what,whose等。 (7)关系代词,如:who,whom,whose,that,which等。

(8)不定代词some,any,no,all,one,every,much,many,little,a little,few,a few,either,both,something,anything,somebody,anybody,nobody等。 (1)人称代词:

2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如: I like table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语)

3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如: ---Whos is knocking at the door? ---It’s me.

4.人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如: He is older than me. He is older than I am. (2)物主代词:

1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性 Our teacher is coming to see us.

This is her pencil-box.

3. 名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表 语。 Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语) Is this English-book yours? (作表语)

No. Mine is in my bag. I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语)

(3)反身代词:

英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我们自己","你们自己"

等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示。

(4)指示代词:

指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。

1.this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those

则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:

This is a pen and that is a pencil.

We are busy these days.

In those days the workers had a hard time.

2. 有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this 和these则是指下面将要讲

到的事物,例如:

I had a cold. That‘s why I didn’t come.

What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用that或those代替,例如:

Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.

4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。例如:

Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

(5)疑问代词:

疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。疑问代词用于特殊疑

问句中,一般都放在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分。例如:

(作主语) (作表语 (作定语

作宾语)

(6)关系代词:

关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的那个名词或代词。例如: I’m looking at the photograph (7)不定代词:

不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语、表

语、宾语和定语。不定代词的词义和用法比较复杂。现将其中几个介绍如下:

some与any

some和any都可用作主语、宾语和定语。但some常用于肯定句中,而any常用于疑问句、 条件句和否定句中。作定语时,它们修饰的名词可以是单数,也可以是复数,也可以是不可数

名词。例如:

You may ask somebody to help you.

你可以叫几个男孩帮你的忙。(some用于肯定句,修饰复数名词,词义为“—些”,“几个”): He had a good position in some shipping company.

他在某运输公司谋得一个不错的职位。(some用于肯定句,修饰可数名词的单数,词义为“某个”) Now you should give me some advice.现在你得给我出点主意。(some用于肯定句,修饰不可数名词,词义为“一些”)

Are there any cows in the field?

地里还有奶牛吗?(any用于疑问句,修饰复数名词,词义为“一些”)

If there is any trouble,let me know.

如果有什么麻烦,就告诉我。(any用于条件句,修饰不可数名词,词义为“什么”)

There aren’t any flowers in the garden.花园里没有什么花了。(any用于否定句,修饰复数名词,词义为“什么”)

some在表示请奉、邀请或预料对方可能作胆照时。也可用于疑问句。例如:

Will you get me some milk? 请你给我点奶牛好吗?(请求)

Will you have same hot tea? 喝点热茶好吗?(邀请)

Are you expecting some friends this evening? 你今晚有朋友来吗?(估计对方作出肯定答复)。 any在表示“任何”这个意义时,也可用于肯定句中。例如:

Come any day you like. 你愿意哪一天来都行。

He did the wok without any difficulty. 他没有遇到任何困难就完成了这项工作。

no与none

No的作用相当于not any,通常用作定语,可修饰可数名词或不可数名词。none相当于名词,在句中一般作主语或宾语。none代替不可歉名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;如代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词则可用单数,也可用复数形式。例如:

There is no fire without some smoke. 无风不起浪。(no修饰不可数名词)

Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不等人。(no修饰可数名词单数)

No pains,no gains. 不劳则无获。(no修饰可数名词复数)

None of them spoke English except Mary. 除了玛丽外,她们之中谁也不说英语。(none作主语) He liked none of the books. 这几本书中他—本也不喜欢。(none作宾语)

Jack of all trades and master of none.

样样工作半瓶醋,没有一门专业精。(none作介词宾语)

There is(are) none blind as those who will not see.

拒而不见者最盲。(none代替可数名词作主语,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数)

None of his money was ever invested in this project.

在这项工程中,他没有投资过一分钱。

(none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数)

None of my friends ever come(s) to see me.

我的朋友中没有人来看我。(谓语单、复数均可)

·many与much

’ many和much均有“许多”、“很多”的词义,但many用来修饰和代替可数的复数名词,much修饰不可数名词。

Many people attended the meeting. 许多人参加了这次会议。

There are many reasons against this proposal. 反对他的提议的理由是很多的。

Many of us were too tired to go any farther. 我们中间有许多人都累得走不动了。

He did not pay much attention to what you said. 他对你说的话没有太注意。

I don’t think you have much time. 我认为你的时间不多了。

few,a few与little,a little

few与a few修饰或代替可数复数名词。little与a little修饰或代替不可数名词。

few表示“没有几个,很少几个”;a few表示“有几个,有一些”。little表示“很少,几乎没有”;a little表示“有一些,有少量”。few与little表示基本否定的概念;a few与a little表示的是基本肯定的概念。例如:

There are few people in the streets. 街上没有几个人。

He is a man of few words. 他是个不爱说话的人。

Few of them saw the film. 没有几个人看过那部电影。

Could I say a few words with you? 我可以和你说几句活吗?

I met a few of my friends there. 我在那里见到了我的几个朋友。

He had little spare time last week. 他上星期几乎没有空余时间。

She did little to help her father. 她很少帮助她爸爸。

She had a little money,fifty dollars or so. 她有一点钱,大约50美元。

Give me a little of that wine,please. 请给倒—点那种酒吧!

each指每个人或事物的各自情况,词义为“每个,各个”,可以修饰或代替名词;如every虽然也有“各个”的意义,但指整体,强调共性。every只作定语,用来修饰名词。例如:

He gave two apples to each boy. 他给每个男孩两只苹果。

Each of the houses is painted a different color. 每所房子涂的颜色都各不相同。

They have a common sitting-room but each has a bedroom.

她们有公用的起居室,但每个人各有自己的卧室。

Every man working there knew the accident. 在那里工作的每个人都知道这起事故。

We have every reason to refuse his claim. 我们有种种理由拒绝他的要求。

other, the other, another, others, the others

1)other可以作形容词用,后面可以跟单数或复数名词,意思是“其他的、别的”。

Where are his other books?

I haven't any other books except this one.

2)other也可以用作代词,与冠词the连用构成“the other”,表示两个人或物中的“另一个”。常与one搭配构成“one ..., the other ...”句型。

He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old.

She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other.

3)other作代词用时,可以有复数“others”,泛指“另外的人或物”。常与some搭配构成“some ...., others ...”句型。

Some went to the cinema, others went swimming.

This coat is too large. Show me some others, please.

4)“the others”表示特指某范围内的“其他的人或物”。

We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock.

In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese.

5)another可以作形容词用,修饰后面的名词,意为“另一个”,还可以跟代词one.

You can see another ship in the sea, can't you?

Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one?

6)another也可以作代词用,表示“另一个”。

I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another.

all与both

1)all指三者以上,或不可数的东西。谓语动词既可以用单数,也可以用作复数。在句中作主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。

All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢Pope先生。(作主语)

= We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语)

All the water has been used up. (作主语)

That's all for today. (作表语)

Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语)

All the leaders are here. (作定语)

2)both作代词。

①与其他名词或代词并列出现,表示“两个都”。

Lucy and Lily both agree with us.

They both passed on their sticks at the same time.

How are your parents? They're both fine.

②与“of +代词(或名词)”连用,表示“两者都”。

Both of them came to see Mary.

Both of the books are very interesting.

③单独使用,表示“两者(都)”。

Michael has two sons. Both are clever.

I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both.

3)both用作形容词,放在名词之前,修饰该名词,表示“两者都”。

Both his younger sisters are our classmates.

. There are tall trees on both sides of the street.

二、练习题:

【实例解析】

1. (2004年北京市中考试题)Mary, please show ________ your picture.

A. my B. mine C. I D. me

2. (2004年北京市中考试题)---What’s on TV tonight? Is there _________ interesting?

---I’m afraid not.

A. something B. anything C. nothing D. everything

3. (2004年上海徐汇区中考试题)________ of them has his own opinion.

A. Both B. Some C. Every D. Each

4. (2004年安徽省中考试题)---Where is my pen?

---Oh, sorry. I have taken _______ by mistake.

A. yours B. his C. mine D. hers

四、翻译下列句子,根据所翻译的句子,将其改为否定句、一般疑问句,并针对一般疑问句做出肯定、否定回答。

1.我把钢笔弄丢了。 2.自从2000年我们一直住在这里。

原句:__________________________ 原句: _____________________________ 否定句:________________________ 否定句: ___________________________ 一般疑问句:____________________ 一般疑问句:___________________________ 肯定、否定回答:________________ 肯定、否定回答:_______________________

Exercise

一、代词专项单项练习:

1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers.

A. you B. me C. him D. her

2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

3. ---You want ________ sandwich?

---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry.

A. other B. another C. others D. the other

4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______.

A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs

5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk?

---______________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food.

---Never mind. You can have ________.

A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?

---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term?

---Work harder than last term.

A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself

9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for?

---Her cousin, Susan.

A. that B. whose C. who D. which

10. ---Is _______ here?

---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave.

A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody

二、语法专项单选练习:

1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him . A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know

2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ?

A. already B.never C.ever D. still

3、Have you met Mr Li ______?

A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago

4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .

A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written

5、—Our country ______ a lot so far .

—Yes . I hope it will be even ______ .

A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good

C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better

6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .

A. was ; studying B. will ; study

C. has ; studied D. are ; studying

7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .

A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice .

A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see

9、—These farmers have been to the United States .

—Really ? When _____ there ?

A. will they go B. did they go

C. do they go D. have they gone

10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ?

—Yes . I _____ it a moment ago .

A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished

C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish

11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 .

A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

12、—Do you know him well ?

— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago .

A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

13、—How long have you ____ here ?

—About two months .

A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes .

A. has begun B. had begun

C. has been on D. began

15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army .

A. is B. has C. will D. was

16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library .

A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been

17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

A. have been in B. have been to

C. have gone to D. have been

18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ?

A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they

19、 has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China?

A. How soon, comes B. How often, got

C. How long, came D. How far, arrived

20、 His uncle for more than 9 years.

A. has come here B. has started to work

C. has lived there D. has left the university

三. 用所给代词的适当形式填空:

1. This is not my pencil-box. _______ ( I ) is in the bag.

2. Trees are planted in ______ ( we ) country every year, which makes our

country more and more beautiful.

3. ---Is that bike Miss Gao’s?

---Yes, it is ______(she) . Beautiful, isn’t it?

4. Help ______ (you) to some fruit, Jack.

5. ---Who taught your brother to surf?

---Nobody. He learnt all by _______ (he).

6. Their English teacher is from America, but ______ (we) is from England.

7. Mary’s answer is different from ________ ( I ).

8. ---My watch keeps good time. What about _______(you)?

---Mine? Oh, two minutes slow.

9. Sam is my brother. Do you like to play with ______ (he)?

10. Did you enjoy _______ (you), Mary and Kate?

四. 用适当的代词填空:

1. The old man has two sons. One is a worker, _______ is a teacher.

2. Students are usually interested in sports. Some like running; some like swimming; _______ like ball games.

3. Let’s go and have a drink. We’ve got _______ time before the train leaves.

4. We were all very tired, but _______ of us would like to have a rest.

5. ______ of the twins are in our class.

6. Boys, don’t touch the machines, or you may hurt _______.

7. It is said there is going to be ________ important in the CCTV news.

8. We couldn’t buy anything because _______ of the shops opened at that time.

9. They didn’t learn _______ new in this lesson.

10. ---Why is ______ easy for such a young girl to learn three foreign languages so well? ---Because Britain, Germany and France are all very near ______ country.

五. 用适当的疑问代词和关系代词填空:

1. ______ is the population of the world today?

2. _______ jumped the longest of all in the long jump?

3. --- _______ colour is your mother’s dress?

---It’s black.

4. ---______ is your car?

---The red one in front of the tree.

5. ---______ of the following can you often find on a medicine bottle?

---I know, sir. It’s instruction.

6. The necklace ______ she is wearing is beautiful.

7. Do you know the person _______ lost his bike?

8. Most people _______ live in less developed countries are quite poor.

9. The boy ______ is helping the old man is John’s brother.

10. People ______ use credit cards to buy things online should be very careful.

选择题答案:

一、1-5BDBCB 6-10BADCA

二、1-5BBCDC 6-10CCBBB 11-15DBACA 16-20AADCC

三-五、略。

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