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初中定语从句讲解及练习

发布时间:2013-12-30 10:47:53  

初中定语从句讲解及练习

一、定义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。

如:1) The man who lives next to us is a policeman.

2) You must do everything that I do.

上面两句中的man和everything是定语从句所修饰的词,叫先行词,定语从句放在先行词的后面。 * 引导定语从句的词有关系代词that, which, who(宾格whom, 所有格whose)和关系副词where, when、why

* 关系词常有三个作用:1、引导定语从句 2、代替先行词 3、在定语从句中担当一个成分

二、关系代词引导的定语从句

* 1.who指人,在从句中做主语

(1)The boys are from Class One.

(2)Yesterday I helped an old man .

* 2. whom指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。

(1) Mr. Liu is the person .

注意:关系代词whom在口语和非正式语体中常用who代替,可省略。

(2) The man ( is my friend.

* 3. which指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略

(1) Football is a game . ( which 在句子中做主语)

(2) This is the pen . ( which 在句子中做宾语)

* 4. that指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。

(1) The people are all here. (在句子中做主语)

(2) Where is the man ()I saw this morning? (在句子中做宾语) * 5. whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语

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(1) He has a friend .

(2) I lived in a house .

whose指物时,常用以下结构来代替

(3)The classroom will soon be repaired.

=The classroom (4)Do you like the book =Do you like the book ?

* 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

1、只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

* 1) 当先行词是:all , any , anything , everything , nothing或被它们修饰时。Is there anything that I can do for you ? 有什么可以为你做的吗?

All that can be done must be done . 凡是能做的都必须做。

* 2)当先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰时。例如:

That is one of the most interesting books that are sold in the bookshop .

那是这家书店出售的最有趣的书之一。

The first thing that we should do is to get some food .

我们该做的第一件事是弄点吃的。

* 3)当先行词有:the only , the very , the same , the last 等修饰时。例如:

My necklace is not the only thing that's missing .

我的项链不仅是丢掉的东西。

* 4)当主句以who或which开头时,定语从句中引导词用that ,不用which 或 who ,以避免重复。例如:

Who is the girl that is wearing a red coat ?

正穿一件红色外套的女孩子是谁?

* 5)当先行词既有人又有物时,用that 。例如:

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The writer and his novel你刚才谈起的那位作家以及他的小说确实很著名。

2、只用which不用that的情况:

* 1) 关系代词前有介词时;

e.g. This is the room in which Lu Xun lived.

* 2) 非限定性定语从句中;作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。

e.g. That necklace, which you gave me as a present, was lost yesterday.

He has a daughter, who works in a hospital.

* 3) 先行词本身是that时;

e.g. The clock is that which tells the time

非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明,通常是引导词和先行词之间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立 。

Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

(非限)

There is somebody here who wants to speak to you这里有人要和你说话(限制性)

* 4) which还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中,which可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下意思是与and this 相似,并可以指人。

He did very well in the competition, which made his parents very happy.

* 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,

That was the room in which we had lived for ten years.

= That was the room which we had lived in for ten years.

* 像listen to, look at, take care of等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如:This is the boy whom she has taken care of.

三、关系副词引导的定语从句

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* 1、when:当主句中的先行词(即主句中被后面定语从句修饰的词)是表示时间意义的名词时,它只能作定语从句的时间状语,放在定语从句句首。如果定语从句的引导词是作该定语从句的主语或宾语,则要改用关系代词that或which来引导。例如:

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

The days when we used foreign oil are gone. 我们用洋油的日子一去不复返了。

I'll never forget the day when I was born. (=I'll never forget my birthday.) 我永远不会忘记我出生的日子。

It happened in November when the weather was wet and cold. 这事发生在天气又湿又冷的十一月。

The day (that) I always remember in all my life is my birthday. 我一生中最难忘的日子是我的生日。(that作定语从句"that I always remember in all my life"的宾语,that可以省略)

* 2、where:当主句中的先行词是表示地点意义的名词时,它只能作其所在的定语从句的地点状语,放在定语从句的句首。如果定语从句的引导词作该定语从句的主语或宾语时,也要改用关系代词that或which来引导。例如:

The factory where his father works is in the east of the city

This is the room where (=in which) I lived last year. 这就是我去年住过的房间。

Is this the classroom where(=in which) the old worker is going to make/give us a report? 这就是那位老工人要给我们做报告的教室吗?

Let's look for a place where we can swim. 咱们找一个可以游泳的地方吧。

The building that is being built over there will be a new hospital. 正在那边建的楼房将是一家新医院。(引导词that作定语从句"that is being built over there"的主语)

That is the factory (that) they visited last month. 那就是他们上个月参观过的工厂。(引导词that作定语从句"(that) they visited last month"的宾语,that可以省略)

* 注意:不要以为在时间名词后就一定用关系副词when,在地点名词后就一定用关系副词 where,在表示原因的the reason后就一定用关系副词why。到底选用关系副词还是关系代词,关键是看它们在从句中是用作状语(用关系副词)还是用作主语或宾语(用关系代词)。

如:Don’t forget the time (that) I’ve told you. 不要忘记我告诉你的时间。(that用作told的宾语) I’ll never forget the days when I worked with you. 我永远不会忘记我与你共事的日子。(when用作状语)

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He works in a factory that /which makes radio parts. 他在一家制造无线电零件的工厂工作。(that/ which 在从句中用作主语,且不能省略)

He works in the factory where his father worked. 他在他父亲工作过的那家工厂工作。(where作状语)

That’s the reason (that /which ) he explained to us. 那就是他向我们解释的理由。(that或which在从句中用作explained的宾语)

That’s the reason why she left home. 那就是她离家出走的原因。(why在从句中作状语)

* 英语中的关系副词主要是 when, where, why三个,不要想当然地将how用作关系副词修饰the way。

如不说 This is the way how he spoke,

可改为 This is how he spoke(how引导的是表语从句),

当然也可说成 This is the way (that/ in which) he spoke.(其中的that/ in which可省略)

* 另外,when和where可引导限制性和非限制性定语从句,而why则只用于引导限制性定语从句,不用于引导非限制性定语从句。

Sunday is a holiday , when people do not go to work.

星期天是假日,(这天)人们不上班。

He took us into the classroom , where there were only a few students.

他把我们带进教室,那儿只有少数几个学生。

* 在定语从句的使用中,one of后面的名词是复数,这个复数名词制约后面的定语从句的谓语动词,用复数;而在one of 前面有the或 the only时,后面引导的定语从句中的谓语动词则用单数形式。

He is the only one of the students who is elected?

Jasper is one of those people who know about the accident .

定 语 从 句 练 习

一、请分析一下定语从句:( 请划出定语从句,并标出先行词)

1. Check the ways you study for an English test.

2. Another thing that I found very difficult was English grammar.

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3. You couldn’t understand people who talked fast.

4. I have some ideas that may help.

5. They said something you didn’t like.

6. Can you think of any problems you have had recently?

8. He would always take pride in everything good I do.

9. My friends and I talked about the rules that we have in school.

10.What are some of the rules that a teenager should obey?

12.If you know anyone else who collects them, please tell me.

13.Standing very close to the person you are talking with is quite common in some countries.

14.If you know someone you know doing this, you can ask them.

15.All I ever wanted to do was traveling.

二、用关系代词填空:that 、which 、who、 whom 、whose

1.This is the man ________ wants to see you.

2.The student ___________ answered the question is Zhang Hua.

3.The man __________ you went to see has come.

4.The man ___________I met yesterday lent me some money.

5.The woman _______________ you saw is our geography teacher.

6.The runner ________________ you are asking about is over there.

7.The person ______________ you should write to is Mr. Ball.

8.The man ___________was passing by saw what happened.

9.Here is the pen _________ you lost the day before yesterday.

10.These books _____________ you lent me were very useful.

11.The storybook ____________ I have just read cannot be easily forgotten.

12.A clock is a machine ______ tells people the time.

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13.This is shirt _______________I bought yesterday.

14.A dictionary is a book _____________ gives the meaning to the word.

15.The book ____________ is on the table is mine.

16.The film ____________ they are talking about is very interesting.

17.I will never forget the people and the places _____ I have ever visited.

18.Is there anyone ____________ family is in Beijing?

19.Show me the boy ______________ mother is a well-known singer.

20.The boy______ father is a teacher is good at English.

三、单项选择

( ) 1. Your teacher of Chinese is a young lady____ comes from Beijing.

A. who B. which C. whom D. whose

( ) 2. What’s the name of the program________.

A. which are listening B. you are listening to

C. to that you are listening D. that you are listening

( ) 3. The students were all interested ____ you told them yesterday.

A. in which B. in that this C. all that D. in everything

( ) 4. He was the only person in his office______ was invited.

A. whom B. whose C. that D. which

( ) 5. This is the museum______ we visited last year.

A. where B. in which C. which D. in that

( ) 6. Charlie told his mother all____ had happened.

A. that B. what C. which D. who

( ) 7. Do you know the student_____?

A. whom I often talk B. with who I often talk

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C. I often talk with D. that I often talk

( ) 8. I like the house_____ windows face south.

A. whose B. who’s C. it's D. its

( ) 9. Would you tell me where to get the dictionary _____?

A. what I need B.I need C. which I need it D. that I need it

( )10. The young woman_____ I spoke just now is a young doctor.

A. who B. to whom C. whom D. that

( )11、Is this the factory __________ you visited the other day?

A. that B. where C. in which D. the one

( )12、 Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday?

A. that B. where C. which D. the one

( )13、 Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago?

A. that B. where C. which D. the one

( )14、 Mr. Herpin is one of the foreign experts who ______ in China.

A. works B. is working C. are working C. has been working

( )15、Those __________ not only from books but also through practice will succeed.

A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn

( )16、

We’re talking about the piano and the pianist __________ were in the concert we attended last night.

A. which B. whom C. who D. that

( )17、He failed in the examination, __________ made his father very angry.

A. which B. it C. that D. what

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