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2013届中考英语备考要点与考题预测(考点串讲+要点强化+新题预测)——名词

发布时间:2013-12-31 09:46:10  

2013届中考英语备考要点与考题预测——名词

【考点串讲】

一、名词可以分为两大类:专有名词和普通名词

专有名词是指:个人、事物、机关等所专有的名称,如the Great Wall, America…它们是不能随意变动的。

普通名词中则包括四类。个体名词,表示单一的个体人或事物,如pen, worker;集体名词,表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family, class, team;物质名词,它表示的是一种物质,原材料,如:water, paper;抽象名词,表示着一种在实际生活中看不见、摸不到,但却与实际生活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概念,如:work, time。

二、名词在使用中的难点

名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数,即可数名词与不可数名词的实际应用。

不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包含有专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词等,如:English, air, water, cotton, work。

可数名词是可以用数量加以计算的名词,所以它具有单数形式和复数形式两种。可数名词复数形式的构成规律是:

1.一般情况加s,如:pen—pens,其读音规则是在清辅音后读[s],在元音和浊辅音后读[z]。如: boy—boys.

2.在以s, sh, ch, x结尾的名词后面加es,如:bus—buses,其读音为[iz]。

3.以ce, se, ze,(d)ge结尾的名词加s,其读音为[iz]。

4.以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,要将y变为i再加es,读作[z],如:family—families.但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如: day—days。

5.以o结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加es,但如果o前面是元音字母或外来词,缩写词以o结尾的则只加s,

6.以f或fe结尾的名词的复数形式要将f或fe变为v再加es, 但有些例外的词如roof的复数形式是roofs.

7.不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的,它没有规律可循.

8. 单复同形的名词有:fish, sheep, deer…

9.单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people, police等。

三、名词在使用中的注意事项

名词还有格的变化,其主格可作主语,宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领

属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's其复数形式是s',如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's,如:a student's room,.在表示时间、距离、世界、国家……名词的所有格要用's, 但无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构.

【要点强化】

【2012山东济南】28. —What’s your favorite fruit?

—I like ______ best.

A. apples B. broccoli C. potatoes D. cabbages

28. A【解析】考查名词辨析。apple“苹果”; broccoli“花椰菜”; potato“土豆”; cabbage “卷心菜”。问句提问的是最喜欢的水果。只有apple属于水果。故选A。

【2012山东济南】47. —Mum, 1 am hungry. May 1 have some______?

—Of course. But don't eat too much.

A. bread B. noodle C. dumpling D. hamburger

47.A【解析】考查名词辨析。bread“面包”;noodle“面条”;dumpling“水饺”;hamburger“汉堡”由下文的too much(太多),修饰不可数名词,可知空格处也须用不可数名词。故选A。【易错分析】解答此题的关键在于too much,由too much可推测上文空格处的词性。

【 2012四川成都】33. —Where did you go yesterday, Rick?

—I went to see a because I had a cold.

A. teacher B. doctor C. reporter

【答案】B

【2012天津】32. —Why didn’t Sally play the violin at the concert last night?

—She said that her hand hurt, but that was only a(n) _______. I saw her play tennis just now.

A. matter B. excuse C. result D. expression

【答案】B 【2012浙江温州】5. — Where does your uncle work, Jack?

— In a _____ in Paris. He is a policeman.

A. TV station B. bookstore c. post office D. police station

【答案】D

【2012广东】28. The students of Grade 7 visited Mike's farm and saw many_____ there.

A. bird B. duck C. sheep D. Rabbit

【答案】C

【2012贵州贵阳】34. “What do we need for the salad?” “We need two apples and three ______.”

A. orange B. tomatoes C. broccoli

【答案】B

考查名词的用法。orange意为“橘子”,是可数名词;tomato意为“西红柿”,是可数名词;broccoli意为“西兰花”,是不可数名词。根据句意:你们的沙拉还需要些什么?我们需要两个苹果和三个西红柿。故选B.

【2012.安徽省】46. The man tried several times to start the car, and he succeeded______.

A. in the past B. in the end C. at first D. at once

【答案】B[ww

【2012湖北咸宁】23.─Mrs. Zhang was sent to teach English in a poor mountain village last year.

─She said she would never forget some pleasant ______while working there.

A. experiments B. expressions C. experiences D. emotions

【答案】C

【2012江苏南京】3. -----Could you tell me how to remember new words quickly?

------Yes, I think a tree can help you a lot.

A. grammar B. equation C. punctuation D. vocabulary

【答案】D中&国教育@*出版网

【2012江苏扬州】4.—Wish you a pleasant journey!

— Thanks! I’ll give you a as soon as I arrive in Paris.

A. ring

【答案】A

【2012辽宁大连】10.The ____ of the great book, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, is Mark Twain..

A.theme B.price C.owner D.writer

【答案】D

【2012辽宁大连】6.Liu Xiang won the first Olympic gold ____ in the 110m hurdles for China.

A.medal B.prize

C.symbol D.record

【答案】A

【2011河南】( ) 23. Jennifer takes a lot of exercise every day and she is always full of_______.

A. knowledge B. energy C. change D. courage

【答案】B

B. hand C. ride D. present

【新题预测】

(江苏省无锡市新区第一实验学校2013年期中6. )I received a number of ________, but ________ of them is

valuable to me.

A. advice; both

【答案】D

(江苏省盐城市景山中学2013年3月调研,23.) Sandy didn’t tell her parents that she was going home

because she wanted to give them a _______.

A. gift B. call C. surprise D. note 【答案】C

(2013年中考江苏省南京市鼓楼区一模2. )—You look so worried, what’s wrong?

—More and more people like me become to worry about the ________ pollution after the haze (雾霾) appeared in Beijing and some other cities in China.

A. water

【答案】B

(2013年中考江苏省南京市高淳区一模6. )---Oh! There isn’t enough ____ for us in the bus.

---No hurry. Let’s wait for the next one.

A. place

【答案】D

(2013年广西初中毕业考试32.) There is something wrong with her _______ . She cannot see clearly.

A. legs B. eyes C. hands D. arms

【答案】B B. land C. floor D. space B. air C. noise D. soil B. advice; all C. suggestions; both D. suggestions; none

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