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初中英语语法详解与训练——动词用法详解

发布时间:2013-12-31 16:55:01  

初中英语分类练习

——动词部分

【复习目标】

▲掌握动词的种类情况。

▲掌握动词不定式的用法。 

【课前准备】

●要求学生对所学动词进行归类记忆。 

【知识要点】

(一)动词的种类

动词是表示动作或状态的词,按其词义和在句子中的作用可分为行为动词,连系动词,助动词和情态动词。

1.行为动词

行为动词可分为及物动词 (vt)和不及物动词(vi),及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,后跟宾语;不及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,但后面不能直接跟宾语,如要带宾语则与介词或副词构成短语。

如:

More and more people study English.(vt)

The students are listening to the teacher carefully.(vi)

2.连系动词

连系动词本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。常用的连系动词有 be, get, turn, become, look, feel, grow, seem, sound, taste, smell等。 如:

Our country is becoming stronger and stronger.

It feels damp. 

3.助动词

助动词本身无词义,不能单独作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示否定,疑问及动词的时态、语态、人称和数等语法特征,助动词有 be,do,have,shall,will等。 如:

How do you usually come to school?

The children are playing yo-yo now. 

4.情态动词

情态动词本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词原形一起构成谓语,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。情态动词有 can

(could),may(might),must, need, ought to, dare等。

如:

Can I help you?

- Must we go now? –No, you needn't .

a. can与be able to的用法有所区别。can只用于一般现在时和过去时,指本身有能力的“能”;be able to用于各种时态均可,指须经过努力而“能”。

b. must与have/has to的用法。must表示说话人主观认为“必须”,只用于一般现在时和一般将来时;have/has to表示客观需要,意为“不得不”,它可用于各种时态。 c.need和dare既可作情态动词也可作行为动词。

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(二)动词不定式

动词不定式 to do没有人称和数的变化,在句中不能独立作谓语,但可以和助动词或情态动词构成谓语,又可以在句子中作宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、主语、表语等。但它毕竟是动词,因此,具有动词的许多特点,如它可以有自己的宾语或状语构成不定式短语。 1.作主语。 如:

To learn English is very important.

但实际上不定式作主语常用 it来作形式主语,而将不定式移至谓语动词后作真正的主语。 如上句可表达为:

It's very important to learn English. 

2.作表语。 如:

My idea is to ring him up at once. 

3.作宾语。 如:

I have decided to go to Binjiang Primary School. 

4.作宾语补足语。

a. ask, want, teach, tell, know, would like, allow等动词后面接动词不定式作宾语补足语。

如: The policemen asked him to get off the bus.

b. hear, see, look at, feel, watch, notice, listen to等动词后接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。

如: We often see Miss Li clean the classroom.

c. let, make, have这些使役动词后接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。但在被动语态中这些不带to的都须带上to。

如: In those days the bosses often made the workers work day and night. d.动词help接动词不定式作宾语补足语,可带to也可不带to。

如: Can you help me (to) carry the heavy bag? 

5.作定语。

a.与被修饰词有动宾关系。如:I have something important to tell you.但如果不定式动词为不及物动词,后面的介词千万不要省略。

如: Maybe they have three rooms to live in.

b.与被修饰词有主谓关系。

如: Mr Liang is always the first to come and the last to leave.

c.与被修饰之间只有修饰关系。

如: I have no time to play cards. 

6.作状语,表示目的、原因、方法、方向、结果等。

如: I'll go to meet my friend at the railway station. 

7.不定式复合结构“for sb. to do sth” 作主语时,常用“It is +adj+ for

of sb. to do sth”的句式。形容词good, bad, polite, unkind, kind, ice, clever, right, wrong, careful等用“It is +adj +of sb. to do sth.”

其他形容词用 for。

如:

It's dangerous for you to ride so fast.

It's very kind of you to help me. 

8.动词不定式与疑问句who, what, which, when, how, where, whether等连用。 如: I don't know when to start.

2

He didn't tell me where to go.

但上面结构相当于一个从句,故上述句子也可表达为:

I don't know when we'll start.

He didn't tell me where he would go. 

注意:

a.有些动词或动词短语不能带不定式,只能接动词的-ing形式。

如: enjoy, finish, keep, mind, miss(错过),be busy, go on, keep on, be worth, practise等。

如: The peasants are busy picking apples.

Would you mind my opening the door?

b.有些动词后可接不定式,也可接动词的-ing形式,但意思不同。

如: Lu Jian forgot to post the letter.(该寄但还没做)

Lu Jian forgot posting the letter.(已经寄过信了)

They stopped to sing a song.(停止在做的工作而去做另一件工作)

They stopped singing.(停止正在做的工作)

“主谓一致”解题指导

一、主谓一致

主谓一致有许多原则,概括起来不外乎三种一致原则,即语法形式一致,概念一致(语言内容上一致),毗邻一致(谓语动词的单复数形式和紧位于其前的主语一致)。

1. 语法形式一致

(1)单数主语、单个动词不定式、动名词短语以及句子作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语,用and或both?and连接的动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及主语从句作主语,谓语动词则用复数形式。例如:

1) The performance was very funny.

2) Serving the people is my great happiness.

3) Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.

4) Many natural materials are becoming scarce.

5) Both you and I are students.

6) What I think and what I seek have been fairly reflected in my paper.

(2)由as well as, with, along with, like, together with, rather than, except, but, including, accompanied by, plus, besides, in addition to, no less than 等引起的结构跟在主语后面,不能看作是并列主语,该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响,主语如是单数,其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。例如:

1) My mother, as well as my father, has a key to the office.

2) The man together with his wife and children sits there watching TV.

3) His sister no less than you is wrong.

4) The reading course book, plus its reference books, is helpful to college students.

(3)有些代词只能指单数可数名词,当它们在句子中作主语时,尽管在意义上是多数,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。这类代词有either, neither, each, one, the other, another, somebody, someone, something, anyone, anything, anybody, everyone, everything, everybody, no one, nothing, nobody等。例如:

1) Neither likes the friends of the other. (两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。)

2) Everything around us is matter. (我们周围的所有东西都是物质。)

(4)在neither of与either of的结构里,一般语法书都认为谓语动词可用单数形式也可用复数形式,但在美国的TOEFL考试内要求用单数形式。例如:

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1) Neither of them was in good health, but both worked very hard.

2) Has either of them been seen recently?

(5)当and连结的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事,and后的名词前没有冠词,谓语动词应该用单数形式;在and后面的名词前有冠词,谓语就用复数形式。例如:

1)The bread and butter is served for breakfast. (早饭供应黄油面包。)

2)The bread and the butter are on sale. (正在出售黄油和面包。)

(6)当one of结构作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)One of those students has passed the examination.

2)A series of pre-recorded tapes has been prepared for language laboratory use.

(7)plenty of, half of, a lot of, lots of等 + 可数与不可数名词作主语时,不可数名词的谓语只用单数,可数名词的谓语视可数名词的单复数而定。例如:

1)Half of this building is to be completed by spring.

2)Half of the buildings have been painted completely.

3)There is plenty of water in the pail.

4)There are plenty of eggs in the box.

(8)如果名词词组中心词是“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后的名词或代词的单、复数形式。例如:

1)Over three-quarters of the swampland has been reclaimed.

2)Two-thirds of the people present are against the plan.

(9)定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。例如:

1)He is one of the men who were chosen to represent the group.

2)“Keep cool” is the first of the rules that are to be remembered in an accident.

注:当one之前有the only等限定词修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

2.概念一致(语言内容上一致)

(1)有些集合名词如crowd, family, team, orchestra(管弦乐队), group, government, committee, class, school, union, firm, staff, public等,它们作主语时,谓语动词的数要根据语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位时,动词用单数形式,如就其中的各个成员来说,则谓语用复数形式。例如:

1)His family is going to move.

2)His family are very well.

3)The public is / are requested not to leave litter in the park.

注:如这类词后跟有定语从句时,定语从句的谓语动词也遵循概念一致的原则,强调具体成员时,谓语动词用复数,关系代词用who; 强调整体时,谓语动词用单数,关系代词用which。例如:

1)The government who were responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

2)The government which was responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

(2)有些表示总称意义的名词,形式上是单数,而意义上却是复数,谓语动词要用复数形式,如people, police, militia, cattle, poultry(家禽)等。例如:

1)Cattle were allowed to graze on the village common.

2)The police are searching for a tall dark man with a beard.

(3)有些名词形式上是复数,而意义上却是单数。如news, means, works.还有许多以ics结尾的学科名称,如economics, physics, mechanics, politics等,它们作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)Politics is a complicated business.

2)Here is the news.

(4)复数主语与each连用时,应不受each的影响,谓语动词仍用复数形式。例如:

4

4) The old workers and the young each have their own tools.

(5)表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数形式。例如:

1) Twenty miles is a long way to walk.

2) Three pints isn’t enough to get me drunk.

(6)国家、单位和书报的名称,作为一个单一的概念,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)War and Peace is the longest book I’ve read.

(8)the +形容词作主语时,如主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;如果指的是单个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

1) The blind are taught trades in special schools.

2) The departed was a good friend of his.

3.毗邻一致(就近原则)

(1)由连词or, neither?or, either?or, not only ? also, nor等连接的并列主语,谓语动词的单复数形式按毗邻一致的原则,与贴近它的主语一致。例如:

1) He or you have taken my pen.

2) Either you or he is no telling the truth.

3) Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been changed.

(2)在there be 的结构中,谓语动词的单复数形式一般也采取就近原则。例如:

1)There is a desk and four benches in the office.

2)There are two chairs and a desk in the office.

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